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Apprenticeship - Dual vocational training based on the apprenticeship training contract

Tanulószerződésen alapuló duális szakképzés
Hungary

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Reference Year 2019

Target group

Q6. Does the legal basis define the minimum and maximum age limits for enrolment of the target group of this scheme?

Minimum and maximum age limits defined
Minimum age limits defined only
Other

The minimum age to start an apprenticeship is 14 years old, after finishing lower secondary school. Yet, in the first year, however, practice can only take place in a workshop, not in a real company.

Primary schools provide eight years of general primary and lower secondary education to children aged 6 to 14. Students can apply for vocational education after that.

Acquiring the first two vocational qualifications in the state-subsidised vocational education and training system is free, the second vocational qualification (from 2015) can only be obtained in adult education (after 25 years of age individual can take part only in adult education).

_________

Pursuant to CXC 2011. Act on National Public Education

Q7. What is the average age of learners in practice?

Between 15 and 18
Between 18 and 24
Above 24

Students who participate in a vocational school training programme are generally between 14 - 17 years old students.

Overview of the scheme

Q8. Is the scheme included in the ISCED 2011 mapping?

Yes
No

The scheme is included in the ISCED 2011 mapping, level 353. 

Q9. Is there any organization at the national level with roles in co-ordinating the scheme?

Yes
No

The Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry is responsible for assisting students in finding practical training opportunities at companies.

The Chamber is also responsible for the accreditation and registration of enterprises providing practical training, the countersigning (validation) and registration of training contracts, and the inspection of training provision. The Chamber has become a key actor in VET over the past years, and through several agreements made with the government it now plays a dominant role in qualification design (developing standards, framework curricula and examination procedures) organisation of VET examinations and quality assurance.

Guidance to both students and companies wishing to enter apprenticeship training is available at a national VET guidance network operated by the Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry since 2001. Pursuant to the VET Act, local chambers have to assist, supervise, validate and register the conclusion of training contracts, and they also participate in career guidance activities targeting primary school students.

Q10. When was the scheme introduced?

Long history (before 2000)
Recently introduced (between 2000-2012)
New pathway (after 2012)

The dual vocational training was introduced by the new Act of 2011 on VET.

Q11. How did the apprenticeship scheme originate?

Traditional craftsmanship (master-apprentice relation) to prepare apprentices for the occupation
School-based VET track by including more work-based learning to supply skilled workforce to match labour market needs
Ex-novo
Other

The origins of dual vocational training go a long way back in Hungary. This type of training was dominant in skilled workers’ training before the political regime change (1989), and only the economic collapse in the early 1990s set it back for a decade. The institutional system of the apprenticeship contracts was regulated in such details in the Act on vocational education and training in 1993. Since then, the conditions and contents, its operation has changed several times, in accordance with the needs indicated by the chamber. Due to these changes, it has become one of the core elements of dual vocational training by 2012.

Since the beginning of the 2000s every government has supported apprenticeship. The legal framework allowing and supporting dual vocational training has gone through a decade-long development. The new Act CLXXXVII of 2011 on vocational education and training and the subsequent legislation introduced further specifications and modifications.

The aim of apprenticeship today is to fulfil the labour market needs of a successful economy, and to provide career opportunities for a young, skilled workforce. The aim of training skilled workers is not the acquisition of lexical knowledge, but to train successful and efficient employees. As for enterprises, the main motivating force is not short-time profitmaking, but high level training of the future employee, which is considered an investment with a long-term return.

Q12. What are the sources of financing of the direct costs for the in-company training part of the apprenticeship scheme?

Single employers hosting apprentices
Sectoral funds
State
Other

The most important resource in funding of enterprises are their vocational training contributions (see Q13) and the National Employment Fund.

The training section of the National Employment Fund is constituted of the vocational training contribution paid by enterprises. The aim of the vocational training contribution is to involve enterprises in vocational training besides state stakeholders.

The amount of the vocational training contribution is the base of the social contribution tax imposed on the entity obliged to pay a contribution, and its extent is 1.5 per cent of the basis of the vocational training contribution. (It is 1.5% of the vocational training contribution base (gross liability).The contribution can be settled by organizing practical training. In this case, the extent of the contribution can be decreased by a normative subsidy set forth in advance. Since January 1st, 2013 other organizations have joined the circle of training providers with apprenticeship contracts, which were not obliged to pay vocational training contribution originally. By the end of the tax year 2015 other organizations pursuing practical training based on apprenticeship contracts, could reclaim subsidy based on application in the framework of a grant process. In case the sum of the normative subsidy exceeds the extent of the contribution duty, the difference can be reclaimed by training providers with apprenticeship contracts. Another incentive for an extensive circle of practical training providers is that their funding is supplemented by a further subsidy: from January 1st, 2016 they will receive extra normative subsidies (investment, instructor, workshop maintenance decreasing items), by which the sum to be reclaimed can increase. The subsidy is mostly available for SMEs.

Q13. Are there any financial incentives for companies that offer apprenticeship places?

Yes, subsidies
Yes, tax deductions
Yes, other incentives
No financial incentives

There are two financial incentives for companies: tax deduction from the vocational training contribution; and normative subsidy.

1. Tax deduction.

The vocational training contribution at 1.5% of the social contribution tax defined by the tax legislation is compulsory for companies registered domestically or abroad those are active in Hungary. So, the vocational training contribution is practically a VET tax levied on enterprises to 1.5% of the total labour cost.

The contribution obligation may be met in three ways:
(1) by payment to the development and training subfund of the National Employment Fund; (2) by organising practical training for students in vocational training schools or in tertiary education; (3) by organising trainings for own employees.

Vocational training contributions not spent on vocational training provision must be paid into the training subfund of the National Employment Fund.

The cost accounting of apprenticeship-contract-based training has been simplified by the regulation that let the entrepreneurs meeting their vocational training contribution payment obligation by organising practical training.

The companies can reduce the contribution amount, as of 2015, by the product of the base normative amount of HUF 480,000/cap/annum (~EUR 1500).[2]

2. Normative subsidy

Organisations that are not obliged to pay the vocational training contribution (for example: hospitals, central budget institution) or SMEs enterprises whose vocational training contribution less than the normative subsidy can also receive support from the National Employment Fund training subfund for providing practical training based on an apprenticeship training contract.

The National Employment Fund supports the reduction of new investments and the cost of trainers. The vocational training contribution may be further reduced in accordance with the Act CLV of 2011 on the vocational training contribution and the support for the development of training.

Q14. How many learners are enrolled in this scheme?

The number of apprenticeship training contracts in 2019 was 51.180.

Year Total number of VET students (VET grade - ISCED level 353) Students in dual vocational education grammar schools (VET grade) Total number of students Number and share of students holding an apprenticeship training contract
2013/14 60,280 53,096 113,376 49,000 (43%)
2014/15 58,848 48,001 106,849 50,000 (46%)
2015/16 49,125 46,748 95,873 50,000 (52%)
2016/17 43,049 42,799 85,848 53,000 (61%)
2017/18 40,332 40,667 80,999 54,000 (66%)
2018/19 40,340 33,665 74,005 51,000 (69%)
2019/20 63,700 33,100 96,800 51,180 (52%)*

*not final

 

Central Statistics Office (2019): Education data, 2018/2019

http://www.ksh.hu/docs/hun/xftp/idoszaki/oktat/oktatas1819.pdf

Ministry for Innovation and Technology (2019): Vocational Training 4.0.

https://www.nive.hu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1024:sz... (Hungarian version).

Data released by the Hungarian Central Statistical Office (2019):

Q16. Which is the type of qualification obtained through the apprenticeship scheme?

Formal VET qualification (which does not indicate the pathway)
Formal VET qualification (which indicates the pathway)
Formal apprenticeship qualification (journeyman, etc.)
Others

The scheme leads to the vocational qualifications listed in National Vocational Qualification Register, which are recognised by the state. The vocational qualification listed in the National Vocational Qualifications Register is awarded at the final vocational examination organised at the VET school, based on uniform standards.

The National Vocational Qualification Register contains those qualifications which are recognized by the state. Legal background: Government Decree 150/2012. (July 6) on National Vocational Qualification Register. Today 758 vocational qualifications (200 partial qualifications and 558 basic and add-on qualifications) can be found in the register. Register available: https://www.nive.hu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=297 (Hungarian version)

Link to the list of qualifications: https://www.nive.hu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=297

Q17. Is the qualification included in the National Qualification Framework (NQF)?

Yes
No
There is no NQF

VET qualifications based on an apprenticeship training contract are linking to the EQF/HUQF level 3 and 4.

EQF/HUQF level 3: Hand & Nail Care - Nail Builder, Beekeeper, Chimney sweeper, Construction and material handling machine operator, etc.

EQF/HUQF level 4: Cook, Waiter, Confectioner, Bricklayer, Hairdresser, Electrician, Car mechanic, Trader, CNC operator, etc.

From 4 March 2016 National Vocational Qualification Register contains the EQF/NQF levels of qualifications. See the list: https://www.nive.hu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=297 (Hungarian version).

For more information about the Hungarian Qualification Framework and linking qualification see the Hungarian Referencing Report: EQF National Coordination Point, Educational Authority (2015): Referencing and Self-certification Report of the Hungarian Qualifications Framework to the EQF and to the QF-EHEA. http://www.ehea.info/Uploads/SubmitedFiles/2_2015/090700.pdf (English version).

Q19. Does the scheme provide direct access to higher education?

Yes
No

The entry requirement to the higher education is the secondary school leaving certificate. Therefore if individuals wish to continue their studies in higher education, they need to complete a two-year general education programme to obtain the secondary school leaving certificate.

Programme

Duration

Q21. If the scheme is implemented via specific apprenticeship programme, what is its duration?

Duration of apprenticeship may be 12, 24 or 36 months.

Q22. If the scheme is not implemented via specific apprenticeship programme, how is duration of apprenticeships defined in the regulation?

It Is defined as minimum and maximum share of a VET programme
Is defined as minimum share of a VET programme
Is defined as maximum share of a VET programme
Is not defined by regulation
Other

Vocational school programmes run for three years. An apprenticeship may be concluded effective from the start of the first year . The apprenticeship contract may be concluded for the total remaining time of the training, and may be terminated in cases specified by the Act of vocational education and training.

Q23. Is there a distinction between the training time and working time for the period spent at workplace, as per regulation?

Yes, the legal framework makes this distinction
No, the legal framework makes no distinction

-

Alternation of work-based (in-company) training and school-based training

Q24. Is it compulsory to alternate training between two learning venues (school and company)?

Yes
No

If students has an apprenticeship contract, the practical part of the training must be completed in the company.

In Hungary, practical training can be pursued in the school workshop, or at the enterprise or other organization entitled to pursue practical training. Practical training is necessary to obtain a certificate in a defined work area, in a defined job, the duration of which is specified in the base document of the training.

If the proportion of  required exceeds 40%, an apprenticeship contract must be concluded.

Q25. Is the in-company training defined as minimum share of the apprenticeship scheme duration?

Yes, equivalent or more than 50% of scheme duration
Yes, between 20% and 50% of the scheme duration
Yes, less than 20% of the scheme duration
No, no minimum share is compulsory

The time spent on training at companies varies by vocation and is shaped by local arrangements. In vocational schools programmes, VET is provided in 2/3 of all teaching hours, and the share of in-company training within VET is 40-80%, depending on the pursued vocational qualification; for the majority of students it is 70%. 

In Vocational grammar school apprenticeships are available in the post-secondary year(s) when only VET is provided; the share of practical training varies also between 40 and 70%.

Q26. What is the form of alternation of training between workplace (company) and school?

Every week includes both venues
One or more weeks (less than 1 month) spent at school followed by one or more weeks at workplace
One or more months (less than 1 year) spent at school followed by one or more months at workplace
A longer period (1-2 years) spent at school followed by a longer period spent training at workplace
Various – depends on agreements between the school and the company
Other
Not specified

The form of alternation of training between company and VET school depends on the specific of qualification, training hours of practical training and agreement between VET school and company.

  1. every week includes both venues;
  2. one week spent at VET school is followed by one week at workplace

For a minor student, the practical training time shall not exceed 7 hours a day, and 8 hours a day for a major student. The daily training of a minor student shall be organised between 6 am and 10 pm. The student shall be granted at least 16 hours of uninterrupted rest between the end of the practical training and the start of practical training on the following day. The student shall not be employed to do practical training in excess of the daily training time. The practical training of the student shall not take place at the organisation delivering the practical training:

  • on the days of theoretical training;
  • on the day of events organised by the VET school where every student must be present;
  • on the examination days of the student during his/her studies and the days of the mandatory complex vocational exam at the end of his/her studies; and
  • whenever the employee of the practical trainer is also exempted from the obligation to work pursuant to the labour legislation.

______

Regulated by paragraphs 37 and 38 of Act CLXXXVII of 2011 on vocational education and training.

Formal relationship with the employer

Q27. Is any contractual arrangement between the learner and company, required as per regulation?

Yes
No

There are two possible (legal) types of practical training in enterprises.

  • Apprenticeship training contracts are concluded between the student and an enterprise, which provides practical training as well as a regular allowance to the student. Length of apprenticeship: 12, 24 or 36 months. The dual vocational training scheme is based on the apprenticeship training contract. Apprenticeship training contracts are concluded between the student and an enterprise in written form. This contact is countersigned by the territorially (county) competent economic chamber of the Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry. Apprenticeship training contracts can be concluded with the students from the beginning of the first  vocational training year for training preparing them for the first vocational qualification recognised by the state and eligible for central budget support. The apprenticeship training contract contains the contracting parties and the organisation of the training and specifies the rights and obligations of the student and the training organisation (enterprises), respectively, the conditions of the termination of the contract, and the allowances to be extended to the student.
  • Alternatively, under certain conditions, a VET school may conclude a cooperation agreement with an enterprise to provide practical training for its students. In this case, learners are not contractually linked to the employer, neither do they receive remuneration (they do receive an allowance only for the duration of their practice during the school summer holidays).

________

Regulated by paragraphs 42 and 48 of Act CLXXXVII of 2011 on vocational education and training

Q28. What is the nature of the contractual arrangement?

Apprenticeships are a specific type of contract
Apprenticeships are an ordinary employment contract
A formal agreement

Apprenticeship training contract is partially covered by the Labour Code. This is a formal agreement (contract) between the student and employer (enterprise). This contract regulated by paragraph 25 of Act CLXXVII of 2011 on vocational education and training.

However, apprentices shall have all the rights of employees as regulated under the Labour Code. Apprentices may also initiate legal disputes to assert his/her claims related to practical training, in accordance with the provisions applicable to labour disputes.

During the period of apprenticeship training contract students get into the social security system, have insurance, are entitled to receive sick leave benefit and the period of apprenticeship is counted into the service time when pension is calculated. 

Q29. Where is the contract or the formal agreement registered?

At the school
At the Ministry of employment
At the chambers
At the Ministry of education
Other

Pursuant to paragraph 43 of Act CLXXXVII of 2011 on vocational education and training, local (county) chambers have to assist, supervise, validate and register the conclusion of apprenticeship training contracts.

Q30. What is the status of the learner?

Apprentice is a specific status
Student
Employee
Other

Learners are in student status in their vocational schools. But in the framework of practical training provided under apprenticeship training contract, the student of a vocational school shall have all the rights of an employee under the Labour Code.

_______

Regulated by paragraph 26 of Act CLXXXVII of 2011 on vocational education and training.

Compensation

Q31. Do apprentices receive a wage or allowance?

Yes, all apprentices receive a wage (taxable income)
Yes, all apprentices receive an allowance (not a form of taxable income)
Apprentices receive a reimbursement of expenses
No form of compensation is foreseen by law

Apprentices, with any type of contract, receive an allowance. This amount is personal income tax free for apprentices. This exemption regulated by Act No. CXVII of 1995 on Personal Income Tax.

4/2002. (II. 26.) Ministry of Education
Regulation on allowance of students participating in school-based vocational education and training.
https://www.tanuloszerzodes.hu/content/42002-ii-26-om-rendelet-az-iskola...

Act nr. CLXXXVII of 2011 on vocational education and training.

https://www.tanuloszerzodes.hu/sites/default/files/files/jogszabalyok/20...

______

Regulated by paragraphs 71 of Act No. CXVII of 1995 on Personal Income Tax.

Q32. How is the apprentice wage (taxable income) set?

By law (applying for all)
By cross-sectoral collective agreements at national or local level
By sectoral collective agreements at national or local level
By firm-level collective agreements or individual agreements between apprentice and company
Other

Companies that provide practical training have to pay a regular monthly allowance to the student, including holiday periods. Apprentices receive 10.5-19.5% of the mandatory minimum wage (161 000 HUF) during the first term of the first VET grade, depending on the share of practical training within the training programme.

The company must pay this amount to the student each month. The company must pay this amount to the student each month (from the beginning to the termination of the apprenticeship contract). The employer may reduce the allowance if the student is unjustifiably absent.

Mandatory minimum wage in 2020: 161 000 HUF

Share of practical training within the training programme full time training (100%) in HUF part time training (60%) in HUF
80% 19.5% 31,395 11.7% 18,837
70% 18% 28,980 10.8% 17,388
60% 16.5% 26,565 9.9% 15,939
50% 15% 24,150 9% 14,490
40% 13.5% 21,735 8.1% 13,041
30% 12% 17,880 7.2% 10,728
20% 10.5% 16,905 6.3% 10,143

 

Q33. Who covers the cost of the wage or allowance of the apprentice?

Employers
State
Other

Apprenticeship training at an enterprise is financed by the company, so the allowance is also paid by the company (employers). Companies can, however, deduct the training costs from their (mandatory) contribution to the vocational training and can also get further expenses reimbursed from the training sub-fund of the National Employment Fund.

Q34. Does the wage or allowance of the apprentice cover both the time spent at school and in the company?

Yes
No, it covers only the time spent in the company

Companies that provide practical training have to pay a regular monthly allowance to the student, including school and holiday periods.

The company must pay this amount to the student each month (from the beginning to the termination of the apprenticeship contract) In one case, the business may reduce the allowance if the student is unjustifiably absent.

______

Regulated by paragraphs 63 of Act CLXXXVII of 2011 on vocational education and training.

Responsibility of employers

Q35. Is the company hosting apprentices required by regulation to follow a training plan at the workplace?

Yes, the training plan is agreed at the level of school and company
Yes, the training plan is based on the national/sectoral requirements for the in-company training
No, is not required formally

The vocational school provides for the vocational theoretical training of students, while practical training is done by enterprises or other organisations (enterprises, entrepreneurs, budgetary bodies, cooperatives, craftsmen, merchants, etc.). The enterprise is responsible for the preparation of the student for the practical part of the final complex vocational examination based on the professional and examination requirement issued for the given qualification and the vocational training framework curriculum. The vocational training framework curriculum describe the professional content of the practical training. The company is constantly documenting what the learner is working and practicing.

_____

Regulated by paragraph 36 of Act CLXXXVII of 2011 on vocational education and training.

Q36. What are the requirements on companies to provide placements, as per regulation?

Have to provide a suitable learning environment
Have to provide a mentor / tutor / trainer
Other

Companies shall provide the apprentice with occupational health and safety education relevant to the practical training task, regular medical checks of the apprentice during the training period, work clothes, personal protective equipment, discounted meals and travel expenses.

Companies shall provide the human and material conditions necessary for preparation for the practical training requirement and for the practical exam.

At companies students are dealt with by instructors/trainers with different professional and teaching skills, which lead to outcomes of uneven quality in terms of students’ vocational qualifications. To ensure company-based vocational instructors/trainers are appropriately qualified, the VET Act of 2011 lays down the requirement for them to have a teaching examination from 2015.

On 1 September 2019, new regulations came into force. Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry organize two types of training for trainers/ masters. If the instructor doesn’t have a sector-relevant higher education degree, one of the two courses is compulsory.

  • Master craftsman training (including a teaching skills course) and master craftsman examinations are organised by the Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry. It's mostly about professional development.
  • The Vocational Training Act introduces a new Professional training on September 1, 2019: Professional Trainer of Commerce certified by Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry. During the Professional Trainer of Commerce, the participants learn pedagogical, psychological and documentation skills.

In accordance with the relevant legislation, each instructors/trainer pursuing practical training at companies has to own a master craftsman certificate or a chamber practical training certificate.  A waiver of this obligations can be given when the instructor has sector-relevant higher education degree and 2 years of experience, or non-sector-relevant higher education degree and 5 years of experience, or is over 60 years of age.

____

Regulated by the paragraph 68 of Act CLXXXVII of 2011 on vocational education and training

Regulated by the paragraph 36 of Act CLXXXVII of 2011 on vocational education and training

Regulated by the paragraph 31 of Act CLXXXVII of 2011 on vocational education and training

Q37. Are there any sanctions on companies that do not provide training to apprentices at the workplace?

Yes
No

If the enterprises have an apprenticeship but does not provide education satisfactorily, it is sanctioned by the local chamber of commerce and industry.

Based on the decision of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the company cannot continue to dual vocational training.

 

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Ildikó Görgényi Modláné (2015): With Dual Training in the World of Work. Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Budapest.  p. 55. https://www.tanuloszerzodes.hu/sites/default/files/files/downloads/Dual_... (English version)

Q38. What is the role of chambers, employers’ and employees’ representatives, sectoral councils (if existent), in shaping apprenticeship content, as per regulation?

Role in designing qualification
Role in designing curricula
Other
No role

The role of the Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry has been increasingly significant; it has become a key actor in shaping VET policy and performs important duties in accordance with its 2010 agreement with the government. Chamber has become a key actor in qualification design (developing standards, framework curricula and examination procedures for the majority of qualifications required for blue-collar jobs), organisation of VET examinations and quality assurance.

It has also exerted considerable influence on VET policy, initiating the transformation of the structure of VET.

The Ministry for Innovation and Technology supports active involvement of all VET stakeholders in this process through the newly established VET Innovation Council. This is a debating and advisory body. In cooperation with the main VET advocacy bodies to support demand-driven transformation of the VET system. It will formulate proposals for policy decision-making and support implementation of initiatives in VET and adult learning.

The county development and training committees (operated by local Chambers of Commerce and Industry) play a very important advisory-consultative role in VET financing and development. The scope of the county development and training committee includes any issue which may affect the promotion of the vocational training development in the given county. The first step of planning is the proposition of the committee to the so-called qualification structure decision, which defines training courses which can be subsidized or cannot be subsidized, or subsidized to a limited number of places by the state within the school system. 

On 12 December 2017 the Hungarian Parliament passed the amended Act on Vocational and Adult Training, opening the way for establishing Sectoral Skills Councils (SSCs). A sectoral skills council can be considered representative if at least 51% of its members are economic stakeholders working in the same sector. SSCs will establish their own procedures; their members may vary from 7 to 19 persons per SSC, depending on the sector. Other VET and economic stakeholders (schools, teachers, business federations and economic entities) may support the work of the councils, issuing opinions or making proposals through an online digital platform currently under development.SSCs are coordinated by the Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the Hungarian Chamber for Agriculture for its own sectors. SSC representatives will take part in the National Council for VET and Adult Learning, a countrywide forum for reconciling professional interests, representing the sectors vis-à-vis the Hungarian Government.

_______

Regulated by the paragraph 75, 76 of Act CLXXXVII of 2011 on vocational education and training

Regulated by the paragraph 77  of Act CLXXXVII of 2011 on vocational education and training

Regulated by the paragraph 78, 79  of Act CLXXXVII of 2011 on vocational education and training

Regulated by the paragraph 80  of Act CLXXXVII of 2011 on vocational education and training

Regulated by the paragraph 81, 82, 83  of Act CLXXXVII of 2011 on vocational education and training

Regulated by the paragraph 80  of Act CLXXXVII of 2011 on vocational education and training

Ministry for Innovation and Technology (2019): Vocational Training 4.0.

https://www.nive.hu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1024:sz... (Hungarian version).

Q39. What is the role of chambers, employers’ and employees’ representatives in implementing the apprenticeship scheme, as per regulation?

Role in final assessment of apprentices
Role in accreditation of companies
Role in monitoring of the in-company training
Other
No role

On top of its strategic role (see Q38), the Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry is responsible also for examination procedures for the majority of qualifications required for blue-collar jobs. It participates in the organisation of VET examinations, and performs quality assurance functions, among others, in cooperation with entrepreneur associations and advocacy organisations. Also the Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry organize the national competition “Star of the Trade Festival”  and chamber is responsible for the tasks related to WorldSkills and EuroSkills.

Also the Hungarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry is responsible for assisting students in finding practical training opportunities at companies.

The Chamber is also responsible for the accreditation and registration of enterprises providing practical training, the countersigning (validation) and registration of training contracts, and the inspection of training provision.

_______

Ministry for Innovation and Technology (2019): Vocational Training 4.0.

https://www.nive.hu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1024:sz... (Hungarian version).