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Dual pathway

BeroepsbegeleidendeLeerweg
Netherlands

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Reference Year 2019

Target group

Q6. Does the legal basis define the minimum and maximum age limits for enrolment of the target group of this scheme?

Minimum and maximum age limits defined
Minimum age limits defined only
Other

FOR A COMPLETE PICTURE, PLEASE CHECK Q.3 OF THE COUNTRY FICHE.

In the past the two pathways were designed originally for youngsters. More and more the system is being used for adult learning (there isn’t an age limit). The qualification structure offers “Electives Every training course should include an Elective (240 hours for a year training programme).  These Electives can be specific for the region, personal interest, preparing for higher education, but also be labelled as certificate (approved by the Ministry of Education) in case they offer a value for the labour market (LLL).

A third pathway is being used in which work placement (beroepspraktijkvorming bpv) is mandatory, there are no age limits defined, although there’s a difference in the age of the participants between the pathways. BOL mostly 16-20yo, BBL 16-27, the 3rd pathway, mostly above 27.

Q7. What is the average age of learners in practice?

Between 15 and 18
Between 18 and 24
Above 24

Depending on the programme level, young people will be between 18 and 20 when completing the programme according to the standard period of study.

Overview of the scheme

Q8. Is the scheme included in the ISCED 2011 mapping?

Yes
No

 Entry level programmes (1-1.5 years, ISCED 254, EQF1).

         Basic vocational programmes (2 years, ISCED 353, EQF2).

         Professional education programmes (3 years, ISCED 353, EQF3).

         Middle-management VET programmes (3-4 years, ISCED 354, EQF4).

Specialising programmes (on top of professional education programmes) (1-2 years, ISCED 453, EQF4). [1


[1] Cedefop (2016), Spotlight on VET: The Netherlands.

Q9. Is there any organization at the national level with roles in co-ordinating the scheme?

Yes
No

The Foundation for Cooperation on Vocational Education, Training and Labour Market (SBB). As required by the Dutch Act on Adult and Vocational Education, SBB, works together with VET schools and the labour market to advise, accredit and coach work placement companies.

Within SBB, vocational education and training (VET) and the labour market cooperate at national, sectoral and regional level, with the objectives: Students receive the best possible practical training with prospects of a job, and companies can employ professionals that they need, now and in the future. The legal task for SBB is accreditation, coaching and advice for work placement companies. Other tasks include: maintenance and development of (parts of) qualifications  and  research: labour market, work placement and efficiency

Q10. When was the scheme introduced?

Long history (before 2000)
Recently introduced (between 2000-2012)
New pathway (after 2012)

Before its renaming in 1997, the BBL was known as leerlingwezen.

Q11. How did the apprenticeship scheme originate?

Traditional craftsmanship (master-apprentice relation) to prepare apprentices for the occupation
School-based VET track by including more work-based learning to supply skilled workforce to match labour market needs
Ex-novo
Other

The traditional dual sectors with apprenticeships (BBL) are construction, installation technics, hairdressers, etc. where employers traditionally have a preference for work-based VET education. The preference for BBL vis a vis school-based (BOL) is thus sector specific. With the expansion of VET across a wider range of sectors and levels over time, the BBL became a minor track among all VET programmes.

Q12. What are the sources of financing of the direct costs for the in-company training part of the apprenticeship scheme?

Single employers hosting apprentices
Sectoral funds
State
Other

The employer pays the salary as well as a contribution to the costs for education and training. The student in the dual pathway (apprenticeship) is an employee with an employment contract, the student in the school based pathway (BOL) has no employment contract, but mostly gets a internship wage.

The education and training providers receive funding from the state for accredited programmes (Article 2.1.1 Law on Education and Vocational Education and Training).

Q13. Are there any financial incentives for companies that offer apprenticeship places?

Yes, subsidies
Yes, tax deductions
Yes, other incentives
No financial incentives

At the government level, in 2014 a subsidies-based scheme replaced a tax reduction-based system. The subsidies have the following eligibility criteria:[1]

  • Subsidies are paid to the accredited company or organisation which provides the apprenticeship.
  • All dual pathway programmes registered in the central register of VET programmes (Crebo) are eligible.
  • There must be a valid contract (praktijkovereenkomst) between the education and training institution, the apprentice and the company.

The subsidy amounts to a maximum of EUR 2700 per year per apprentice. The companies apply for this subsidy.

There also exist subsidies at sectoral level. For the metal and electrotechnics sector, for example, accredited companies and organisation whose apprentices follow a dual pathway programme registered in the central register of VET programmes are eligible for EUR 2500 per year per apprentice (max. 5 apprentices per company), with an additional EUR 1000 paid as a bonus if the diploma is completed.[2] In addition, companies are eligible for a EUR 1000 contribution to the training costs of their apprenticeship supervisors/mentors (praktijkopleider)[3].

In addition, sector organisations, employer organisations and education and training institutions contribute for support of apprenticeships and activities concerning labour market entry.

Q14. How many learners are enrolled in this scheme?

In 2018-2019 there are 496.380 VET students. 24% are in the dual pathway (bbl), 76% in the schoolbased pathway (bol).

Q16. Which is the type of qualification obtained through the apprenticeship scheme?

Formal VET qualification (which does not indicate the pathway)
Formal VET qualification (which indicates the pathway)
Formal apprenticeship qualification (journeyman, etc.)
Others

Regardless the pathways, VET education leads to the same diploma (at level 1-4). The diploma certifies that the holder has successfully completed the education in a given field, e.g. in refrigeration engineering.

Q17. Is the qualification included in the National Qualification Framework (NQF)?

Yes
No
There is no NQF

Entry level programmes (1-1.5 years, ISCED 254, EQF1).

         Basic vocational programmes (2 years, ISCED 353, EQF2).

         Professional education programmes (3 years, ISCED 353, EQF3).

         Middle-management VET programmes (3-4 years, ISCED 354, EQF4).

Specialised programmes (on top of professional education programmes) (1-2 years, ISCED 453, EQF4). [1


[1] Cedefop (2016), Spotlight on VET: The Netherlands.

Q19. Does the scheme provide direct access to higher education?

Yes
No

Only level 4 programmes provide access to Higher vocational education (HBO). These are the Middle-management VET programmes (ISCED 354, EQF4) and the Specialising programmes (ISCED 453, EQF4).[1

Please also check Q. 17.


[1] Cedefop (2016), Spotlight on VET: The Netherlands.

Programme

Duration

Q21. If the scheme is implemented via specific apprenticeship programme, what is its duration?

 

Q22. If the scheme is not implemented via specific apprenticeship programme, how is duration of apprenticeships defined in the regulation?

It Is defined as minimum and maximum share of a VET programme
Is defined as minimum share of a VET programme
Is defined as maximum share of a VET programme
Is not defined by regulation
Other

The duration of BBL coincides with the duration of  the programmes it applies to.

Entry level programmes (1-1.5 years, ISCED 254, EQF1).

         Basic vocational programmes (2 years, ISCED 353, EQF2).

         Professional education programmes (3 years, ISCED 353, EQF3).

         Middle-management VET programmes (3-4 years, ISCED 354, EQF4).

Q23. Is there a distinction between the training time and working time for the period spent at workplace, as per regulation?

Yes, the legal framework makes this distinction
No, the legal framework makes no distinction
 

Alternation of work-based (in-company) training and school-based training

Q24. Is it compulsory to alternate training between two learning venues (school and company)?

Yes
No

According to the law, Article 7.2.7 apprenticeships are educational programmes leading to a vocational qualification. The programmes must comprise 850 hours of education per year, of which at least 200 hours must be school-based instruction (begeleide onderwijsuren) and of which at least 610 hours must be work placement (beroepspraktijkvorming, bpv). 

Q25. Is the in-company training defined as minimum share of the apprenticeship scheme duration?

Yes, equivalent or more than 50% of scheme duration
Yes, between 20% and 50% of the scheme duration
Yes, less than 20% of the scheme duration
No, no minimum share is compulsory

The Law covers all apprenticeship schemes. An important part of vocational education and training consists of learning in practice, known as work placement (beroepspraktijkvorming, bpv). We differentiate between practice placements (school-based pathway, BOL) and apprenticeships (dual pathway, BBL). The school based pathway (BOL) has between 20% and 60% BPV. The dual pathway (BBL) has 60% BPV or more.

Q26. What is the form of alternation of training between workplace (company) and school?

Every week includes both venues
One or more weeks (less than 1 month) spent at school followed by one or more weeks at workplace
One or more months (less than 1 year) spent at school followed by one or more months at workplace
A longer period (1-2 years) spent at school followed by a longer period spent training at workplace
Various – depends on agreements between the school and the company
Other
Not specified

In practice, apprentices usually spent 1 day per week in the education institution and 4 days per week in the company.

Formal relationship with the employer

Q27. Is any contractual arrangement between the learner and company, required as per regulation?

Yes
No

rticle 7.2.8 of the Education law states that the apprenticeship will be based on a contract (overeenkomst) between the educational institution, the apprentice and the organisation delivering the work-based training.

In addition, every student in an apprenticeship (BBL) is an employee with an employment contract. Apprenticeship contracts (arbeidsovereenkomst voor leerlingen) are a specific kind of contract with a duration that is identical to that of the contract between the education institution (praktijkovereenkomst). The latter is provided by school.

In addition the Work Placement Protocol contains (non-contractual) agreements between the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, employers' organisations, and the Netherlands Association of VET Colleges on good quality work placements: see this document with agreements: https://www.s-bb.nl/en/companies/work-placement/work-placement-protocol

Q28. What is the nature of the contractual arrangement?

Apprenticeships are a specific type of contract
Apprenticeships are an ordinary employment contract
A formal agreement

Apprenticeship contracts (arbeidsovereenkomst voor leerlingen) are a specific kind of contract with a duration that is identical to that of the contract between the education institution (praktijkovereenkomst).

Please note that in most cases, normally there’s not a combined document. There is a contract and a learning agreement.

Q29. Where is the contract or the formal agreement registered?

At the school
At the Ministry of employment
At the chambers
At the Ministry of education
Other

The school is responsible for the contract between the VET provider, the apprentice and the employer (praktijkovereenkomst).

Q30. What is the status of the learner?

Apprentice is a specific status
Student
Employee
Other

Apprentice is a specific status in the sense that their labour contract is temporary and reflects their specific situation: coverage of costs of learning material, requirement to offer a permanent contract if the apprentice remains in the company after successful completion of the apprenticeship, etc.

Compensation

Q31. Do apprentices receive a wage or allowance?

Yes, all apprentices receive a wage (taxable income)
Yes, all apprentices receive an allowance (not a form of taxable income)
Apprentices receive a reimbursement of expenses
No form of compensation is foreseen by law

The starting salary amounts to at least the legal minimum wage (for youth) and increases are sector specific, and so are agreements concerning remuneration of the school day. For example, in the metal and electrotechnics sector (Metalektro) the salary must amount to at least 110% of the minimum wage (for youth) in the second half of the apprenticeship.[1

In the metal and electrotechnics sector the minimum wage for a five day working week applies, implying that the day spent at school is remunerated.


[1] http://www.vergoedingenmetalektro.nl/AO?Subsidie=25&Bestand=Model+leerar... 

Q32. How is the apprentice wage (taxable income) set?

By law (applying for all)
By cross-sectoral collective agreements at national or local level
By sectoral collective agreements at national or local level
By firm-level collective agreements or individual agreements between apprentice and company
Other

Mostly agreed upon in collective labour agreements.

Q33. Who covers the cost of the wage or allowance of the apprentice?

Employers
State
Other
 

Q34. Does the wage or allowance of the apprentice cover both the time spent at school and in the company?

Yes
No, it covers only the time spent in the company

Mostly the allowance of the apprentice cover also the time spent at school. This is often agreed upon in collective labour agreements.

Responsibility of employers

Q35. Is the company hosting apprentices required by regulation to follow a training plan at the workplace?

Yes, the training plan is agreed at the level of school and company
Yes, the training plan is based on the national/sectoral requirements for the in-company training
No, is not required formally

Most importantly, the company or organisation providing the apprenticeship needs to be accredited by the Stichting Samenwerking Beropesonderwijs Bedrijfslevel (SBB) an organisation managed by associations of education and training providers and employers. This accreditation process includes checking whether the company provides a learning environment and supervisors. SBB helps to improve the quality of workplace learning in the company via on line and face-to-face services. See: https://www.s-bb.nl/en/companies/work-placement

Obligations of the employer: the employer provides the apprentice-employee an apprenticeship and will take any measures necessary to achieve the goals of this agreement, including the quality of the apprenticeship. The employer ensures that the apprentice-employee is trained in accordance to the programme in the praktijkovereenkomst (agreement/contract with education institution) and the rules of the education institution.  There is a contract between the apprentice, the school and company.

Q36. What are the requirements on companies to provide placements, as per regulation?

Have to provide a suitable learning environment
Have to provide a mentor / tutor / trainer
Other

Article 7.2.8 of the Education Law stipulates that the company or organisation providing the apprenticeship must ensure the supervision of the apprentice.

The Dutch Act on Adult and Vocational Education requires VET-students to carry out part of their education or training at accredited work placement companies.

As an accredited work placement company, you will uphold the following conditions:

  1. 1) The work placement company offer students a safe workplace that corresponds with their education or training. The student will carry out the profession for which he is training with the corresponding tasks and requirements.
  2. 2) The work placement company assign a workplace trainer, who has good insight in the profession and is able to coach and manage students on the work-floor. You will make time and resources available for the workplace trainer to carry out these tasks.
  3. 3) The work placement company are willing to cooperate with VET schools and SBB, and you will provide the appropriate and necessary information.
  4. 4) The work placement company agree to the publication of your business details on Stagemarkt.nl: the website that students use to find a practice placement opening or apprenticeship.

The Ministry of Education has assigned SBB the task to accredit companies for providing apprenticeships.


 

[1] Stichting Samenwerking Beroepsonderwijs Bedrijfsleven (SBB, Foundation in which VET providers  and Enterprises/sector organisations collaborate). https://www.s-bb.nl/en/companies/certification/conditions-certification

Q37. Are there any sanctions on companies that do not provide training to apprentices at the workplace?

Yes
No

No participation in the apprenticeship scheme for companies is voluntary.

Q38. What is the role of chambers, employers’ and employees’ representatives, sectoral councils (if existent), in shaping apprenticeship content, as per regulation?

Role in designing qualification
Role in designing curricula
Other
No role

As required by the Dutch Act on Adult and Vocational Education, SBB works together with VET schools and the labour market on executing the following legal tasks:

  • advise, accredit and coach work placement companies
  • develop and maintain the qualification structure
  • provide research and information on the labour market, work placement and efficiency of VET-programmes
  • SBB also advise the minister of Education, Culture and Science on linking vocational education with the job market.

Article 1.5.1. of the Education law stipulates that the Stichting Samenwerking Beroepsonderwijs Bedrijfsleven (SBB, Foundation in which VET providers  and Employers/sector organisations collaborate) has the following tasks:

  • development and maintenance of a national qualification structure, envisaging the coordination  between the the provision of VET and the demands of society, the labour market for young people and taking account of relevant international developments, by for example making proposals to the Minister of Education;
  • contributing to the purposeful use of government resources proposing which VET programmes should be eligible for public funding;
  • development of the quality of apprenticeships;
  • development and measurement of quality criteria for apprenticeships and the evaluation of companies and organisations which offer apprenticeships at least every four years according to these criteria, including publishing an overview of companies and organisations which satisfy these criteria;
  • ensuring the supply of a sufficient number of companies and organisations which provide apprenticeships;
  • carrying out research in support of tasks named in this article;
  • carrying out additional activities which foster the coordination between education and training and the labour market.

The design of the curricula and the final assessment of apprentices is carried out by the education institutions.

Q39. What is the role of chambers, employers’ and employees’ representatives in implementing the apprenticeship scheme, as per regulation?

Role in final assessment of apprentices
Role in accreditation of companies
Role in monitoring of the in-company training
Other
No role

As per regulation, vocational education and training (VET) and the labour market (employers’ and employees’ representatives) cooperate within SBB, at national, sectoral and regional level. Implementation is dependent upon sectoral agreements (i.e. in collective labour agreements).