An increasing number of qualifications – certificates and diplomas – are awarded at international level, outside the jurisdiction of national authorities. These ‘non-State’ qualifications have been developed and are awarded by a wide range of bodies, organisations and companies addressing various purposes. What unites this extreme variety of qualifications is that they are not restricted to a particular national system or territory. They are all qualifications whose exchange value is defined outside traditional national qualifications systems. This raises some key questions and challenges for policy-makers as well as users – be they individual citizens or employers. This report is a first effort to increase transparency in this field, notably by pointing to existing sources and clarifying the concepts to be used for mapping and analysis.