European and national policies on Vocational Education and Training (VET) need to be informed by sound and internationally comparable statistical evidence. The VET country statistical overviews are concise, descriptive and user friendly statistical reports. For each country, they quantify and compare key aspects of VET and lifelong learning. The selection is based on the indicators' policy relevance and their importance in achieving the Europe 2020 objectives.
VET indicators for the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia for the last available year
Index numbers (EU=100)
NB: The index numbers are derived from data summarised in the table. Data in the table have been rounded to one or two decimal places. The calculation of index numbers is instead based on not rounded data.
The performance of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia on a range of indicators selected to monitor progress in VET and lifelong learning across the European Union (EU) is summarised below. The chart compares the situation in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia with that of the EU, based on the most recent data available (this differs by indicator). Data in the chart are presented as an index where the EU average equals 100. If the index for a selected indicator for the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is 100, then its performance equals the EU average. If the index is 90, its performance is 90% of (or 10% below) the EU average. If the index is 200, the performance of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia is twice (or 200%) the EU average. For some indicators, such as early leavers from education and training, a country is performing better if its score is below that of the EU average.
Data on which the index is calculated are presented in the table, which also shows developments over time. A technical definition of each indicator is provided in the annex.
Access, attractiveness and flexibility
Limited data are available for the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
In 2015, the percentage of students in upper secondary education participating in IVET was relatively high at 59.5% compared with the EU average of 47.3%; the same is true for the share of female students in upper secondary education undertaking IVET (54.4% versus 42.0% for the EU). Participation in upper secondary VET giving direct access to tertiary education is high, at 93.2% of students, against the EU average of 66.7%.
The percentage of adults participating in lifelong learning (2.9%) is significantly lower than the corresponding EU average of 10.8% (data for 2016). Participation rates in lifelong learning among several subgroups, such as older people (0.7%) and the unemployed (2.7%), are below the EU average (though these rates should be interpreted with caution as they were based on data with small sample sizes).
Skill development and labour market relevance
The share of workers confirming that their skills are matched to their duties is lower in 2015 (at 48%) than in 2010 (at 62%); it is also lower than the EU average of 58% in 2015.
The employment rate of IVET graduates (aged 20-34) at ISCED levels 3-4 (61.3%) is lower than the EU average (78.1%). Their employment rate is 12.9 percentage points higher than for graduates from general education (this is above the EU average premium of 5.7) and 31.8 percentage points higher than for graduates with lower-level qualifications (also above the EU average premium of 23.4 percentage points). All these employment figures relate to 2016 and exclude young people in further education and training.
Overall transitions and labour market trends
In this section all data refer to 2016 unless otherwise stated.
The share of early leavers from education and training has decreased by 5.6 percentage points between 2010 and 2016 (which is more than in the EU over the same period). It stands at 9.9% in 2016, below the EU average of 10.7%. Greater differences are observed for other indicators. The percentage of 30 to 34 year-olds with tertiary-level education (at 29.1%) is lower than that of the EU (at 39.1%); but with an increase by 12.0 percentage points since 2010 (against 5.3 percentage points in the EU), this gap has been narrowing. The share of adults with a low level of educational attainment is relatively high at 31.6% compared with 23.0% in the EU.
The employment rate of 20 to 64 year-olds at 53.3% is much lower than the EU average of 71.0%. The employment rate of recent graduates is 46.9%, considerably lower than the 78.2% in the EU. The NEET rate (32.1%) is more than twice the EU average (15.2%). The unemployment rate for 20 to 34 year-olds has gone down by 7.0 percentage points since 2010 in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Nevertheless, in 2016 (at 32.7%) it is still more than two and a half times the EU average (11.8%).
Score on VET indicators in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and in the EU, 2010,
last available year and recent change
EU refers to EU-28, unless otherwise specified. Arrows ↗ or ↘ signal a positive or negative change. Arrow → indicates: no change.
(A) UOE back reconstruction of 2010 values based on ISCED 2011 not yet available. (B) AES 2011, used as proxy for 2010 baseline. (C) 2014 b flags in Eurostat online tables ignored on the basis of other relevant Eurostat metadata. (D) Forecast made in 2016. (E1) Based on 28 countries, with partial information for NL. (E2) Based on 28 countries, with partial information for EL, ES, NL, PL, RO. (E3) Based on 28 countries, with partial information for IT, NL. (E4) Based on 23 countries (missing: DK, EL, HR, IT, PT), with partial information for IE and FR. (E5) Based on 23 countries (missing: DK, EL, HR, IT, PT), with partial information for IE and FR. (E6) Based on 28 countries, with partial information for DK, EL, NL. (E7) Based on 25 countries (missing: HR, IT, UK), with partial information for BE, CZ, DK, DE, EE, EL, LU, NL, PL, SE. (E8) Based on 25 countries (missing: IE, FR, UK), with partial information for BE, EL, LU. (E9) Based on 26 countries (missing: IE, UK), with partial information for DK, DE. (E10) Based on 28 countries. (b) Break after 2010, therefore baseline data not included. (u) Eurostat: ‘low reliability’. (z) Eurostat: ‘not applicable’. (e) Eurostat: ‘estimated’.