Reference year 2019

1Target group

Q6. Does the legal basis define the minimum and maximum age limits for enrolment of the target group of this scheme?
Minimum and maximum age limits defined
Minimum age limits defined only
Other

The students involved in dual  VET must be lower secondary programmes graduates (usually, 14-15 years old) and under 26 years old.

Q7. What is the average age of learners in practice?
Between 15 and 18
Between 18 and 24
Above 24

According to data provided by the Ministry of National Education, most students involved in 9th year of school- dual VET, are from current generation of lower secondary programmes graduates (over 14 years old).

2Overview of the scheme

Q8. Is the scheme included in the ISCED 2011 mapping?
Yes
No

The dual VET currently implemented  is upper secondary education (ISCED 3), nationally referred as ‘professional’ programmes.

Q9. Is there any organization at the national level with roles in co-ordinating the scheme?
Yes
No
  • The National Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training Development is an institution accountable to the education ministry. The centre’s main responsibilities in the initial VET (including dual VET) are to:

-evaluate and suggest changes to policies and strategies, and coordinate their implementation;

-coordinate the design, implementation and review of national curricula, assessment and certification for the initial VET component;

-supervise the development of professional training standards for qualifications that are validated by sectoral committees (coordinated by the National Authority for Qualifications) and approved by the education ministry;

-ensure the development and functioning of stakeholder partnerships at national, regional and local levels;

-develop methodologies for the quality assurance and monitoring of programmes

-implement continuing professional training programmes for teachers/trainers.

Q10. When was the scheme introduced?
Long history (before 2000)
Recently introduced (between 2000-2012)
New pathway (after 2012)

Government Emergency Ordinance no. 81/2016 introduced dual VET at EQF levels 3, 4 and 5. It was endorsed in April 2018 by Law no. 82 regarding the modification and completion of the National Education Law (no. 1/2011).

Implementation of dual VET started in school year 2017-2018, currently only at EQF level 3. The dual VET at EQF levels 4 and 5 is not implemented, yet.

Q11. How did the apprenticeship scheme originate?
Traditional craftsmanship (master-apprentice relation) to prepare apprentices for the occupation
School-based VET track by including more work-based learning to supply skilled workforce to match labour market needs
Ex-novo
Other

The dual VET has been introduced as a response of vocational education and training to the growing and diversified labor market requirements and in order to improve the education and training system's response to the economic and social dynamics in Romania.

Q12. What are the sources of financing of the direct costs for the in-company training part of the apprenticeship scheme?
Single employers hosting apprentices
Sectoral funds
State
Other

The practical stages in dual VET are organised entirely in partner companies and all the costs are supported by them.

They may have tax deductions according  the Fiscal Code completed by Government Emergency Ordinance 84/2016.

Q13. Are there any financial incentives for companies that offer apprenticeship places?
Yes, subsidies
Yes, tax deductions
Yes, other incentives
No financial incentives

By completing the Fiscal Code introduced by Government Emergency Ordinance 84/2016 and according to the legal regulations in the field of national education, economic operators and students benefit from the fiscal facilities:

- economic agents can deduct from the taxable income expenses incurred on the basis of the contracts concluded with the schools for organising and carrying out the vocational education and training (including dual VET);

- the economic agents recover from the tax point of view, by deducting the depreciation, the expenditures related to the fixed assets and the investments, made on the basis of the contracts concluded with the schools, for the organisation and the performance of the vocational education and training (including dual VET).

Q14. How many learners are enrolled in this scheme?

Data provided by County School Inspectorates, show that, in school year 2019-2020, there are involved  12908 learners at national level in dual form for initial VET (6970 in 9th year of school, 3816 in 10 th   year of school and 2122 in 11th year of school).

Link for these data:

https://www.alegetidrumul.ro/oferta

The school plan for the school year  2020-2021 for Romania provides  8888 places in 9th year of school for dual VET (data provided by County School Inspectorates).

Link:

https://www.alegetidrumul.ro/noutati/peste-96600-locuri-disponibile-in-invatamantul-profesional-si-tehnic-pentru-anul-scolar-2020-2021

Q16. Which is the type of qualification obtained through the apprenticeship scheme?
Formal VET qualification (which does not indicate the pathway)
Formal VET qualification (which indicates the pathway)
Formal apprenticeship qualification (journeyman, etc.)
Others

Law no. 82/2018 for the approval of Government Emergency Ordinance no. 81/2016 regarding the modification and completion of the National Education Law no. 1/2011, Article 331 , paragraph (1) stipulates that: Vocational and technical education, including dual, is organized to acquire knowledge, skills and competences predominantly for employment for professional qualifications at Levels 3, 4 and 5, according to the NQF/EQF.

Implementation of dual VET is currently only at EQF level 3. The dual training at EQF levels 4 and 5 is not implemented, yet.

After  successfully passing  the final  qualifications  exam,  the graduates obtain a certificate for a professional qualification EQF level 3 and  Europass supplement  to  the  certificate (the supplement does not stipulate that the certificate was obtained in dual VET).

The graduates in dual VET also receive a certificate of practical training in dual education (regulated by OMEN 4798/2017) attesting to the activities carried out by the students during the practice and the results of the learning acquired through these activities. This certificate is part of the student's personal portfolio.

Q17. Is the qualification included in the National Qualification Framework (NQF)?
Yes
No
There is no NQF

The dual VET  is organised for qualifications included in NQF, according Law no. 82/2018 for the approval of Government Emergency Ordinance no. 81/2016 regarding the modification and completion of the National Education Law no. 1/2011 (Article 331 , paragraph (1)).

Q19. Does the scheme provide direct access to higher education?
Yes
No

According Law no. 82/2018 for the approval of Government Emergency Ordinance no. 81/2016 regarding the modification and completion of the National Education Law no. 1/2011, in Romania, no person can access higher education without successfully passing the Baccalaureate exam (upper-secondary school leaving exam).

The graduates of dual VET can continue their studies in the upper secondary education (in the third year of EQF level 4 technological programmes), under the conditions established by the methodology approved by order of the Minister of National Education.

3Programme

4Duration

Q22. If the scheme is not implemented via specific apprenticeship programme, how is duration of apprenticeships defined in the regulation?
It Is defined as minimum and maximum share of a VET programme
Is defined as minimum share of a VET programme
Is defined as maximum share of a VET programme
Is not defined by regulation
Other

According to Law no. 82/2018 for the approval of Government Emergency Ordinance no. 81/2016 regarding the modification and completion of the National Education Law no. 1/2011 Article 25, paragraph (6),  the organisation and functioning of dual education, the access to dual education, the duration and content of vocational training programmes, the way of organising and conducting the qualification certification exam are regulated by specific methodologies proposed by the National Centre for the Development of Vocational and Technical Education approved by Order of the Minister of National Education, after consulting the representatives of the economic operators and other representative structures of the economic environment concerned.

Through OMEN 4798/2017, the individual contract of practical training of the student is regulated. It is usually signed for each training year, at the beginning of the school year, within a maximum of two weeks from the beginning of the courses.

The individual contract of practical training can also be concluded for the entire duration of preparation in dual VET (3 school years, at this time), within a maximum of two weeks from the beginning of the courses of the first school year, provided the update according to any changes.

Q23. Is there a distinction between the training time and working time for the period spent at workplace, as per regulation?
Yes, the legal framework makes this distinction
No, the legal framework makes no distinction

NA for dual VET.

5Alternation of work-based (in-company) training and school-based training

Q24. Is it compulsory to alternate training between two learning venues (school and company)?
Yes
No

In dual VET, the students' training is carried out as follows: theoretical training in school, and practical training in the company, based on a partnership contract between the two partners, together with the local authority.

The practical training in the company is carried out according to the educational plans and the schedule established by agreement between the educational unit and the economic partner. It is recommended that the practical training in the company be carried out alternatively with the theoretical training in the school, but it is not mandatory. These internships can be accumulated, for example, at the end of the school year.

In the dual VET currently implemented, during the three years of training, it is organised practical training combined with a total duration of 24 weeks, 5 weeks in the first year, 9 weeks in the second year and 10 weeks in the third year.

Q25. Is the in-company training defined as minimum share of the apprenticeship scheme duration?
Yes, equivalent or more than 50% of scheme duration
Yes, between 20% and 50% of the scheme duration
Yes, less than 20% of the scheme duration
No, no minimum share is compulsory

In dual VET the practical training is carried out in the company as follows:

- in the first year, about 20% of the total time allocated to the programme;

- in the second year approximately 60% of the total number of training hours;

- In the third year, approximately 72% of the time is devoted to practical training.

In total, during the three years of training, the student spends in company approximately 50% of the training programme.

Q26. What is the form of alternation of training between workplace (company) and school?
Every week includes both venues
One or more weeks (less than 1 month) spent at school followed by one or more weeks at workplace
One or more months (less than 1 year) spent at school followed by one or more months at workplace
A longer period (1-2 years) spent at school followed by a longer period spent training at workplace
Various – depends on agreements between the school and the company
Other
Not specified

The methodology of organisation and functioning of dual VET approved  by Order of the Ministry of Education no. 3554/29.03.2017 stipulate that:

Article 58.- In dual VET hourly schedules are flexible in terms of allocating the number of hours per discipline / module, practical training hours may be distributed during the school year or combined over several weeks, with respect to the total number of hours / week and the total number hours / year for each discipline / module.

Art. 59. - The schedule for the practical training of the students organised at the economic operator will be determined by the educational unit, together with the partner entity, according to its work schedule, respecting the age specifics of students and the legal regulations related to health and safety of work.

6Formal relationship with the employer

Q27. Is any contractual arrangement between the learner and company, required as per regulation?
Yes
No

In dual VET,  according the Order of the Ministry of Education no. 4798/31.08.2017, for each student  is concluded an individual practical training contract, signed by economic partner of dual learning practice, together with school and the student (or his/her legal representative).

This document includes all the practice activities which the economic operator is responsible for through the partnership contract - the practical training sessions in the the curriculum framework, as well as the weekly practical training component (practical training and technological laboratory) of the speciality modules for the professional qualification concerned, which have been agreed upon by the partnership contract, take place at that economic operator or at other locations established by on the basis of written conventions / contracts, which it concludes for this purpose with other economic operators or training providers.

The practical training contract may be supplemented by other specific clauses, according the legal regulations.

Q28. What is the nature of the contractual arrangement?
Apprenticeships are a specific type of contract
Apprenticeships are an ordinary employment contract
A formal agreement

In dual VET, the contractual arrangement are regulated through orders of Ministry of education.

On one hand, a partnership contract is regulated between school, partner company and municipality (local authority) (regulated by OMEN 3554/2017)

This contract establishes the terms of collaboration, the rights and obligations of the parties.

Failure to fulfil or improper performance of the obligations assumed under the partnership contract entails the liability of the defaulting party, except for the exonerating cases provided for by law.

Failure to comply with the obligations assumed under this contract by one of the parties, by fault, gives the right of the injured party to consider the contract terminated by law / to request the termination of the contract and to claim damages.

In the same time, for each student is concluded an individual practical training contract, signed by economic partner of dual learning practice, together with school and the student (or legal representative) (regulated by OMEN 4798/2017).The individual practical training contract is recognised by the legislation in education, not in labour code.

Q29. Where is the contract or the formal agreement registered?
At the school
At the Ministry of employment
At the chambers
At the Ministry of education
Other

For dual VET the rules are as follows:

-the partnership contract between school, partner company and municipality (local authority) is registered by each signatory;

-the individual practical training contract, signed by economic partner of dual learning practice, together with school and the student (or legal representative) is registered at school and the corresponding company.

Q30. What is the status of the learner?
Apprentice is a specific status
Student
Employee
Other

According to Annex 1 of Order of the Ministry of Education no. 4798/31.08.2017 the practitioner keeps, during the theoretical and practical training, the status of student of the educational unit (Article 2, paragraph (1)).

7Compensation

Q31. Do apprentices receive a wage or allowance?
Yes, all apprentices receive a wage (taxable income)
Yes, all apprentices receive an allowance (not a form of taxable income)
Apprentices receive a reimbursement of expenses
No form of compensation is foreseen by law

In dual VET, the students receive two types of allowance:

·Professional scholarship for three-year professional programmes

Professional scholarship is a national social protection programme that offers EUR~43 (200 Romanian Leu) per month for all three-year professional programme learners (including the dual VET students).

·Dual VET allowance

In addition to the professional scholarship, dual VET students receive at least EUR ~43 (200 Romanian Lei) per month in allowances from the company they undergo training in. Companies also pay for work equipment of learners, their insurance and medical examination, if obliged to do so by the occupation requirements.

Q32. How is the apprentice wage (taxable income) set?
By law (applying for all)
By cross-sectoral collective agreements at national or local level
By sectoral collective agreements at national or local level
By firm-level collective agreements or individual agreements between apprentice and company
Other

NA for dual VET

Students do not receive wages but professional scholarship (by national social protection programme) and allowance (from the company). They are not taxed.

Q33. Who covers the cost of the wage or allowance of the apprentice?
Employers
State
Other

In dual VET, the students receive two types of allowance:
·Professional scholarship for three-year professional programmes- sustained by the state
·Dual VET allowance- from the company they undergo training in

Q34. Does the wage or allowance of the apprentice cover both the time spent at school and in the company?
Yes
No, it covers only the time spent in the company

In dual VET, the two type of allowance are paid throughout the school year, excluding school holidays.

8Responsibility of employers

Q35. Is the company hosting apprentices required by regulation to follow a training plan at the workplace?
Yes, the training plan is agreed at the level of school and company
Yes, the training plan is based on the national/sectoral requirements for the in-company training
No, is not required formally

Curricula for dual VET have two main components:

  • core curriculum designed at national level by education working groups;
  • local (school) curriculum designed by schools and local businesses to facilitate adaptation of the students' professional training to the requirements of the local and regional labour market.

Practical training in partner companies is based on local curriculum agreed by the school and the company.

Q36. What are the requirements on companies to provide placements, as per regulation?
Have to provide a suitable learning environment
Have to provide a mentor / tutor / trainer
Other

According the Order of the Ministry of Education no. 3554/29.03.2017, economic operators who are involved in dual VET must provide conditions for:

a) organising and carrying out the practical training sessions foreseen in the framework educational plan for the respective level of qualification, as well as the practical training component of the specialised modules, agreed to be carried out at economic operators;

b) ensuring the material conditions - machinery, equipment, raw materials, consumables, energy and other utilities necessary for the practice of the pupils organised under their responsibility, according to the professional training standards, curricula and curriculum in force, including the curriculum in local development for practical training sessions designed in collaboration with the educational establishment;

c) providing human resources (tutors) necessary for the practical training of students, organised at the economic operator;

d) the provision of working and protective equipment for pupils during the training periods carried out at the economic operator;

e) ensuring the safety and health at work of the students during the training periods carried out at the economic operator;

f) hiring the costs necessary to ensure safety and health at work, labour medicine examinations and compulsory medical examinations for pupils;

g) hiring the costs of civil liability insurance in case of accidents, damages or bodily injuries generated during practical training at the economic operator for pupils (depending on the field of activity);

h) to provide students with a scholarship, at least at the level of the awarded from public funds;

i) other forms of financial support and financial incentives agreed in the partnership contract;

j) ensuring the necessary conditions (endowments, raw materials, consumables, utilities, etc.) for the admission examinations and the certification examinations for the professional qualification of the pupils, according to the agreed location for their organisation;

k) ensuring the necessary conditions for the continuous assessment of students in the practical training at the economic operator;

l) hiring other expenses necessary for the quality of the pupils;

m) the agreed contribution to improve the endowment and the conditions for carrying out the education and training process in the educational establishment;

n) exercising the duties of a member on the board of directors or, as the case may be, in the representative council of the economic operators;

o) involvement in information and promotion activities of the vocational training offer;

p) participation with specialists in the design of the curriculum in local development;

q) the organisation of additional practical training sessions for students with an unscheduled school situation due to absences or who have not obtained backgrounds for practical training or practical training within modules of the curriculum for that qualification.

Q37. Are there any sanctions on companies that do not provide training to apprentices at the workplace?
Yes
No

In dual VET, it is regulated a partnership contract between school, partner company and municipality (local authority).

This contract establishes the terms of collaboration, the rights and obligations of the parties.

Failure to fulfil or improper performance of the obligations assumed under the partnership contract entails the liability of the defaulting party, except for the exonerating cases provided for by law.

Failure to comply with the obligations assumed under this contract by one of the parties, by fault, gives the right of the injured party to consider the contract terminated by law / to request the termination of the contract and to claim damages.

Q38. What is the role of chambers, employers’ and employees’ representatives, sectoral councils (if existent), in shaping apprenticeship content, as per regulation?
Role in designing qualification
Role in designing curricula
Other
No role

Initial VET (including dual form) qualifications are based on training standards.

Training standards are developed by representatives of the companies from the respective sectors and of the VET providers, with the methodological support of the National Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training Development, endorsed by National Authority for Qualifications and validated by employers and other social partners through sectoral committees. The revision of standards is carried out at least every five years or at the request of economic operators.

In the same time, partner companies have a role in design of local curricula.

Chambers do not have a specific role in the design of content for dual VET.

Q39. What is the role of chambers, employers’ and employees’ representatives in implementing the apprenticeship scheme, as per regulation?
Role in final assessment of apprentices
Role in accreditation of companies
Role in monitoring of the in-company training
Other
No role

In dual VET partner companies are responsible for implementing the training process together with schools.

Companies participate with representatives on the boards of the partner schools.

Chambers do not have a specific role in the implementation of dual VET.