Guidance and counselling are key features in comprehensive strategies aiming to reduce early leaving from education and training (ELET). It may assist students not only in terms of decision-making, but also of managing their transitions within education and training pathways or from education to employment. Minimising the risks of either insufficient information or unrealistic expectations, guidance and counselling may support learners in making informed decisions based on their interests, talents, and future job aspirations as well as prevent dropouts and early leaving. For those who have left education and training early, guidance and counselling may assist them to return and qualify in upper secondary education. The present paper examines how national policies and practices of guidance and counselling in EU Member States support learners at risk and early leavers from education and training. It aims to map and analyse existing policies and practices in both general secondary education and vocational education and training (VET) and identify common trends and patterns. The study draws on data obtained through European research and tools published since 2011 until 2020, the period which marks the adoption of the Council Recommendation for tackling ELET and the completion of the Education and Training 2020.



The role of guidance and counselling in minimising risk factors