European and national policies on Vocational Education and Training (VET) need to be informed by sound and internationally comparable statistical evidence. The VET country statistical overviews are concise, descriptive and user friendly statistical reports. For each country, they quantify and compare key aspects of VET and lifelong learning. The selection is based on the indicators' policy relevance and their importance in achieving the Europe 2020 objectives.
VET indicators for Slovakia for the last available year
Index numbers (EU=100)
NB: The index numbers are derived from data summarised in the table. Data in the table have been rounded to one or two decimal places. The calculation of index numbers is instead based on not rounded data.
Slovakia’s performance on a range of indicators selected to monitor progress in VET and lifelong learning across the European Union (EU) is summarised below. The chart compares the situation in Slovakia with that of the EU, based on the most recent data available (this differs by indicator). Data in the chart are presented as an index where the EU average equals 100. If the index for a selected indicator for Slovakia is 100, then its performance equals the EU average. If the index is 90, its performance is 90% of (or 10% below) the EU average. If the index is 200, Slovakia’s performance is twice (or 200%) the EU average. For some indicators, such as early leavers from education and training, a country is performing better if its score is below that of the EU average.
Data on which the index is calculated are presented in the table, which also shows developments over time. A technical definition of each indicator is provided in the annex.
Access, attractiveness and flexibility
Slovakia has a relatively high proportion of upper secondary students participating in IVET (69.0% compared with 47.3% in the EU; data for 2015). Within upper secondary vocational education, the share of IVET students involved in combined work- and school-based programmes (9.1%) is lower than the EU average (28.4%); this value increased by 2.1 percentage points between 2013 and 2015.
Slovakia scores well below the EU average regarding the share of adults involved in lifelong learning (2.9% compared with 10.8% in the EU in 2016); this is much lower than the average target of 15% set by the strategic framework Education and training 2020.
The general picture from 2010 CVTS data on the training activities of employers shows better results. Employees are more likely to be in receipt of employer-sponsored CVT courses (44% in Slovakia, 38% in the EU) and the percentage of companies providing training is also slightly higher than the EU average (69% versus 66% in the EU). 2011 AES data show that non-formal education and training is more often job-related (90.5%) compared with the situation across the EU (80.2%).
Skill development and labour market relevance
Public expenditure on IVET as a percentage of GDP in Slovakia (0.68%) is higher than the EU average (0.54%), but the amount spent per student (6 000 purchasing power standard (PPS) units) is below the EU average (8 400 PPS units). The percentage of graduates in STEM subjects from upper secondary IVET (30.2%) is near the EU average (30.8%).
The employment rate for IVET graduates (aged 20-34) at ISCED levels 3-4 (79.0%) is slightly higher than the EU average of 78.1%. Their employment rate is 2.7 percentage points higher than for graduates from general education (though this is lower than the EU average premium of 5.7). The rate is also 42.3 percentage points higher than for graduates with lower-level qualifications (and this is well above the EU average premium of 23.4 percentage points). All these employment figures relate to 2016 and exclude young people in further education and training.
Overall transitions and labour market trends
In this section all data refer to 2016 unless otherwise stated.
The rate of early leaving from education and training in Slovakia (7.4%) is lower than for the EU as a whole (10.7%). Slovakia has proportionately fewer people with a lower level of educational attainment (8.1%) compared with the EU average (23.0%). In contrast, the share of 30 to 34 year-olds with tertiary-level education is lower (at 31.5%) than the EU average (39.1%). Although this percentage has increased over recent years in Slovakia, it is still below the Europe 2020 average target and the national target (both set at 40%).
The unemployment rate of 20 to 34 year-olds (at 12.3%) and the NEET rate of 18 to 24 year-olds (at 15.5%) are both slightly higher than in the EU rates (at 11.8% and 15.2%, respectively). The employment rate of 20 to 64 year-olds with a low level of educational attainment is much lower in Slovakia (35.9%) than in the EU (53.6%), but has increased as compared to 2011.
Score on VET indicators in the Slovakia and in the EU, 2010,
last available year and recent change
EU refers to EU-28, unless otherwise specified. Arrows ↗ or ↘ signal a positive or negative change. Arrow → indicates: no change.
(A) UOE back reconstruction of 2010 values based on ISCED 2011 not yet available. (B) AES 2011, used as proxy for 2010 baseline. (C) 2014 b flags in Eurostat online tables ignored on the basis of other relevant Eurostat metadata. (D) Forecast made in 2016. (E1) Based on 28 countries, with partial information for NL. (E2) Based on 28 countries, with partial information for EL, ES, NL, PL, RO. (E3) Based on 28 countries, with partial information for IT, NL. (E4) Based on 23 countries (missing: DK, EL, HR, IT, PT), with partial information for IE and FR. (E5) Based on 23 countries (missing: DK, EL, HR, IT, PT), with partial information for IE and FR. (E6) Based on 28 countries, with partial information for DK, EL, NL. (E7) Based on 25 countries (missing: HR, IT, UK), with partial information for BE, CZ, DK, DE, EE, EL, LU, NL, PL, SE. (E8) Based on 25 countries (missing: IE, FR, UK), with partial information for BE, EL, LU. (E9) Based on 26 countries (missing: IE, UK), with partial information for DK, DE. (E10) Based on 28 countries. (b) Break after 2010, therefore baseline data not included. (u) Eurostat: ‘low reliability’. (z) Eurostat: ‘not applicable’. (e) Eurostat: ‘estimated’.