Governance in initial VET
Ministry of National Education
The education ministry designs and executes legislation in cooperation with stakeholders (academia, trade unions, teachers associations, students, parents, public administration, businesses and NGOs).
It approves financing and enrolment plans, it awards VET certificates (both in initial and continuing (
) VET), and it coordinates national exams.
It approves methodology for teacher enrolment, career advancement and transfers, and approves curricula through subordinate bodies, including school inspectorates.
National Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training Development
The centre is accountable to the education ministry. It:
- evaluates and suggests changes to policies and strategies, and coordinates their implementation;
- coordinates the design, implementation and review of national curricula, assessment and certification for the initial VET component;
- supervises the development of professional training standards for qualifications validated by sectoral committees (coordinated by the National Authority for Qualifications) and approved by the education ministry;
- develops methodologies for the quality assurance and monitoring of programmes.
Romanian Agency for Quality Assurance in Pre-university Education
It is in charge of authorisation (licence), accreditation and external quality evaluation of schools at pre-university education level, including initial VET schools.
Institute of Educational Sciences
It is a national institution for research, development, innovation and training in education and youth. It:
- establishes and coordinates working groups for the development and review of the national curriculum component;
- develops various learning and curriculum resources.
Regional consortia ( )
They are advisory partnership bodies of the National Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training Development. They update, implement and monitor regional education action plans.
County school inspectorates
They propose to the education ministry the VET enrolment plan for the next school year. This is based on proposals from schools and taking into consideration labour market needs, defined through direct requests from employers. The inspectorates also organise the national recruitment of teachers, including VET.
Local committees for development of social partnerships
They are advisory managerial structures that aim at improving VET relevance and quality.
Teaching staff resource houses( )
They organise continuing teacher training. There is one in each county and in the municipality of Bucharest. The teaching staff resource houses are subordinated to the education ministry.
County centres for resources and education assistance
The centres support learners with special needs, including those in VET. There is one in each county and in Bucharest. The centres are under the control of the education ministry.
- support the implementation of national strategies on education;
- ensure the joint financing of projects sponsored by the EU and other funds;
- maintain school infrastructure.
VET school administration boards
They approve institutional development plans, local/school-based curricula and teacher training plans proposed by their schools.
Commissions for quality assurance and evaluation
In each VET school, a Quality Assurance and Evaluation Commission is appointed to supervise all quality assurance processes and activities, in line with the quality assurance law (
Governance in continuing VET
Ministry of Labour and Social Justice
The labour ministry develops and promotes policies in continuing VET, including training for the unemployed, apprenticeship at the workplace, actions for NEETs (not in employment, education and training) and traineeship for graduates of higher education.
It coordinates the authorisation of continuing VET providers, and it manages and updates the nomenclature of qualifications.
It also monitors, analyses, controls, and evaluates vocational training for the unemployed.
National and county agencies for employment
The National Agency for Employment coordinates vocational training of jobseekers at national level, carried out by the county employment agencies.
National Authority for Qualifications
It is responsible for:
- the national qualifications framework;
- the national registers of:
- qualifications in higher education;
- professional qualifications;
- centres for the evaluation and certification of professional competences obtained outside formal education;
- evaluators of competences, external evaluators and evaluators of evaluators.
The authority ensures the link between the standards used for defining qualifications and labour market needs, provides assistance for development of occupational standards, and registers the standards in the national register of professional qualifications in education.
The authority also approves the occupational standards for continuing VET, and endorses the professional training standards used in initial VET programmes.
County authorisation commissions
They are in charge of authorisation and monitoring of training providers, and they decide on the examination commissions at county level. County authorisation commissions are set up by the labour ministry.
Continuing VET providers
Adult vocational training providers carry out vocational training, after authorisation by the county commission (