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General themes

VET in Portugal comprises the following main features:

  • Permeability (horizontal and vertical) between different VET programmes and between general education and VET programmes.
  • All VET programmes grant double certification: an education certificate and a professional qualification.
  • Participation in upper secondary education has significantly increased, since 2005.
  • Early leaving from education and training has been steadily decreasing, since 2008.

Distinctive features ([1]Adapted from Cedefop (2018). Spotlight on vocational education and training in Portugal. Luxembourg: Publications Office.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/8119_en.pdf
)

Key principles of VET provision are the wide range of programmes accessible to young people and adults, the link between VET provision and labour market needs, and flexibility in type and duration of courses for adults. VET learners have the possibility to access programmes at higher levels or higher education. Credits achieved in post-secondary level programmes may be recognised when applying to a higher education programme in the same field of study. Permeability is secured for adults older than 23 by offering them an access to higher education through recognition of previous training and professional experience. Accrediting of publicly funded VET providers and trainers is mandatory and, along with their external evaluations, ensures quality of VET.

The national qualifications system (SNQ) ([2]Decreto-Lei (Decree-Law) n.º 396/2007, de 31 de Dezembro (link to the consolidated legislation).) promotes upper secondary education as the minimum level of attainment, expanding IVET options and flexible learning paths for adults. The SNQ adopted a governance model based on involvement of the different VET providers, sector councils, and social partners, establishing common objectives and instruments. Tools that support SNQ are:

High on the policy agenda are the following challenges:

  • further reducing early leaving from education and training and discourage the entry of unqualified young people into the labour market;
  • increasing adult educational attainment by widening access to learning through modularisation;
  • improving tutor support to learners and reasserting the value of transferable skills in the curricula, in order to tackle education and training failure;
  • modernising learning provision through new teaching methods and wider variety of VET courses leading to competence-based qualifications;
  • offering initial and continuing VET provision in line with labour market requirements;
  • upskilling vulnerable groups and promoting their socio-professional integration.

Policy initiatives have resulted in an increase in upper secondary VET programmes, ensuring that VET programmes lead to double certification, and boosting the RVCC system ([7]Reconhecimento, validação e certificação de competências (recognition, validation and certification of competences)
) development. National authorities are also implementing measures for adults through the Qualifica programme ([8]A programme developed to promote investment in training pathways that will lead to the effective qualification of learners, especially focused on the improvement of adult qualification or employability. Decreto-Lei (Decree-law) n.º 14/2017 de 26 de janeirohttps://www.qualifica.gov.pt/#/programaQualifica 
) and assuring the continuity of lifelong learning policies, through the reinforcement of specialised Qualifica centres, launched in 2016. They target people over 18 years old who seek a qualification, guiding those who are low-skilled to RVCC processes. They provide guidance, counselling for young people (aged 15 or older), especially for NEETs ([9]Not in education, employment or training.), as well as increasing proximity to target populations.

Data adapted from VET in Portugal Spotlight 2018 ([10]Cedefop (2018). Spotlight on vocational education and training in Portugal. Luxembourg: Publications Office.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/8119_en.pdf
).

Population in 2018: 10 291 027 ([11]NB: Data for population as of 1 January. Eurostat table tps00001 [extracted 16.5.2019].)

It decreased since 2013 by 1.9% due to negative natural growth ([12]NB: Data for population as of 1 January. Eurostat table tps00001 [extracted 16.5.2019].).

Population is ageing; Portugal is the fourth country with the highest proportion of elderly in the EU.

An old-age-dependency ratio is expected to increase from 31 in 2015 to 65 in 2060 ([13]Old-age-dependency ratio is defined as the ratio between the number of persons aged 65 and more over the number of working-age persons (15-64). The value is expressed per 100 persons of working age (15-64).).

 

Population forecast by age group and old-age-dependency ratio

Source: Eurostat, proj_15ndbims [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

 

 

Most companies are micro and small-sized. In 2017 the share of individual enterprises was 68.0% ([14]INE (2019).
Empresas em Portugal - 2017.
).

 

Enterprises by class size (%)

 

 

Main economic sectors:

  • commerce;
  • services;
  • construction & real estate activities;
  • agriculture and fisheries.

Since 2011, Portugal made major reforms deregulating professions. In 2019, there are 238 professions and 43 competent authorities registered in the database of the European Commission.

In 2015, a legal framework ([15]Decreto-Lei (Decree-Law) n.º 37/2015, de 10 de março.) was adopted establishing a different way to gain access into professions and to practice them. According to these new regulations, professional qualifications required to access a particular profession or professional activity are:

  • tertiary education qualifications;
  • training references/standards for non-higher qualifications included in the National Qualifications Catalogue (CNQ);
  • training references of non-higher qualifications not foreseen in the CNQ;
  • diplomas or certificates obtained by passing exams without previous training.

Total unemployment (2018) ([16]Percentage of active population, 25 to 74 years old.): 6.0%; it decreased by 1.4 percentage points since 2008 and reached its lowest since 2008 ([17]Source: Eurostat, une_rt_a [extracted 20.5.2019].).

 

Unemployment rate (aged 15-24 and 25-64) by education attainment level in 2008-18

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011; breaks in time series.
ISCED 0-2 = less than primary, primary and lower secondary education.
ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education.
ISCED 5-8 = tertiary education.
Source: Eurostat, lfsa_urgaed [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

Unemployment is distributed unevenly between those with low- and high-level qualifications. However, the youth unemployment rate of people with medium-level qualifications, including most VET graduates (ISCED levels 3 and 4) is lower than for those with high-level qualifications.

In 2018, youth unemployment in Portugal was 20.3% (3.6% less than in 2017, but still well above the EU28 average) ([18]Eurostat, table tesem140 [extracted 10.4.2019].).

Employment rate of recent VET graduates increased from 75.1% in 2014 to 84.6% in 2018. Since 2015, the employment rate of VET graduates has been higher than the one of general education graduates.

 

Employment rate of VET graduates (20 to 34 years old, ISCED levels 3 and 4)

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011; breaks in time series.
ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education.
Source: Eurostat, edat_lfse_24 [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

The increase in employment of 20-34 year-old VET graduates in 2014-18 (+9.5 pp) was higher compared to the increase in employment of all 20-34 year-old graduates (+8.3 pp) in the same period in Portugal ([19]NB: Breaks in series. Eurostat table edat_lfse_24 [extracted 16.5.2019].).

Education attainment in Portugal is traditionally lower than the EU average. The share of people with low-level or no qualification was decreased from 73.7% in 2005 to 50.2% in 2018, but is still the highest in EU. The share of those with medium-level qualifications, although it has significantly increased, is still the second lowest in EU.

 

Population (aged 25 to 64) by highest education level attained in 2018

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011; low reliability for ‘No response’ in Iceland, Czech Republic, Poland and Latvia.
ISCED 0-2 = less than primary, primary and lower secondary education.
ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education.
ISCED 5-8 = tertiary education.
Source: Eurostat, lfsa_pgaed [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

Share of learners in VET by level in 2017

lower secondary

upper secondary

post-secondary

8.0%

40.7%

100%

Source: Eurostat, educ_uoe_enrs01, educ_uoe_enrs04 and educ_uoe_enrs07 [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

Share of initial VET learners from total learners at upper-secondary level (ISCED level 3), 2017

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011. Source: Eurostat, educ_uoe_enrs04 [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

Traditionally, there are more males in VET programmes (58.9%), except in the specialised art programmes where in 2016/17 71.5% of learners were females ([20]DGEEC (2018).
Perfil do aluno 2016/2017, pp. 86, 119.
).

Among VET programmes, Professional programmes have the highest percentage of female learners (32.7%).

Post-secondary non-tertiary VET has an even higher rate of males (66.9%) than secondary VET.

Early leaving from education and training has been steadily decreasing from 30.9% in 2009 to 11.8% in 2018. It is still above the national target for 2020 of not more than 10% and the EU-28 average of 10.6%.

 

Early leavers from education and training in 2009-18

NB: Share of the population aged 18 to 24 with at most lower secondary education and not in further education or training; break in series.
Source: Eurostat, edat_lfse_14 [extracted 16.5.2019] and European Commission: https://ec.europa.eu/info/2018-european-semester-national-reform-programmes-and-stability-convergence-programmes_en [accessed 14.11.2018].

 

Lifelong learning offers training opportunities for adults including adult education and training programmes, certified modular training, and recognition of prior learning (Recognition, validation and certification of competences process - RVCC).

 

Participation in lifelong learning in 2014-18

NB: Share of adult population aged 25 to 64 participating in education and training.
Source: Eurostat, trng_lfse_01 [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

Participation in lifelong learning had been decreasing during the period 2011-13 (economic crisis), while since 2014 has been steady and close to the EU average.

Regarding adults, participation in VET is rising. 27.5% of those enrolled in education/ training programmes are in the process of recognition of prior learning ([21]Recognition of prior learning - Recognition, validation and certification of competences process (RVCC).), which represents a rise of 7.8%; the Education and training programmes for adults (EFA) remain adults’ main option (59.9%).

Information not available

The education and training system comprises:

  • preschool education (ISCED level 0);
  • basic education (nine years) organised into three cycles integrating primary and lower secondary education (ISCED level 1 and 2);
  • upper secondary education (ISCED level 3);
  • post-secondary non-tertiary education (ISCED level 4);
  • tertiary education (ISCED levels 6, 7 and 8).

Pre-school education is optional and covers children from three to six years old.

Compulsory education lasts 12 school years and starts at the age of six until 18 years old. It comprises basic education that includes nine years of studies until age 15. It is organised into three cycles; the four-year first cycle and the two-year second cycle constitute primary education, while the three-year third cycle corresponds to lower secondary education.

Upper secondary education comprises general (science and humanities) and VET programmes. These three-year programmes give graduates access to tertiary education but also to post-secondary non-tertiary. Permeability is ensured between both paths.

Tertiary education is provided by universities and polytechnics. Pre-conditions to enter tertiary education include successful completion of an upper secondary programme or a similar qualification level, admission exams and specific requirements concerning the area of study.

All VET programmes grant double certification (an education certificate and a professional qualification):

  • at lower secondary level, education and training

programmes targeting those aged 15+ who are at risk of early leaving; they are school-based and include practical training;

  • at upper secondary level, there are three types of school-based VET programme combining general or sociocultural training components, science and technological training with work-based learning (WBL);
  • at post-secondary non-tertiary level, technological specialisation programmes last from one to one-and-a-half years and incorporate WBL;
  • at tertiary level, two-year high professional technical courses are offered by polytechnics (including internship).

Regarding upskilling adults the following programmes exist:

  • adult education and training programmes targeting learners who want to complete lower or upper secondary education and/or obtain a professional qualification;
  • certified modular training;

recognition of prior learning (recognition, validation and certification of competences, RVCC). The two RVCC paths (academic and professional) can lead to either a lower or upper secondary education certificate or a professional qualification ([22]Information taken from the forthcoming Cedefop publication on spotlights compilation (2019).).

Apprenticeship programmes are for young people up to age 25. Programmes include 40% WBL. A training contract between the apprentice and the enterprise (training provider) must be signed ([23]Information taken from the forthcoming Cedefop publication on spotlights compilation (2019).). Curricula are organised in training components: socio-cultural, scientific, technological and practical training in a work environment (WBL) ([24]https://www.refernet.pt/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/Apprenticeship_programmes.pdf). A double certification including a professional qualification and a 12th year school leaving diploma at EQF level 4 (ISCED 354) is granted upon successful completion of the programme.

The central government has overall responsibility for VET. The education ministry is responsible for school-based programmes, the higher education ministry for tertiary education, and the labour ministry for apprenticeship programmes, continuing vocational training and carrying out active labour market measures.

The SNQ ([25]National Qualifications System (Sistema Nacional de Qualificações - SNQ).), launched in 2007 and revised in January 2017, is the framework of VET; it is coordinated by ANQEP ([26]Agência Nacional para a Qualificação e o Ensino professional (National Agency for Qualification and VET).
) and comprises the main VET stakeholders. SNQ has reorganised VET into a single system. It is based on a balanced relationship between VET within the educational system and VET in the labour market. It has established common objectives, instruments, and complementary tools supporting the implementation of:

  • National Qualifications Framework ([27]Quadro Nacional de Qualificações (QNQ).);
  • National Qualifications Catalogue ([28]Catálogo Nacional de Qualificações (CNQ):
    http://www.catalogo.anqep.gov.pt/Home/CNQ/
    ): a strategic tool to manage and regulate non-higher VET;
  • National Credit System for VET (Sistema nacional de créditos do EFP);
  • An instrument for Guidance and Individual Record of Qualifications and competences.

Under the SNQ successful completion of VET programmes grants a double certification.

VET is almost entirely funded by public funding through contributions from the state budget, the social security budget and the European Social Fund (ESF). However, the Autonomous Regions of Madeira and Azores, and the municipalities also contribute with funds, as well as the European Social Fund (ESF).

Spending on education has been reduced since 2013, but is slightly above the EU-28 average. General government expenditure on education, in 2016, was 4.9% of GDP (reduced by 1 p.p. since 2013) and 10.8% of total government spending (EU averages were 4.7% and 10.2% respectively). Secondary education takes the highest share of general government expenditure on education (35.4%), followed by pre-primary and primary education (31.4%) and higher education (12.9%). The annual expenditure in Portuguese educational institutions per student is below the EU average ([29]European Commission (2018). Education and training monitor 2018.
https://ec.europa.eu/education/sites/education/files/document-library-docs/volume-1-2018-education-and-training-monitor-country-analysis.pdf
).

 

Public expenditure on education, EU28 and Portugal, 2016 (%)

Source: European Commission (2018). Education and training monitor 2018. https://ec.europa.eu/education/sites/education/files/document-library-docs/volume-1-2018-education-and-training-monitor-country-analysis.pdf

 

In VET, there are:

  • VET teachers;
  • school-based trainers;
  • in-company trainers (nationally referred as tutors)
  • technicians of guidance, recognition and validation of competences ([30]Recognition of prior learning - Recognition, validation and certification of competences process (RVCC).);
  • social and personal mediators.

VET teachers are usually responsible for the sociocultural and scientific training components of VET programmes. A master’s degree is the minimum academic qualification for the teaching profession. Access to the teaching profession in the public sector is done via national competition, based on academic qualifications and work experience. Applicants have to pass knowledge and competences exams and undergo a subsequent probationary period.

The school-based trainer profession is regulated by 2011 legislation ([31]Portaria (Ordinance) n.º 214/2011, de 30 de maio. Note that the legislation does not differentiate the place of work. Cedefop uses school-based trainer for international comparison reasons.), which made initial pedagogical training of trainers compulsory. Although the minimum length of the initial pedagogical training is 90 hours, a training framework of 10-hour modules introduced more flexibility, allowing a more versatile offer adaptable to the needs of each candidate.

The basic requirements for trainers are:

  • an initial pedagogical training certification; and
  • a higher education degree in relevant scientific, technical, technological and practical training; or
  • training (in components, units or modules) oriented towards competences based on operational/work capacity, provided that trainers hold qualifications equal to the qualification to be granted to learners, and that they have at least five years of proven professional experience.

In-company trainers are professionals that work in the enterprises; there is no specific regulation for their role. In-company trainers should be selected among workers whose professional and pedagogical competences are recognised by the enterprise. In-company trainers are responsible for implementing learner individual activity plan, for assuring learner’s integration in the labour environment, and for assessing the learner; they are also the link between the enterprise and the VET institution. Each in-company trainer may accompany simultaneously up to five learners.

Technicians of guidance, recognition and validation of competences work in Qualifica centres ([32]Qualifica centres target people over 18 years old who are seeking a qualification and, exceptionally, young NEETs; they initiate and develop RVCC.). They must have a higher education degree and experience in one of the following areas: education or professional guidance, and methodologies for monitoring the learning development of young people and adults ([33]Portaria (Ordinance) n.º 232/2016, de 29 de agosto.). They are responsible for hosting RVCC candidates providing information and guidance; they are also responsible for the diagnosis of their needs.

Social and personal mediators work in institutions providing EFA programmes/courses ([34]Adult education and training (EFA) programmes target learners who want to complete lower or upper secondary education and/or obtain a professional qualification at EQF 2 to 4.
).Trainers or guidance professionals, holders of higher education qualifications and training to perform the role of mediator or relevant experience on adult education and training can fulfil the tasks of a mediator ([35]Portaria (Ordinance) n.º 230/2008, de 7 de março.). They are responsible for recruiting and selecting learners and supporting them with personal, social and pedagogical issues; they also participate in the analysis and evaluation of each learner’s profile and help them identify the most appropriate adult education and training offer.

Teacher Continuing professional development (CPD) is mandatory for their career progression ([36]Decreto-Lei (Decree-Law) n.º 22/2014, de 11 de fevereiro.). There are different CPD types such as training courses with variable length, workshops, internships and projects accredited by the authority body ([37]Conselho Científico-Pedagógico da Formação Contínua (CCPFC).). The offers can be provided by higher education institutions; training centres run by school associations ([38]Centros de Formação de Associação de Escolas (CFAE).) or run by non-profit scientific associations; central services of the education ministry; public, private or cooperative associations accredited. For career progression, it is required the participation in one-fifth of the total number of hours of compulsory training in the respective career echelon.

School-based trainer CPD is also ruled by the 2011 legislation ([39]See footnote 31.
). Trainers that want to teach socio-cultural and scientific components of VET programmes included in the SNQ are required to hold the same qualifications as teachers do.

Continuous training of trainers is based on several referential/standards of competences, organised in a modular structure path with flexible length. It may include one or more of the following dimensions:

  • pedagogical: modules aim at improving, deepening or diversifying the competences of trainers. They may also include critical reflection and reinforcement of competences acquired at the initial pedagogical training in organisational, practical, deontological and ethical issues;
  • scientific and/or technological: modules aim at guaranteeing a permanent updating of the trainer’s knowledge and skills in their specific area of intervention, taking into account the constant technical and organisational changes occurring in the labour market, and;
  • operational research: modules directed to the analysis, research and optimisation of referential/standards, models, processes and training methods, ensuring their transferability or application in different contexts, with special focus on WBL.

Trainer CPD is organised into units of 10 hours (or multiples of 10 hours), structured according to its training standard. Seminars, technical meetings, workshops or similar events may have a shorter duration, but can be recognised and used for career advancement.

Launched in March 2015, the system for anticipating qualification needs (SANQ) ([40]Sistema de Antecipação de Necessidades de Qualificações (SANQ):
http://sanq.anqep.gov.pt/?page_id=23
), currently running under the supervision of ANQEP ([41]Agência Nacional para a Qualificação e o Ensino professional (National Agency for Qualification and VET).
), allows for anticipating the future needs of the labour market. It also sheds light into the priority areas and job opportunities in VET. SANQ has been strengthened, namely through the diversity of analysed data and the involvement of a significant and representative number of stakeholders at regional/local level.

IEFP ([42]Instituto do Emprego e Formação Profissional (Institute for Employment and Vocational Training).) has been also developing annual lists aiming to enable VET programmes meet the real needs of the labour market. The List of priorities for VET 2018-19 ([43]https://www.iefp.pt/documents/10181/227378/2018-02-22+-+Sa%C3%ADdas+profissionais_Prioridade+IEFP+2018-2019.pdf/e330d255-9061-4210-bd30-3155c608bae4) at regional and local level is available online and intends to identify a set of areas and vocational opportunities in line with the priorities of the economy, to upskill professionals, to promote the competitiveness of Portuguese enterprises, and to promote the creation of high-skilled jobs.

Sector Councils for Qualification (CSQ), coordinated by ANQEP, are also responsible for regularly identifying the developments and changes regarding skill needs in different sectors. They are technical and consultative working groups; their role is mainly strategic and ensures the active and regular participation of the relevant economic and social stakeholders.

The following instruments also contribute in developing an integrated system to anticipate skills demand and supply:

  • the Integrated System for Information and Management of Education and Training (SIGO) is a platform that stores all data concerning education and training programmes for young people and adults. It is a key instrument for managing and monitoring training actions and issuing training certificates;
  • the Industrial Relations Centre (Centro de Relações Laborais - CRL) is a tripartite technical entity that provides information, promotes discussions and creates conditions for better employment policies with an open perspective about social and labour context, always taking into account the improvement of professional qualifications, employability, and collective bargaining. CRL has administrative autonomy and legal personality, but functions under the labour ministry. It is equally composed of representatives of the Government, the confederations of employers and the trade unions; it intends to improve the interaction between these bodies and to engage the scientific community.

See also Cedefop’s skills forecast ([44]http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/data-visualisations/skills-forecast)

2017 legislation ([45]Decreto-Lei (Decree-Law) n.º 14/2017 de 26 de janeiro:
https://dre.pt/application/file/a/105808732
) reinforces the importance of SANQ ([46]Sistema de Antecipação de Necessidades de Qualificações (SANQ):
http://sanq.anqep.gov.pt/?page_id=23
) in designing and updating qualifications in the CNQ ([47]Catálogo nacional de qualificações (CNQ) (National qualifications catalogue).). SANQ influences mostly the number and the design of VET programmes and courses, in order labour market needs to be addressed at regional level.

Upper secondary school-based VET programmes under the responsibility of the education ministry and professional training provided by the Public Employment Services of IEFP ([48]Instituto do Emprego e Formação Profissional (Institute for Employment and Vocational Training).) are independent of the SANQ output.

The National Qualifications Catalogue (CNQ) ([49]http://www.catalogo.anqep.gov.pt/Home/CNQ/) was launched in 2008. It is designed as a tool of strategic management of the qualifications framework for VET at non-tertiary level that helps regulate VET provision leading to double certification. One of its main objectives is to elaborate qualifications standards and key competences needed for the competitiveness and modernisation of the economy and for the personal and social development of individuals. The qualifications in the CNQ are organised by certification level training areas. In 2018, the CNQ included 310 qualifications in 41 areas of education and training.

Each standard for qualification of CNQ is composed by:

  • a professional profile comprising the work activities associated with the qualifications, as well as the knowledge and skills (professional, personal and social) needed to perform these activities;
  • a training framework establishing the content as well as the information needed to organise provision according to the framework of competences leading to double certification. It consists of a basic training component (school oriented) and a technological training component organised by autonomously certifiable units of short duration (from 25 to 50 hours), allowing for flexible qualification paths and permeability between the same area of education and training;
  • a framework for RVCC ([50]Recognition of prior learning - Recognition, validation and certification of competences process (RVCC).) of either formally or informally acquired competences helps guiding a candidate in a qualification path according to his/her needs and leads to the acquisition of a certificate (at the level of basic or secondary education) and/or a training certificate (at EQF level 2 or 4).

The open consultation process ([51]Modelo aberto de consulta (open consultation process):
http://www.catalogo.anqep.gov.pt/Home/MAC
) is another mechanism that allows entities to participate in updating the CNQ through the revision, integration and/or exclusion of qualifications from the CNQ, as well as changing a professional profile or training reference and a standard of RVCC. The process endows the Catalogue with a greater dynamism and widens the debate around qualifications needs. Stakeholders can submit on-line their proposals. If the proposal concerns a new qualification, and if it is accepted, a three-stage process takes place leading to the publication of the new qualification in the official Bulletin for Labour and Employment ([52]http://bte.gep.msess.gov.pt/). Finally, the new qualification will be integrated into the CNQ and will be made available online given it fulfils specific criteria.

Sector Councils for Qualifications (CSQ) support the update and development of CNQ by presenting or analysing proposals for the revision, integration and exclusion of qualifications from the CNQ. They are expanded technical and consultative working groups involving stakeholders such as representatives of ministries, social partners, enterprises and training providers. CSQ are responsible for:

  • identifying the needs for qualifications and competences that respond to these changes;
  • presenting the appropriate proposals for updating and developing the CNQ;
  • analysing and advising on external proposals for updating and developing CNQ;
  • supporting the design of qualifications;
  • facilitating the cooperation, co-responsibility among the relevant bodies of each economic sector aiming to promote the development of innovative solutions for better competences and qualifications, and;
  • identifying technical and methodological competences to support ANQEP ([53]Agência Nacional para a Qualificação e o Ensino professional (National Agency for Qualification and VET).
    ) in the processes of updating and developing the CNQ.

DGERT ([54]Direção-Geral do Emprego e Relações Profissionais (General Directorate for Employment and Industrial Relations)
) is responsible for the accreditation ([55]Portaria (Ordinance) n.º 208/2013, de 26 de junho.) of VET providers (nationally referred to as certification) ([56]See also:
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/news-and-press/news/portugal-certification-training-providers
). Education providers under the responsibility of the education ministry are exempt from accreditation.

Accreditation process

The requirements for the accreditation of VET providers are divided into two groups:

  • prerequisites: To apply for accreditation, VET providers should meet essential legal conditions;
  • quality requirements: The quality requirements of VET providers refer to:
  • the internal structure and organisation (human resources, facilities and equipment) of the provider;
  • the development process of training programmes (planning, design, organisation, development and training assessment);
  • assessment of outcomes and continuous improvement (post-training follow-up, annual assessment of results, constant improvement measures).

Initial accreditation

VET providers should define the training or education programme which will be under evaluation and self-evaluate its structure and practices against the quality standards. Subsequently providers submit an electronic request for accreditation to DGERT, which can then carry out evaluation (technical, documentary or audit-supported) to certify that they can develop a training programme in a specific thematic area. As long as accredited VET providers meet requirements, they can develop a new training offer and request extension of their certification to other education or training thematic areas

Maintaining accreditation

Maintaining accreditation is regularly assessed by DGERT through audits considering the results of providers’ training activity. DGERT follows the general criteria ([57]https://certifica.dgert.gov.pt/processo-de-certificacao1/manter-a-certificacao/auditoria-de-manutencao.aspx):

  • date of the initial accreditation;
  • signalling of changes in the structure or training activity;
  • signalling of complaints received by DGERT;

Accreditation benefits

  • quality accreditation;
  • training diploma referenced to national qualifications system;
  • access to national or community public funding programmes for vocational training;
  • tax exemption on VAT for training products and services;
  • deduction of training expenses in individual income tax.

 

Another national approach to improve quality assurance in VET and related WBL has been devised using the EQAVET framework. VET providers have been aligning their quality assurance approaches to the EQAVET framework and the overall objective is that, when the quality assurance approach is fully implemented, all VET providers can adopt it and be awarded a quality label based on EQAVET quality criteria and indicative descriptors. This plan will be gradually carried out until 2020.

Recognition of prior learning (recognition, validation and certification of competences process - RVCC) comprises the identification of formal, non-formal and informal competences developed throughout life; through the development of specific activities and the application of a set of appropriate evaluation tools. Adults may start this process at any time at a Qualifica centre ([58]Qualifica centres target young people (aged 15 or older), provide guidance and counselling especially for NEETs and initiate and develop RVCC processes for low-skilled adults.).

RVCC process has two distinct paths: the education and the professional.

To access educational or professional RVCC processes, candidates must be at least 18 years old and possess sufficient knowledge in relation to the key competence and the professional competence framework. 23-years old or younger candidates must also submit proof of a minimum of three years professional experience via a statement issued by the relevant social security office.

One of the tools used in the RVCC process to evaluate the candidates is the reflective learning portfolio (portefólio reflexivo). It is a written record of the candidate's competences acquired throughout life; it also presents a critical appraisal of their knowledge, competence development, prior experience, and education. It includes all relevant supporting documentation linked to the different areas of the portfolio. Validation of these competences is done under the referential framework of key competences elaborated by ANQEP ([59]Agência Nacional para a Qualificação e o Ensino professional (National Agency for Qualification and VET).
).

A jury appointed by a Qualifica Centre does the certification of competences after the evaluation of the candidate. It can include written, oral or practical evaluation, or a combination of the three, that can be organised by key competences areas in the case of the education path, or by professional competences in the case of the professional path.

Candidates can obtain a full certification (when they have proven that they possess all the competence units of the standard) or a partial certification. In the education path, a full certification enables the candidate to obtain a certificate of basic education (4, 6 or 9 years of schooling) or upper-secondary education (12 years of schooling) corresponding to EQF levels 1 to 4. In the professional path, a full certification testifies that the candidate holds the competences of specific professional standard at EQF level 2 and 4. Partial certifications allow the candidate to attend the remaining training to obtain a qualification.

These processes are under the responsibility of the Qualifica Centres, managed by ANQEP. Currently there are around 290 centres spread all over the country.

Participation in RVCC processes in 2017 was 11.1% when compared with all adults enrolled in VET offers.

For more information about arrangements for the validation of non-formal and informal learning please visit Cedefop’s European database ([60]http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/data-visualisations/european-database-on-validation-of-non-formal-and-informal-learning).

Allowances, grants and scholarships target learners with low income. The Operational Programme for Human Capital (Programa Operacional Capital Humano – POCH) foresees financial incentives for VET learners. Learners receive these incentives through VET providers. Incentives for VET learners are:

  • a scholarship received by learners during the WBL period (subject to learner’s attendance);
  • study material (Bolsa de material de estudo);
  • travel allowance;
  • accommodation subsidies for learners living more than 50km away from the VET provider premises;
  • food/ meals subsidies.

The most relevant funding for VET programmes and VET providers, including enterprises, is the Operational Programme for Human Capital (Programa Operacional Capital Humano - POCH), complemented by some actions of the Operational Programme for Employment and Social Inclusion (Programa Operacional Inclusão Social e Emprego - POISE). Moreover, VET support for employed adults is carried out by enterprises under the monitoring and evaluation of the Operational Programme for Competitiveness and Internationalisation (POCI/COMPETE 2020). These operational programmes fall under Portugal 2020 ([61]https://www.portugal2020.pt/Portal2020), a partnership agreement adopted between Portugal and the European Commission, which brings together the work of the five European structural and investment funds, including ESF.

Formal guidance is provided by professionals at schools, IEFP ([62]Training Instituto do Emprego e Formação Profissional (Institute for Employment and Vocational).
) public employment services and Qualifica Centres ([63]Qualifica centres target people over 18 years old who are seeking a qualification and, exceptionally, young NEETs; they initiate and develop recognition, validation and certification of competences process (RVCC).).

School psychology and counselling services develop their activity in the psycho-pedagogical field supporting learners and teachers in developing school community relationships and in providing lifelong guidance. They work in an integrated way and in close contact with the educational community, teachers, non-teaching staff, parents, caregivers, and other educational agents in the surrounding area.

The IEFP has a network of Professional Integration Offices (Gabinetes de inserção profissional - GIP) supported by public and private non-profit organisations. GIPs are accredited to provide support to unemployed young people and adults to (re)-enter labour market in close cooperation with employment services; they also promote VET awareness. IEFP also runs an online platform ( Vi@s), which provides information, allows users to interact and eases users in managing their career. It also supports guidance professionals, teachers and parents.

The main objectives of Qualifica Centres are to:

  • Inform and guide individuals to VET programmes that best fit their profiles, needs, motivations and expectations;
  • initiate and develop Recognition, validation and certification of competences processes (RVCC);
  • increase awareness among young people, adults, and enterprises/employers about lifelong learning.

Please also see:

Vocational education and training system chart

Tertiary

Click on a programme type to see more info
Programme Types

EQF 5

CTeSP

2 years,

WBL =/> 25%

ISCED 554

Higher professional technical programmes (cursos técnicos superiores profissionais - CTeSP) leading to EQF level 5, ISCED 554
EQF level
5
ISCED-P 2011 level

554 ([85a]According to Deliberação n.º 343/2017, de 2 de maio de 2017. http://dre.pt/application/file/a/106931970 
).

Usual entry grade

12+

Usual entry age

18

Length of a programme (years)

2 (four academic semesters)

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

Not applicable

Is it offered free of charge?

N

In public higher education the value of the fees is set according to each programmes and with a minimum amount corresponding to 1.3 of the national minimum wage and a maximum calculated on the basis of the consumer price index ([84]https://www.dges.gov.pt/pt/pagina/propinas?plid=371).

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Graduates are credited 120 ECTS points (practical training lasts at least one semester and grants 30 ECTS points)

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

These programmes comprise school-based general, scientific and technical components, and practical training which takes place through an internship

Main providers

These programmes are provided by polytechnic institutions

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

>= 25%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • internship.
Main target groups

Programmes are available for young people and adults.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

To enter CTeSP programmes learners must have:

Assessment of learning outcomes

To complete a CTeSP programme, learners need to succeed in the final examinations of the subjects and achieve the number of ECTS required.

Diplomas/certificates provided

These programmes lead to a Diploma of Higher Professional Technician at EQF level 5 (not a higher education degree)

Examples of qualifications

Information not available

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

CTeSP graduates can access the 1st cycle of higher education programmes or integrated master programmes through specific application procedures, leading to a higher education degree.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

Y

These programmes comprise general and scientific training components

Key competences

Y

These comprise general and scientific training components

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Post-secondary

Click on a programme type to see more info
Programme Types

EQF 5

CET

1-1.5 years,

WBL 30-46%

ISCED 454

Technological specialisation programmes (cursos de especialização tecnológica - CET) leading to EQF level 5, ISCED 454
EQF level
5
ISCED-P 2011 level

454

Usual entry grade

12+

Usual completion grade


Usual entry age

18

Usual completion age

19-20

Length of a programme (years)

1 to 1.5 years (from 1 200 to 1 560 hours)

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

It depends on the training provider. Whenever the training provider applies to public funding the CET programmes are free of charge.

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Through agreements with higher tertiary institutions CET graduates are credited 60 to 90 ECTS points

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

CET programmes comprise general, scientific and technological training components and WBL:

  • general and scientific - aims at developing attitudes and behaviours appropriate for higher level qualification professionals, adaptability to the labour and corporate world; and improving, if needed, the scientific knowledge related with the specific technological field of study.
  • technological - integrates areas of a technological nature oriented to the understanding of practical activities and to the resolution of problems in the professional practice.
  • WBL - aims at applying the knowledge and know-how acquired to the practical activities of the respective professional profile; and performing tasks under guidance, using the techniques, equipment and materials that are integrated in the production processes of goods or services. The WBL can adopt different types of practical training in a real work context, namely internships and it is developed through partnership.
Main providers

These programmes are provided by public, private and cooperative schools, vocational training centres direct or jointly managed by IEFP([83]Instituto do Emprego e Formação Profissional (Institute for Employment and Vocational Training).), technological schools and other training providers certified by the labour ministry

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

30% to 46%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school
  • in-company practice
Main target groups

CET programmes are available for young people and adults.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

To enter CET programmes learners must have:

  • an upper secondary qualification (EQF level 4); or
  • successfully completed all school subjects of the 10th and 11th years and have been enrolled in the 12th year but not completed it; or
  • a professional qualification at EQF level 3 or 4, or;
  • a specialisation technological certificate or a higher education degree and wishing to have a professional requalification.
Assessment of learning outcomes

To complete a CET programme, learners need to pass formative and summative assessments according to the professional competences that the technological specialisation diploma certifies. A CET graduate is the one who has been approved in all their training components including the practical part.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Graduates receive a qualification at EQF level 5 (ISCED 454) and a technological specialisation diploma called Diploma de Especialização Tecnológica (DET).

Examples of qualifications

Training is offered in various fields such as computer science, trade, electronics and automation, and tourism and recreation.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

The CET diploma allows learners to apply to higher education through a special admission procedure determined by a broader regulatory framework, provided that they meet the entry requirements set by each academic institution.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

Y

These programmes comprise general and scientific training components.

Key competences

Y

These programmes comprise general and scientific training components.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Secondary

Click on a programme type to see more info
Programme Types

EQF 2

CEF programmes for >15 years-olds,

3 years,

WBL 17%

ISCED 254

Education and training programmes for young people (cursos de educação e formação de jovens - CEF) including four types of initial VET programmes leading to EQF level 2, ISCED 254
EQF level
2
ISCED-P 2011 level

254

Usual entry grade

7

Usual completion grade

9

Usual entry age

15 (minimum)

Usual completion age

18

Length of a programme (years)

3

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

In 2009, compulsory education was extended to 12 years of schooling, between the age of six and 18 ([67]Lei (Law) n.º 85/2009, de 25 de agosto.).

18

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Exempt of fees for learners under compulsory education.

Is it available for adults?

Y

The legislation does not set an age limit, but only young adults (up to the age of 21) attend it.

ECVET or other credits

Depending on the programme, the minimum of credits is 120 ([66]Article 5 of the
Portaria (Ordinance) n.º 47/2017, de 1 de fevereiro.
).

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

CEF programmes comprise four training components: sociocultural, scientific, technological and practical including a minimum of 210 hours of work-based learning (WBL) each year.

Main providers

- network of public, private and cooperative schools;

- professional schools;

- IEFP ([68]Instituto do Emprego e Formação Profissional (Institute for Employment and Vocational Training).) vocational training centres (directly and jointly managed);

- accredited training providers; linked with community entities, namely local authorities, enterprises or business organisations, other social partners and local or regional associations, set up by protocols aimed at maximising physical structures and human and material resources.

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

17%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school
  • in-company practice
Main target groups

The aim of these programmes is to reduce the high number of early school leavers. Learners must be 15 or more years old and without a lower secondary education qualification.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Learners must have completed only the first cycle of basic education (four years) and be at least 15 years old.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Learners’ assessment is carried out per subject/area and per training component. Assessment is formative and summative and includes a final test comprising a professional performance presentation in front of a jury, with one or more practical works related with the most relevant knowledge and skills included in the programme profile

Diplomas/certificates provided

Successful completion of a CEF leads to a double certification: an education certificate (3rd cycle of lower secondary education certificate at EQF level 2 ISCED 254) and a professional qualification. A learner that only completed the 2nd cycle of basic education receives a certificate of EQF level 1 and a professional qualification.

Examples of qualifications

Training is offered in various fields, such as crafts, computer sciences, environmental protection, accounting, management, beauty care, domestic services, therapy and rehabilitation, electronics, food industry, metallurgy.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Progression is allowed to upper secondary education and to higher level CEF programmes after meeting certain requirements

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

Y

Two of the four training components of CEF programmes is the sociocultural (including Portuguese; foreigner language; and, ICT) and the scientific (including applied sciences, including mathematic).

Key competences

Y

Two of the four training components of CEF programmes is the sociocultural (including Portuguese; foreigner language; and, ICT) and the scientific (with applied sciences, including mathematic).

Application of learning outcomes approach

information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

6.9% of all VET learners in lower and upper secondary education were in these programmes ([69]DGEEC (2018). Estatísticas da Educação 2016/2017: jovens [Education statistics 2016/17: young people].
http://www.dgeec.mec.pt/np4/96/%7B$clientServletPath%7D/?newsId=145&fileName=DGEEC_DSEE_DEEBS_2018_EE20162017_Jovens.pdf
)

EQF 4

CEF 1-3 years,

WBL 15-19%

ISCED 354

Education and training programmes for young people (cursos de educação e formação de jovens - CEF). Including three types of initial VET programmes leading to EQF level 4, ISCED 354
EQF level
4
ISCED-P 2011 level

354

Usual entry grade

10

Usual completion grade

12

Usual entry age

16

Usual completion age

18

Length of a programme (years)

1 to 3 years (from 1 125 to 2 276 hours)

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

In 2009, compulsory education was extended to 12 years of schooling, between the age of six and 18 ([71]Lei (Law) n.º 85/2009, de 25 de agosto.).

18

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Exempt of fees for learners under compulsory education.

Is it available for adults?

Y

The legislation does not set an age limit, but only young adults (up to the age of 21) attend it.

ECVET or other credits

Depending on the programme, the minimum of credits is 180 ([70]Article 6 of the
Portaria (Ordinance) n.º 47/2017, de 1 de fevereiro.
).

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

These programmes combine sociocultural, scientific and technological school-based training with work-based learning (WBL).

Main providers
  • network of public, private and cooperative schools;
  • professional schools;
  • IEFP vocational training centres (directly and joint managed);
  • accredited training providers; linked with community entities, namely local authorities, enterprises or business organisations, other social partners and local or regional associations, set up by protocols aimed at maximising physical structures and human and material resources.
Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

15%-19%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school
  • in-company practice
Main target groups

These programmes aim to reduce the high number of early school leavers. They are meant to enhance learner integration into the labour market and to motivate them to continue further studies/training by providing flexible learning paths in line with their expectations and local labour market needs.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Learners should have completed basic education or lower secondary education CEF programmes.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Assessment is formative and summative, including a final test that comprises a professional performance presentation in front of a jury, with one or more practical assessments related to the most relevant knowledge and skills included in the programme profile.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Successful completion of a CEF leads to a double certification – a professional qualification and a 12th year school leaving diploma at EQF level 4.

Examples of qualifications

Training is offered in various fields, such as crafts, computer sciences, environmental protection, accounting, management, beauty care, domestic services, therapy and rehabilitation, electronics, food industry, metallurgy.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

After being awarded a double certification, learners can continue their studies at:

  • post-secondary non-tertiatry; or
  • tertiary education.

as long as they meet the relevant access requirements.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Information not available

General education subjects

Y

These programmes include sociocultural (including Portuguese; foreigner language; and, ICT) and scientific (including applied sciences) training components.

Key competences

Y

These programmes include sociocultural (including Portuguese; foreigner language; and, ICT) and scientific (including applied sciences) training components.

Application of learning outcomes approach

information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

0.29% ([70a]2016/2017

 
).

EQF 4

Apprenticeship

programmes,

3 years,

WBL >40%

ISCED 354

Apprenticeship programmes (cursos de aprendizagem). Initial VET programmes leading to EQF level 4, ISCED 354
EQF level
4
ISCED-P 2011 level

354

Usual entry grade

10

Usual completion grade

12

Usual entry age

16

Usual completion age

18

Length of a programme (years)

3 (maximum of 3 700 hours)

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

In 2009, compulsory education was extended to 12 years of schooling, between the age of six and 18 ([73]Lei (Law) n.º 85/2009, de 25 de agosto.).

18

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Exempt of fees for learners under compulsory education.

Is it available for adults?

Y

The legislation does not set an age limit, but only young adults (up to the age of 25) attend it.

ECVET or other credits

Depending on the programme, the minimum of credits is 180 ([72]Article 6 of the
Portaria (Ordinance) n.º 47/2017, de 1 de fevereiro.
).

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

These programmes comprise school-based sociocultural, scientific and technological training and WBL in an enterprise.

Main providers

These programmes are provided by IEFP ([74]Instituto do Emprego e Formação Profissional (Institute for Employment and Vocational Training).) vocational training centres or private providers (e.g. employers’ associations, companies, trade unions) under protocols with IEFP.

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

> 40%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • in-company practice
Main target groups

These programmes target young learners up to 25 years old.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Learners should have successfully completed the 9th year of schooling (the 3rd cycle of basic education/lower secondary education or a CEF programmes).

Assessment of learning outcomes

The assessment is formative and summative. The final evaluation test (Prova de Avaliação Final - PAF) constitutes an integrated set of practical activities at the end of the training programme that helps a jury assess the competences acquired during training.

Diplomas/certificates provided

A double certification – a professional qualification and a 12th year school leaving diploma at EQF level 4 (ISCED 354) is granted upon successful completion of the programme.

Examples of qualifications

Priority areas of training include audio-visual and media production, computer sciences, trade, construction and repair of motor vehicles, electricity and energy, electronics and automation, hospitality and catering, manufacturing of textiles, clothing, footwear and leather, metallurgy and technologies of chemical processing.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

After being awarded the double certification, learners can continue their studies at:

• post-secondary non-tertiary; or

• tertiary education.

as long as they meet the relevant requirements set by the higher education establishment for the respective field of study.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Information not available

General education subjects

Y

These programmes include sociocultural and scientific training.

Key competences

Y

These programmes include sociocultural and scientific training.

Application of learning outcomes approach

It depends on the fields of education and training ([75]http://www.catalogo.anqep.gov.pt/Destaques/Detalhe/172).

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

14.5% ([76a]2016/2017
).

EQF 4

Professional

programmes,

3 years,

WBL 19-24%

ISCED 354

Professional programmes (cursos profissionais) leading to EQF level 4, ISCED 354
EQF level
4
ISCED-P 2011 level

354

Usual entry grade

10

Usual completion grade

12

Usual entry age

16

Usual completion age

18

Length of a programme (years)

3 (from 3 100 to 3 440 hours)

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

In 2009, compulsory education was extended to 12 years of schooling, between the age of six and 18 ([77]Lei (Law) n.º 85/2009, de 25 de agosto.).

18

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Exempt of fees for learners under compulsory education.

Is it available for adults?

Y

The legislation does not set an age limit, but only young adults (up to the age of 25) attend it.

ECVET or other credits

Depending on the programme, the minimum of credits is 180 ([76]Article 6 of the
Portaria (Ordinance) n.º 47/2017, de 1 de fevereiro.
).

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

These programmes combine the following training components:

  • sociocultural, scientific and technological training (school-based components); and
  • work-based learning (WBL) in the form of a traineeship carried out in enterprises or other organisations.
Main providers

Programmes are offered by professional, public (upper secondary) or private schools.

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

19% - 24%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

The technological training component includes subjects of technological, technical and practical nature provided at school. It also includes in-company practice foreseen in an agreement between the school and the enterprise and has a minimum duration of 600 hours up to a maximum of 840 hours. The learner’s work plan, once signed, is considered an integral part of the training contract (different from a labour contract).

Main target groups

These programmes target learners that want to follow a more practical and labour market-oriented programme.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

To enrol in these programmes learners need to be between 15 and 18 years old (with exceptions foreseen by legislation) and to have completed lower secondary education.

Assessment of learning outcomes

The programme has formative and summative assessment and includes a presentation of a project called Proof of Professional Aptitude (Prova de Aptidão Profissional - PAP) in front of a jury.

Diplomas/certificates provided

They lead to a double certification – a professional qualification and a 12th year school leaving diploma

Examples of qualifications

Training fields include applied arts, business administration, computer sciences, electronics, engineering, energy, construction and architecture, food industries, health services, tourism and hospitality, etc.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Graduates can pursue further studies in Technological specialisation programmes, access higher education, upon the fulfilment of requirements foreseen in the regulations, or enter the labour market.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Information not available

General education subjects

Y

These programmes include three general education subjects (common for all training fields): Portuguese, foreign languages and physics.

Key competences

Y

These programmes include three general education subjects (common for all training fields): Portuguese, foreign languages and physics.

Application of learning outcomes approach

It depends on the fields of education and training ([78]http://www.catalogo.anqep.gov.pt/Destaques/Detalhe/172).

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

68.7% ([79]DGEEC (2018). Estatísticas da Educação 2016/2017: jovens [Education statistics 2016/17: young people].
http://www.dgeec.mec.pt/np4/96/%7B$clientServletPath%7D/?newsId=145&fileName=DGEEC_DSEE_DEEBS_2018_EE20162017_Jovens.pdf
)

EQF 4

Art education

programmes,

3 years,

WBL varies

ISCED 344, 354

Art education programmes (cursos artísticos especializados) leading to EQF level 4, ISCED 344, 354
EQF level
4
ISCED-P 2011 level

344, 354

Usual entry grade

10

Usual completion grade

12

Usual entry age

16

Usual completion age

18

Length of a programme (years)

3 (from 3 645 to 6 390 hours according to the training field)

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

In 2009, compulsory education was extended to 12 years of schooling, between the age of six and 18 ([81]Lei (Law) n.º 85/2009, de 25 de agosto.).

18

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Exempt of fees for learners under compulsory education.

Is it available for adults?

Y

The legislation does not set an age limit, but only young adults (up to the age of 21) attend it.

ECVET or other credits

Depending on the programme, the minimum of credits is 180 ([80]Article 6 of the
Portaria (Ordinance) n.º 47/2017, de 1 de fevereiro.
).

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

These programmes combine:

  • education, science and technological training (school-based components); and
  • work-based learning (WBL) in the form of a traineeship carried out in enterprises or other organisations.
Main providers

Programmes are offered by public, private or cooperative schools

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Information not available

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

The technical-artistic component includes practical training at school and in-company practice. It is mandatory only in the third year of the programme (12th year of schooling). It is preferentially performed at the workplace, in workshops, companies or other organisations, through the transmission of know-how, by taking on occasional jobs or via an internship. It can be performed via the simulation of a set of relevant professional activities to the programme profile, developed in similar conditions to a real world working context, integrated in the school subject of the Technical-artistic training component called ‘Project and Technologies’.

Main target groups

These programmes target learners who want to have a career in the artistic field of their choice and develop their capacities and talent or to take further studies/training in one of the fields.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Learners must be at least 15 years old and completed the 3rd cycle of lower secondary education (9th year of schooling).

Assessment of learning outcomes

Assessment is formative and summative, including a final test (Prova de Aptidão Artistica - PAA) that comprises a professional performance presentation in front of a jury, with one or more practical assessments related to the most relevant knowledge & skills included in the programme profile.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Successful completion of an art education programme leads to a double certification (a professional qualification and a 12th year school leaving diploma).

Examples of qualifications

The programme in the field of visual arts includes communication design, product design, and artistic production. The programme in the audio-visual field includes audio-visual communication.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Progression is possible to technological specialisation programmes (EQF level 5) or higher education (university or polytechnic), provided that learners meet the access requirements.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

Y

These programmes have a general and a scientific training component.

Key competences

Y

These programmes have a general and a scientific training component.

Application of learning outcomes approach

information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

1.3% ([82]DGEEC (2018). Estatísticas da Educação 2016/2017: jovens [Education statistics 2016/17: young people].
http://www.dgeec.mec.pt/np4/96/%7B$clientServletPath%7D/?newsId=145&fileName=DGEEC_DSEE_DEEBS_2018_EE20162017_Jovens.pdf
)

VET available to adults (formal and non-formal)

Programme Types
Not available

General themes

VET in Belgium comprises the following main features:

  • compulsory education concerns learners until 18 years of age. At secondary level, dual learning or apprenticeship (alternating work-based learning and school-based education) is available for youngsters aged 15 and up [1]School attendance is required until 15-16 years old full-time and up to 18-part time.
    ;
  • education, training and employment are federated matters involving a great number of actors, including ministers for education and ministers for training and employment at each federated level.
  • formal certification is the dominant model in the VET field;
  • small territory and its geographic position;
  • three linguistic communities and migration flows result in linguistic challenges.

Distinctive features [2]Cedefop (2015). Spotlight on vocational education and training in Belgium. Luxembourg: Publications Office.  http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/8091_en.pdf
:

VET providers in the education system are part of school networks (public and subsidised private education). They pursue common objectives (defined by minimum attainment targets), including common certification, and use common occupation profiles and VET standards, but enjoy some autonomy. This results in, and promotes, freedom of education choice for learners and their parents.

Strategy, policies and all measures involving employment and VET are negotiated with social partners, leading to formal sectoral agreements. Social partners are directly involved in organising programmes of alternating work and education, and continuous vocational training through framework agreements.

Different socioeconomic realities in the regions mean that Flanders, Wallonia, the German-speaking Community and the Brussels-Capital Region have different objectives and priorities. These are formalised in government strategies and plans which deal with, for example, language learning, new technologies, sustainable employment, training for young people or matching workforce skills to labour market needs. To address this issue, the concept of ‘school basin’ was created and developed in BE-FR; ten basins corresponding to ten geographical areas face specific socio-economic and educational realities inside the Community. In BE-FL, the concept of ‘Flemish partnership of dual learning’ has been developed, and throughout different phases of the organisation of VET, social partners are involved.

The coexistence of three official languages in Belgium remains a key challenge in all regions. Especially for a better integration of newcomers, knowledge of the language of instruction is an important matter within the VET (for instance, in Brussels, jobseekers are offered language job vouchers to improve their language skills and employment chances). Furthermore, this coexistence between the different government levels and divides, sometimes makes cooperation between partners difficult. Different legislative frameworks due to policy choices, can cause complications for pupils, students, or employers who are seeking interregional educational mobility.

Particularly in Brussels with its specific, tertiary economy and labour market, there is an important discrepancy between workers’ qualifications which results in high levels of unemployment amongst the low-skilled people. In response, governments are investing in VET but also coordinating interregional mobility. However, the coexistence of different government levels and divides in Belgium, sometimes makes cooperation between partners difficult. Different legislative frameworks due to policy choices, can cause difficulties for pupils, students, or employers who are seeking interregional educational mobility.

Participation in continuing training is set as an economic lever. Currently, low participation and low involvement of companies in training result in a lack of qualified work force amongst the already employed people to respond to the evolution of needs. This particularly happens in ICT jobs; companies are not properly prepared to the digitalisation of the workplace. Measures like the ‘Chèques TIC’ offer allow a jobseeker in Brussels to follow a complementary training. Efforts are also made to expand the offer of adult education, literacy and language learning. Policies aim at increasing synergy between the world of work and education. For example until 2017, companies were obliged to allocate 1.9% of wage costs to support lifelong learning programmes; a new inter-professional agreement signed by social partners from the private sector has since then set as rule that each employee has the right to five days of training per year [3]http://www.emploi.belgique.be/defaultTab.aspx?id=45772
. Some measures have also been implemented to increase or maintain the number of employees aged 45+ in companies [4]http://www.emploi.belgique.be/defaultTab.aspx?id=37939
.

Youth unemployment is a major concern for Belgian authorities. While there is a long tradition of dual learning in the German-speaking Community, this trend is being promoted in other regions and communities as a measure to avoid inactivity among young people. In BE-FR, the French-language Office for Dual Training [5]Office francophone pour la formation en alternance (OFFA).
 was created to coordinate and promote the dual training. In BE-FL, the Flemish Agency for Entrepreneurial Training ‘SYNTRA Vlaanderen’ is in charge of a new system of dual-learning allowing secondary learners aged 15 and older to combine their studies with training at a company. Different tools and campaigns are developed in order to ‘market’ this new method of work-based learning, as a qualitative track on secondary level and, in the future, also in higher and adult education.

Data from VET in Belgium Spotlight 2017 and VET in Belgium 2018 Report [6]Cedefop (2015). Spotlight on vocational education and training in Belgium. Luxembourg: Publications Office.  http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/8091_en.pdf ; Allinckx, I.; Karno, A.; Monico, D. (2019). Vocational education and training in Europe – Belgium. Cedefop ReferNet VET in Europe reports 2018. http://libserver.cedefop.europa.eu/vetelib/2019/Vocational_Education_Training_Europe_Belgium_2018_Cedefop_ReferNet.pdf
.

Population in 2018: 11 398 589.

Population increased since 2013 by 2.3% due to a positive natural balance (more births than deaths) and the growing immigration.

The population in Belgium is ageing.

The old-age dependency ratio is expected to steadily increase from 28 in 2015 to 44 in 2060 [7]Old-age-dependency ratio is defined as the ratio between the number of persons aged  65 and more over the number of working-age persons (15-64). The value is expressed per 100 persons of working age (15-64).
.

Population forecast by age group and old-age-dependency ratio

Source: Eurostat, proj_15ndbims [extracted on 16.05.2019]

Demographic changes have an impact on VET.

The population has increased at a rate of 9.42% between 2004 and 2018 in Belgium and 19.8% in Brussels – this number correlates with the high number of foreigners living in Brussels. In this context, the education system, including VET, accommodates more and more young people, often from various origins, also by establishing special VET providers for specific target groups [8]Source: Statbel.be
.

To tackle the coexistence of three official languages in Belgium, the emphasis is put on offering language learning at all education levels. Each Community/region organise language courses (French, Dutch or German, also as a foreign language targeting newcomers and migrants to facilitate social and economic integration including the access to vocational training).

Small and medium enterprises (SME) generate almost 70% of employment in Belgium. More than 99% of Belgian enterprises can be considered as SME (having less than 250 persons employed). Those are active mainly in branches like sales, car and motorbike repair, construction and specialised, technical and scientific activities.

Belgian economy, just like any modern industrialised economy, is characterised by the growing importance of services: the share of market services (including wholesale and retail, financial activities, insurance and energy) in the total gross value added represented 57.3% in 2017, while this share amounted to only 14.4% for industry and 5.2% for construction. The balance is distributed between non-market services (including healthcare) and agriculture [9]https://economie.fgov.be/fr/publications/apercu-de-leconomie-belge-note
.

The most common occupations in Belgium are office employees (general functions), store salespersons, office maintenance workers, hotels and other establishments, home helpers and general course teachers (secondary education) [10]https://statbel.fgov.be/fr/themes/emploi-formation/marche-du-travail/les-professions-en-belgique
.

The labour market is regulated for almost all matters at a regional level in Belgium (except for a small portion of territory in Wallonia where the labour market is under the German-speaking Community competence). Jobs within the public service are highly regulated and require specific level of diploma for almost all positions as well as a certificate of good conduct. Some professions are protected by specific  rules or require specific diplomas, patents or skills to run a small or medium-sized enterprise (SME). Those requirements concern jobs in the construction sector, car mechanics, body care services, food services and textile cleaning. A certificate of good conduct is also required for some intellectual professions such as estate agents, accountants, psychologists, architects and others.

Total unemployment (2018): 5.2% (EU28: 6%); it decreased by 0.74 percentage points since 2008. Further evolution is positive. In 2018, the unemployment rate reached its lowest point in decades.

Unemployment rate (aged 15-24 and 25-64) by education attainment level in 2008-18 (in percentage)

NB: Data data based on ISCED 2011.
ISCED 0-2 = less than primary, primary and lower secondary education.
ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education.
ISCED 5-8 = tertiary education.
Source: Eurostat, lfsa_urgaed [extracted 16.05.2019]

Unemployment is distributed unevenly between those with low- and high-level qualifications. Unemployment among low qualified people aged 15-24 is significantly higher than in the other categories, however the trend has been diminishing in the past years.

Employment rate of 20 to 34-year-old VET graduates increased from 80.3% in 2014 to 83.1% in 2018.

Employment rate of VET graduates (20 to 34 years old, ISCED levels 3 and 4)

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011; breaks in time series.

ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education

Source: Eurostat, edat_lfse_24 [extracted on 16.05.2019]

The increase (+1.8 pp) in employment of 20-34-year-old VET graduates (ISCED levels 3 and 4) in 2014-18 was almost the same as the increase in employment of all 20-34 year-old graduates (+1.9 pp) in the same period in Belgium. [11]Source: Eurostat, edat_lfse_24 [extracted 16.5.2019].

The share of people aged up to 64 with higher education is higher in Belgium than in other countries with rates similar to the United Kingdom or The Netherlands. However, the share of low educated people is also high compared to other EU countries. Belgium faces thus an important discrepancy in its citizens’ education.

Population (aged 25 to 64) by highest education level attained in 2018

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011. Low reliability for ‘No response’ in Czechia, Iceland, Latvia, and Poland.
ISCED 0-2 = less than primary, primary and lower secondary education.
ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education.
ISCED 5-8 = tertiary education.
Source: Eurostat, lfsa_pgaed [extracted on 16.05.2019].

Share of learners in VET by level in 2017

lower secondary (vocational)

upper secondary (vocational)

post-secondary non tertiary education (vocational)

20%

57.8%

93.1%

Source: Eurostat, educ_uoe_enrs01, educ_uoe_enrs04 and educ_uoe_enrs07 [extracted 16.05.2019].

Share of initial VET learners from total learners at upper-secondary level (ISCED level 3) in 2017

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011.

Source: Eurostat, educ_uoe_enrs04 [extracted on 16.05.2019].

In Belgium, the difference in participation in VET between male and female is less than 10% at each of the three levels (lower secondary, upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary vocational education). Usually, there are more males in VET with the exception of the upper secondary vocational education where females outnumber the males by 9.1%.

More males are following study fields like construction, heavy car or machines drivers, mechanics, while females more often enrol in services or personal care [12]Source: Eurostat, educ_uoe_enrs01, educ_uoe_enrs04 and educ_uoe_enrs07
.

The share of early leavers from education and training has decreased from 11.1% in 2009 to 8.6% in 2018. Comparatively, Belgium has better results than EU28 countries where the share decreased from 14.2% in 2009 to 10.6% in 2018. The 2020 target was set at 9.5% and was thus already achieved though more ambitious than the overall EU objective (10%).

Early leavers from education and training in 2009-18 (in percentage)

Source: Eurostat, edat_lfse_14 [extracted 8.5.2019] and European Commission: https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/2019-european-semester-national-reform-programme-belgium_en.pdf  [accessed 8.5.2019].

Lifelong learning offers training opportunities for adults, including early leavers from education.

Participation in lifelong learning in 2014-18 (in percentage)

NB: Share of adult population aged 25 to 64 participating in education and training.
Source: Eurostat, trng_lfse_01 [16.5.2019].

Participation in lifelong learning in Belgium has slowly increased in the past few years. In 2018, it reached 8.5% which is however still less than the EU28 average at 11.1%.

Education attainment in VET learners by age (in percentage)

Source: Eurostat, trng_lfs_15 [extracted 15.5.2019].

The education and training system comprises:

  • early childhood education (ISCED level 0);
  • primary education (ISCED levels 1);
  • secondary education (ISCED level 3);
  • post-secondary non-tertiary education (ISCED level 4);
  • higher education (ISCED levels 6, 7 and 8).

Early childhood education is not compulsory and is generally provided at childcare institutions for children up to age six (the Ministry of Education is responsible for education starting at three).

Compulsory education starts at the age of 6 and lasts until 18 years of age. Those twelve years include six years of  primary education and six years of secondary education. Policies regarding learners subjected to compulsory education are under the supervision of the education ministry in each of the Community (Flemish, French and German-speaking Communities).

Primary school programme lasts six years, on successful completion learners acquire the Certificate of Basic Education (Certificat d’Etudes de Base, CEB) giving them access to secondary education.

General secondary education is a six-year programme divided into three degrees, each lasting two years. The achievement of each degree gives access to the next level. At the end of the first degree, learners have the possibility to remain in the general education stream (nationally referred as transition education) or to switch to the VET stream (nationally referred to as qualification education). Programmes at this level are offered as technical or artistic qualification programmes or as vocational qualification programmes. Programmes can be offered full-time, as dual learning or part-time. After having successfully accomplished the sixth year of general secondary education, learners obtain a certificate of upper secondary education (Certificat de l’enseignement secondaire supérieur, CESS).

Schooling institutions in Belgium are organised into networks: formal non-denominational education (organised by Communities, the French Community Commission, provinces and municipalities) and private education (non-denominational or denominational, organised by non-profit associations, religious congregations, etc.) thus offering parents the choice of the type of education they want for their children.

VET learning options in Belgium are available from a number of providers, each depending on one of the three linguistic Communities and delivering the learning in one of the three Regions.

The general pattern of VET learning options is similar in  every Community. They can be organised in four groups, according to the education level at which they are available: secondary, post-secondary non-tertiary, tertiary level and adult education.

Secondary level (ISCED 3)

At secondary level, four types of VET options can be distinguished.

  • Technical secondary education

Technical education is a school-based programme for learners who are interested in following more ‘technical’ subject courses (computer science, applied sciences, economics, etc. – in general secondary education, this time is devoted to more general subjects like languages, mathematics, etc.). At the end of the sixth year, the students receive a qualification certificate and a certificate of upper secondary education (CESS) which gives them the possibility to continue their education at a higher level.

  • Vocational secondary education

Vocational education at secondary level is a school-based programme targeting learners who wish to prepare for working life. Vocational education programmes are taught in various sectors like agronomy, industry, construction, HORECA, economy, etc. Basically, this type of education is organised in the second and/or third degrees (years four to six). A vocational certificate (nationally referred to as qualification certificate) is delivered at the end of the sixth year. An additional seventh-year allows students to obtain the CESS which gives them access to higher education.

  • Apprenticeships or dual programmes

This type of education is accessible to learners aged 15 if they have completed the first degree of secondary education or learners aged 16 and up without conditions. Apprenticeship can be either organised in schools or in training centres (IFAPME, SFPME, [13]IFAPME: Institut wallon de Formation en Alternance et des indépendants et Petites et Moyennes Entreprises – The Walloon Institute for dual training and self-employment in small and medium-sized enterprises.

SFPME: Le Service de la formation des petites et moyennes entreprise – The training service for small and medium-sized enterprises.

EFP: Espace Formation des PME (SMEs) – Training Place for small and medium-sized enterprises in Brussels.
​ EFP  for French-speakers in Wallonia and Brussels; SYNTRA for Dutch-speakers in Flanders [14]SYNTRA: Vlaanderen The Flemish Agency for Entrepreneurial Training.
 and Brussels and the IAWM [15]Institut für Aus- und Weiterbildung des Mittelstandes – the Institute for Vocational and Educational Training. 
is managing the​ ZAWM [16]Zentrum für Aus- und Weiterbildung.
 training centres in the German-speaking Community) and are mainly work-orientated.

During the week, one or two days are devoted to theoretical learning at school or in the training centres and three or four days are devoted to training within an enterprise. A regulatory framework exists for apprenticeships: a signed contract stating the rights and duties of all parties involved (remuneration, holidays, etc.). A qualification certificate is delivered at the end of the sixth year (equivalent to the certificate received in the school-based system). An additional seventh-year allows students to obtain the CESS which gives them access to higher education.

  • VET for SEN learners

Special VET programmes are offered to learners with physical or mental difficulties in each Community. Learners receive a qualification certificate or, in some programmes, a CESS.

Post-secondary non-tertiary level (ISCED 4)

Post-secondary education includes follow-up programmes to technical and vocational secondary education and a graduate programme in nursing.

Tertiary level (ISCED 5 and 6)

Tertiary level in VET concerns professional bachelor programmes offering to acquire plenty of practical experience or dual bachelor and master programmes which offer theoretical courses and training within a company (40-60% time-division).

Adult education (starting at ISCED 1)

Adult education concerns all levels of education; diplomas and certificates can also be acquired by adults who did not have the opportunity to do it in the traditional pathway. Specific training programmes can be offered to jobseekers and workers by employment agencies (linguistic, computing trainings, etc.).

Training centres for apprenticeships presented above are also open to adults. They offer multiple programmes in  entrepreneurial, leading and coordinating trainings and are accessible for people aged 18 and up. People wishing to open their own business can acquire the necessary certificates in those centres. In Wallonia and Brussels, [17]Socio-professional Integration Centres – Centres d’insertion socioprofessionnelle.
​ CISP  and OISP [18]Socio-professional Integration Organisations – Organismes d’insertion socioprofessionnelle.
offer practical training in a business or in workshops to unemployed and vulnerable groups.

Specific associations are available for NEETS people. Their focus is to offer the opportunity for vulnerable groups to integrate the job-market more easily.

Specific features

There are many variations inside this system depending on the Community/Regions we are focusing on. Those variations concern the access modalities, the sector and programme availabilities, the costs, the duration of the training, etc.

Other forms of VET training are also organised by sectorial funds and unsubsidised private partners.

In Belgium, apprenticeships are offered to learners above 15 years old and takes place in the company (three to four days) and in a training centre (one to two days) where learners receive general, technical, theoretical and practical courses. The programme is based on a jointly agreed training plan and a training contract is signed by the employer and the apprentice; apprentices receive remuneration. These alternating trainings are organised by regional training providers [19]Information are based on following publication where you can find also further information on this topic:
Allinckx, I.; Karno, A.; Monico, D. (2019). Vocational education and training in Europe – Belgium. Cedefop ReferNet VET in Europe reports 2018. http://libserver.cedefop.europa.eu/vetelib/2019/Vocational_Education_Training_Europe_Belgium_2018_Cedefop_ReferNet.pdf
:

BE-FL

Apprenticeship programmes in the Flemish community is organized either by:

  • schools (Centra voor deeltijds onderwijs, CDO) or
  • SYNTRA training centres, the Flemish Agency for Entrepreneurial Training, which provides training in both the Brussels and the Flemish Regions.

In the part-time secondary education (Deeltijds Beroepsecundaironderwijs, DBSO) system offered by the CDO schools, the class council decides whether the learner has passed both the learning part and workplace learning. They also determine how he/she will be evaluated. In modular education: evaluation of a module/course can be done at any time of the school year (the dates are decided by the school). In linear education the examination takes place on 30th June.

In the apprenticeship scheme offered by SYNTRA training centres, the apprenticeship evaluation is permanent, both in the company and within the training centre. During the school year, account is taken of attitudes, evolution in the study results, tests, previous advices from the class council, evaluations from company mentor, to decide whether the learner has achieved the learning objectives. Both parts of the training are evaluated once per year. A final examination is organised at the end of the programme and is assessed by two jury member.

A framework for the roles and responsibilities of every partner involved is in place. During the time at school, the education provider is fully responsible for learners, whilst the time at the workplace is the responsibility of the company. SYNTRA Vlaanderen is the ‘manager’ for workplace training and has a focus on the quality and extension of workplaces. Education providers are responsible for certification. Since 1st September 2016 a special decree [20]http://data-onderwijs.vlaanderen.be/edulex/document.aspx?docid=14994
 determines the rights and duties of the parties involved, liability, remunerations, holidays and the way in which an agreement can be terminated.

In September 2018, SYNTRA Vlaanderen signed an international cooperation agreement with the Dutch Cooperation Organisation for Vocational Education and the Labour Market to enable and encourage cross-border learning paths for apprenticeships [21]ReferNet Belgium (2018). The future of learning is dual, digital and international, 2018. http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/news-and-press/news/belgium-future-learning-dual-digital-and-international
.

A new apprenticeship pathway called ‘dual learning’ has been formally adopted and will be fully implemented in Flanders from September 2019 [22]See also: Allinckx, I.; Karno, A.; Monico, D. (2019). Vocational education and training in Europe – Belgium. Cedefop ReferNet VET in Europe reports 2018. http://libserver.cedefop.europa.eu/vetelib/2019/Vocational_Education_Training_Europe_Belgium_2018_Cedefop_ReferNet.pdf
.

BE-FR

The apprenticeship programme in French-speaking Belgium, is organised by the following two regional organisations who are the responsibility of the Ministry of Employment and Vocational Training in Brussels and the Ministry of Employment and Vocational Training in Wallonia:

  • the IFAPME network in Wallonia;
  • SFPME/EFP in Brussels.

SFPME is responsible for guidance of apprentices and trainees, ensuring that traineeship agreements and dual training contracts are properly carried out in the companies. Furthermore, this organisation is also in charge of developing training standards and teaching tools, as well as managing the ‘EFP’ training centre and approval of the training businesses. Training centres all work closely with sectoral and professional representatives to stay in contact with the business world.

Since 2015, learners can enter the system without a dual training contract with an employer. However, they must take courses and are supported in their further search for enterprises or their reorientation if there is a shortage of businesses in the sector chosen or for other reasons.

There are examinations on general and vocational theoretical knowledge at the end of each academic year. The vocational accomplishments are continuously evaluated during the apprenticeship, and a practical test before a jury of professionals is organised at the end of the programme.

At the end of his/her training, an apprentice who successfully passes all the examinations obtains an apprenticeship certificate approved by the French Community. This certificate meets the requirements of the law on professional access in the case of a regulated profession and gives access to further training (‘entrepreneur’ as well as coordination and leadership training). It also provides sectoral recognition.

In certain occupations, the apprenticeship certificate is considered equivalent to the VET (nationally referred to as qualifying education) certifications (CQ6 + CQ7) and allows direct access to the 7th years of vocational education, providing access to higher education.

BE-DE

This apprenticeship programme in the German-speaking Community is organised by the IAWM [23]Institut für Aus- und Weiterbildung des Mittelstandes – the Institute for vocational and educational training in small and medium sized enterprises.
  which is responsible for the general organisation, the management and the teaching methods. It manages two training centres (ZAWM), in Eupen and Saint Vith, and works actively together with all of the economic forces in BE-DE. The dual system in BE-DE relies on the active participation of sectors, local entrepreneurial workforce and professional associations, all involved in the management committee of IAWM. Consequently, the system is actually supported by the enterprises themselves and has close ties with the business world. IAWM also works with the employment office to integrate labour market trends into its training provision. This system is particularly popular and successful in BE-DE where it has nearly 10 times the number of apprentices found in the other regions (25% of the secondary technical and vocational learners opt for this pathway). It provides the certificate of completion of secondary vocational education at the end of the apprenticeship period as in BE-FL.

Learn more about  apprenticeships in the national context from the European database on apprenticeship schemes by Cedefop: http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/data-visualisations/apprenticeship-schemes/scheme-fiches

Due to the specific institutional system in Belgium, where competences are distributed between Communities and Regions, different actors are involved in VET governance depending on the linguistic and regional grounds [24]Allinckx, I.; Karno, A.; Monico, D. (2019). Vocational education and training in Europe – Belgium. Cedefop ReferNet VET in Europe reports 2018. http://libserver.cedefop.europa.eu/vetelib/2019/Vocational_Education_Training_Europe_Belgium_2018_Cedefop_ReferNet.pdf
.

A major part of competences was transferred to the federated entities; however, in matters related to VET, the federal level is still responsible for the determination of the duration of compulsory education, the minimum conditions for the award of the education diploma and the pensions of teachers. Social security, to which VET learners are subjected to when they are no longer under parental care, is also governed by the federal institutions. It is also important to state that in Belgium, social partners are involved in the VET governance at all levels and in all federated entities.

VET governance at federated entities will be presented by linguistic groups.

BE-FL

For Dutch-speaking learners, VET is governed by the Flemish Government in Flanders and for learners in Brussels both the Flemish Government and Brussels’ regional authorities are responsible.

In Flanders, within the Flemish Government, both the Minister of Education and Training and the Minister of Work and Social Economy are in charge of VET.

  • Minister of education and training:

he or she is responsible for the formal education system, including initial secondary VET. A special department within the ministry cooperates with several agencies to implement policies:

  1. AGODI: the agency for education services;
  2. AHOVOKS: the agency for higher education, adult education, qualifications and study grants;
  3. VLOR: a strategic advisory council for education and training policies providing advices, practical implementation support to new governmental educational initiatives. Minister of Work and Social Economy.

He or she is responsible for VET for job-seekers and workers, as well as entrepreneurial training. Similarly, a special department within the ministry works with agencies that implement policies:

  1. VDAB [25]Vlaamse Dienst voor Arbeidsbemiddeling en Beroepsopleiding – Flemish Service for Employment and Vocational Training.
    and
  2. SYNTRA Vlaanderen [26]SYNTRA Vlaanderen: The Flemish Agency for Entrepreneurial Training.
    .

Advisory bodies participate in policy debates, they are the Flemish Economic Social Consultative Committee (VESOC) and the Social and Economic Council of Flanders (SERV). SERV is the advisory body on work, economy, energy and (vocational) education and training. It is also in charge of organising the secretariat of VESOC which is thus an ongoing forum for policy debates between social partners and the government; the meetings can result in official agreements.

BE-FR

For French-speaking leaners, three main bodies are responsible for VET governance:

  • the French Community Government,
  • the Walloon Region and
  • the COCOF [27]Commission communautaire française, French Community Commission, responsible for some competences for French-speakers in Brussels.  
    , responsible for VET competences.

Within each body, the education minister and/or the training minister [28]Minister of Vocational Training and Minister of Education at the COCOF; Minister of Higher Education and Adult Learning and Minister of Education at the French Community; Minister of Vocational Training and Employment at the Walloon Region. New governments decide about the distribution of tasks within its ministries (there can thus be one, two or three ministers involved).
are in charge of policy orientation, allocation of public resources and the legislation about VET organisation. Their administrations operationalise the education or training offer, determine the programmes and implement the profiles specified by the SFMQ [29]Service francophone des métiers et qualifications - the French-language Service for Jobs and Qualifications.
. The four training operators are also involved in the administrative decisions (Bruxelles Formation, le Forem, IFAPME and SFPME) [30]VDAB:  Flemish Employment and Vocational Training Agency. Bruxelles Formation: The Brussels Institute for Vocational Training. SFPME: Service Formation PME: the training service for small and medium-sized entreprises, in Brussels. EFP (Espace Formation des Petites et Moyennes entreprises: the training centre in Brussels for SME’s).
.

Specific case of Brussels (due to its bilingual status)

Thus, VET governance in Brussels is particular, involving actors from both the Flemish Government and the French Community Commission. They are acting through two public providers: VDAB and Bruxelles Formation (but also the SFPME and EFP for apprenticeships and entrepreneurs training and SYNTRA Vlaanderen for the dual learning).

BE-DE

The German-speaking Community is in charge of both the education and training system and the employment governance which allows them to organise their VET policy. Two ministers are responsible for these matters: the education minister and the employment minister. However, due to the small size of the Community, they rely on partnerships and are interdependent for financial, personal and strategic resources.

VET governance involves many actors and so is the financing, depending on the level, different institutions are responsible for the subsidies. Within the framework of the inter-professional agreements negotiated at federal level, the social partners have set as a new objective five days of training per full-time employed person per year.

BE-FL [31]See also: https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/adult-education-and-training-funding-3_en

VDAB (Flemish Employment and Vocational Training Agency): the work of the VDAB is largely funded by the Flemish Government, European Union and from invoicing to employers.

SYNTRA: SYNTRA centres are subsidised by the Flemish Government through the agency SYNTRA Vlaanderen (work policy area) [32]The Flemish Government comprises both the regional and communitarian competence.
and they receive European and Flemish contributions for specific projects. The SYNTRA centres receive: an operating subsidy for apprenticeships and certified programmes, and extra subsidies in case they deploy innovative or flexible programmes. The SYNTRA centres must supplement its subsidies out of its own resources, mainly derived from trainees’ registration fees.

The Centres for Adult Basic Education (CABEs) and Centres for Adult Education (CAEs) are subsidised/funded by the government. They receive their funding/subsidisation on the basis of the quantity of teaching provided expressed in trainee teaching hours. CABEs receive an operational allowance of EUR 1.90 per trainee teacher hour whereas CAEs only EUR 0.75 and thus covers their operating funds from registration fees (which can be reimbursed by the state for exempted learners).

The adult education consortia together receive a subsidy budget for personnel costs, operating costs and investments.

VOCVO, the Flemish Support Centre for Adult Education, receives an annual subsidy budget for personnel costs, operating costs and investments.

BE-FR [33]See also: https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/adult-education-and-training-funding-5_nl

Training for job-seekers and workers in the two regions.

Le Forem (the Walloon Office for Vocational Training and Placement) is financed by subsidies provided out of the Walloon Region’s budget, contributions from the European Social Fund, companies’ contributions to training costs, promoters’ contribution in connection with the Unemployment Abatement Programme, contributions of the Federal Public Service for Employment, Work and Social Dialogue within the framework of cooperation agreements or conventions and various forms of income.

The Walloon government also finances socio-occupational integration operators, who provide basic training (OISPs and EFTs).

Bruxelles Formation (the Brussels Institute for vocational training) is financed by the federal state (under the terms of cooperation agreements) and by the ESF. The agency also receives subsidies from the French Community Commission, regional actors (Regional Government and the Brussels Public Employment Service, Actiris) and may receive bequests and donations. Some activities, such as worker training, also contribute to the revenues, albeit marginal.

Forty-one socio-occupational integration operators and nine local missions are currently authorised and financed by the French Community Commission. These bodies also receive support from Actiris (the Brussels Regional Employment Office) for the counselling and job search components of its work, and are cofinanced by the ESF.

IFAPME (Walloon Institute for apprenticeship and entrepreneurial training in small and medium enterprises in Wallonia) receives subsidies from the Walloon Region. At European level, it receives subsidies mainly from the ESF and the ERDF. These cover the institute’s running costs, training activities and the centres’ property-related expenses.

SFPME-EFP (the training service for SME, in Brussels - the training centre for SME’s in Brussels) is subsided by the French Community Commission and receives funding from the ESF. A part of its budget originates also from the adult tuition fees.

Adult education (social advancement education, etc.): training sections and units are approved for subsidies by decision of the general responsible for social advancement education on the advice of the inspection service.

For institutions in the French Community network, a financial grant (also calculated on the basis of the number of learners) is allocated by the administration for management purposes. Learners’ attendance is also taken into account as subsidies are calculated in the basis of the number and category of periods attended (a deduction of the amount of registration fees paid by learners is made) – the grant depends on the level at which the courses are given (lower secondary, upper secondary, post-secondary non-tertiary education or higher level).

Partnerships: the controlling authorities of social advancement education may also form agreements with other education institutions, organisations, bodies, companies, persons or associations. Partners may cofinance all or part of the training. A rate for the cost of the teaching period, per level of education and per course category, is published whenever there is a change in the consumer price index. Non financed periods are deducted from the institutions’ periods endowment. Partners may also provide the institution with material resources needed for training, or make its premises available.

BE-DE

On its territory, VET centres are funded by the German-speaking Community according to the number of learners and the duration of the training. The education system also receives funding from the Province of Luxembourg, particularly for special education needs (SEN) [34]http://www.oecd.org/education/Education-Policy-Outlook-Country-Profile-Belgium.pdf 
. Apprenticeship organised by the IAWM and the ADG is financed by same system as le FOREM, VDAB, Bruxelles Formation and Actiris [35]IAWM: Institut für Aus- und Weiterbildung im Mittelstand und in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen / Institute for vocational and educational training in small and medium seized companies in BE-DE. ADG: Arbeitsamt der Deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft, Public Employment Service of the German-speaking Community. Le Forem: Office wallon de la Formation professionnelle et de l'Emploi/ The Walloon Office for Vocational Training and Placement. VDAB: Vlaamse Dienst voor Arbeidsbemiddeling en Beroepsopleiding/ Flemish Employment and Vocational Training Agency. Bruxelles Formation: Institut Bruxellois pour la Formation professionnelle / The Brussels Institut for Vocational Training. Actiris : Brussels Public Employment Service.
.

In Belgium, the VET system reflects itself in the type of existing teachers. The following types exist:

  • general subjects teachers;
  • vocational theory teachers (teaching vocational theoretical subjects);
  • vocational teachers of technical or occupational practice courses (e.g. in workshops).

The types are similar in the three Communities with some differences regarding the necessary qualifications. A certificate of good conduct is required for teachers and trainers at all levels.

Teachers

General subjects teachers have either a bachelor's degree (which give them the possibility to teach in the lower degree) or a master degree (for the upper degree). They are in charge of subjects such as mathematics, physics, languages, etc. In BE-FR, a recent reform (2018) of the teacher training system implemented a new system in which access to the teaching of each field is more regulated (priority is given to teachers in possession of the required subject title and the teaching certificate). The priority to teachers with required certification is also given in schools in BE-FL.

Vocational teachers of technical or occupational practice courses are required to hold an upper secondary education certificate (CESS), a validated professional experience and a CAP (teaching certificate). In Flanders, following the reform, experts from the professional sectors have access to an educational associate degree programme at university colleges (short cycle degree) if they have at least three years of professional experience. Experts already in possession of a diploma, will have the possibility to follow a shorter bachelor or master programme which will allow them to obtain a teaching diploma in only one year.

Trainers

We distinguish between the following trainers:

  • trainers (teaching general and vocational courses in apprenticeship programmes that were not implemented by schools);
  • practical training instructors (accompanying learners during their workplace practical training);
  • in-company trainers (tutors, supervisors/advisors).

A trainer must have at least two years of professional experience plus a diploma. The years of necessary experience increase the lower the level of the diploma (two to five years for bachelor's and master's degree; five to six years for the certificate of upper secondary education (CESS) or 10-12 years of professional experience with no diploma).

In Flanders, the Flemish Agency for Entrepreneurial Training SYNTRA Vlaanderen started a project with several partners in mentor/tutor training. Those partners receive funding for the development of a mentor training programme, which can be used and implemented in various sectors. There is no legislative obligation for using these programmes though they are intended to strengthen the quality of the dual training system. However, starting in September 2019, the trainers in the workplace will be obliged to follow an ‘mentor training’.

Within the French-speaking Belgium, trainers of the four VET operators (IFAPME, Bruxelles Formation, SFPME and le Forem) [36]IFAPME: Institut wallon de Formation en Alternance et des indépendants et des Petites et Moyennes Entreprises / Walloon Institute for apprenticeship and entrepreneurial training in small and medium enterprises in Wallonia. Bruxelles Formation : Institut Bruxellois pour la Formation professionnelle / The Brussels Institut for Vocational Training. SFPME : Service Formation PME / the training service for small and medium-sized entreprises, in Brussels. Le Forem : Office wallon de la Formation professionnelle et de l'Emploi / The Walloon Office for Vocational Training and Placement.
are, in general, professionals in the sector in which they give courses. This is compulsory in the dual training sector (IFAPME and SFPME).

In the German-speaking Community, all trainers are professionals in their sector. They run a business or are qualified employees. Their remuneration is higher if they are in possession of a teaching certificate.

Continuing professional development (CPD) of teachers at secondary level is mandatory. In the Communities the following approaches are applied:

  • in the French Community, teachers have to follow six half-days of training per year. They can also take courses on a voluntary basis;
  • every year, the Flemish Community grants a training budget for schools which will be spend according to a yearly training plan. Therefore, each school will train its teachers in subjects they consider to be needed;
  • in the German-speaking Community, teachers choose their courses freely from a list of courses established on the basis of the pedagogical plan defined by the ministry. They also may participate in training courses offered by the organising authority or the educational network to which they are affiliated. Each school can also organise up to three days (or six half days) of training per year. These may be educational conferences or trainings related to the school project. Finally, with the agreement of the head teacher, teachers may take other courses on a personal basis.

CPD of trainers is organised at internetworks or networks levels of training providers. Each establishment can also offer training options to its staff.

In the French Community training providers created FormaForm [37]https://www.formaform.be/
which is a joint initial and continuing training organisation, co-financed by the ESF. They transformed their initial training programme into a multimodal personalised programme lasting five days, including various learning processes and teaching tools (mainly digital). The programme is called FormaGo.

More information is available in the Cedefop ReferNet thematic perspective on teachers and trainers [38]http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/country-reports/teachers-and-trainers
.

The labour market in Belgium is under regional competence and several actors are involved in anticipating skill needs, each working on its territorial entity.

In Flanders, at the regional level, a team from the Employment and Vocational Training Agency VDAB is in charge of the main tool concerning the definition of professional profiles: the web-based database ‘Competent’ [39]Competent’ can be freely accessed at the following website: SERV. Sterk door overleg. https://www.serv.be/serv
, which is thus the base used in the anticipation of skill needs. The employment service publishes each year a report on developments in the employment market, inadequacies between supply and demand in jobs and which certified qualifications are available. At sub-regional level, the Recognised Regional Collaboration Associations and the Regional Economic and Social Consultation Committees collect various data to study the specificities of the employment market and its requirements. Moreover, the Steunpunt Werk Survey Institute [40]https://www.steunpuntwerk.be/
is responsible for quantitative and qualitative supervision of the employment market and is set up to direct Flemish labour market policy.

Regarding the Walloon and Brussels Regions, two types of bodies work towards the anticipation of labour needs. First, the Basins of Qualifying Education – Training – Labour (IBEFE) [41]Bassins de l’Enseignement qualifiant – Formation – Emploi, IBEFE. 
were established through a cooperation agreement concluded between Wallonia, the French-speaking Community and the French-speaking Community Commission which are a link between all entities involved and allow a better development of VET offer. Second, at regional level, Wallonia and Brussels each have their own bodies responsible for collecting data on the labour market and needs.

  • Wallonia: the Walloon Office for Vocational Training and Placement ‘le Forem’ is in charge of detecting future labour needs through its labour market watching, analysing and forecasting service. The Walloon Institute publishes analyses labour market needs.
  • Brussels: View.brussels [42]Previously Brussels Observatory of Employment and Training.
     is in charge of tracking the labour market and unemployment evolutions. They are also in charge of creating new methods of competence and needs anticipation in Brussels on which they later collaborate with the Brussels Institute for vocational training ‘Bruxelles Formation’ [43]Bruxelles Formation : Institut Bruxellois pour la Formation professionnelle / The Brussels Institut for vocational training.
    .

Within the German-speaking Community (in charge of its own labour market), the public employment service ‘ADG’ collects, analyses and distributes information concerning supply and demand of the local labour market.

See also Cedefop’s skills forecast [44]http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/data-visualisations/skills-forecast
and European Skills Index [45]https://skillspanorama.cedefop.europa.eu/en/indicators/european-skills-index
.

In each Community, the government sets out the framework within which educational institutions can organise their programmes. The framework for provision of formal education system is set out in different acts or circulars, per educational level (secondary education, adult education and higher education). Alongside this general principle, each community/region has developed its own approach of defining or reviewing skills and qualifications in VET and assesses local needs [46]Allinckx, I.; Karno, A.; Monico, D. (2019). Vocational education and training in Europe – Belgium. Cedefop ReferNet VET in Europe reports 2018. http://libserver.cedefop.europa.eu/vetelib/2019/Vocational_Education_Training_Europe_Belgium_2018_Cedefop_ReferNet.pdf
.

BE-FL

The Flemish Employment and Vocational Training Agency (VDAB) uses a web-based system called ‘Competent’ [47]The Social Economical Committee has been in charge of the database from 2012 to 2017, it was then transferred to the VDAB, the Flemish Service for Employment and Vocational Training.
 which is a database containing all professional profiles (with a description of activities, necessary knowledge, skills, etc.). This database is used for the creation of ‘qualification dossiers’ which are next organised into the Flemish Qualification Structure (related to the EQS’ 8 levels). These dossiers are validated by VDAB’s social partners, responsible for the development of professional and educational qualification standards. The first five levels, once they are revised by the Flemish Government, form the basis for educational qualifications and the standard references for education providers and dual learning programmes.

BE-FR

The ​SFMQ [48]Service francophone des métiers et des qualifications – the French-speaking Agency for Professions and Qualifications.
gathers Public Employment Services, social partners, all VET providers from the French-speaking Community and the Skills Validation Consortium. The agency is responsible for:

  • creating profession profiles reflecting the reality of the job;
  • creating training profiles based on professions needs and thus assure the consistency between the training offered and the job-market needs;
  • establishing the link between profiles and structures of public employment services and improving the legibility of qualifying education systems, trainings, skills validation and job offers;
  • setting common references and language for all partners.

Practically:

  • trades profiles are elaborated within a Professions Profiles Commission and then validated by the Chamber of Trades;
  • training profiles are developed within a Training Profiles Commission and validated by the Teaching-Training Chamber;
  • the Chamber of Trades provide a matching notice between professions and training profiles;
  • lastly, an opinion is formulated on the notice between first the professions profiles and the Skills Validation Consortium productions and second, between the training profiles from the SFMQ and training programmes from education and training providers.

BE-DE

Designing qualifications in the German-speaking Community is the responsibility of the Institute for alternating training and small and medium enterprises ‘IAWM’ [49]IAWM: Institut für Aus- und Weiterbildung im Mittelstand und in kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen / Institute for alternating training and small and medium enterprises.
. The Institute works in close cooperation with the professional sectors, companies and professional associations. Whilst updating training programmes and developing new programmes, it continues to take due consideration of commercial opinions, socio-economic requirements and the working environment. These programmes take general and professional skills into account in addition to operational skills.

The pedagogical service of the Ministry of the German-speaking Community has the same role in the secondary VET schools as the IAWM has for the apprenticeship. Integration and training programmes offered by the Employment and Vocational Training Agency ‘ADG’ [50]ADG: Arbeitsamt der Deutschprachigen Gemeinschaft Belgiens / Employment and Vocational Training Agency in the German-speaking Community.
are designed in line with the situation on the employment market. Social partners, members of management committees, and the Employment Office are all involved in the decision-making. Moreover, the ADG is certified to issue training in the cleaning, office and construction sector.

BE-FR

Between 2015-18, French-speaking Belgium did not have a quality assurance national reference point (QANRP) in place, only a contact and dissemination point located in the education ministry. There was an inspectorate, carrying out mandatory external inspection of VET providers. Self-assessment was also in place, as most VET providers had their own quality assurance approaches.

A team had been appointed within the Ministry of Education to coordinate the ‘cross-diagnostics of schools, training centres and validation of skills providers’. A team of ’diagnosticians’ from education, training or validation of skills evaluate jointly the assessment processes of VET providers. This is an external evaluation in accordance with the reference framework set by EQAVET. Among the items under revision are the evaluation of the command of learning outcomes, the material resources, the monitoring of quality of the assessment of learning outcomes and of the staff who evaluates the learning outcomes.

Both Bruxelles Formation and the IFAPME are in possession of the ISO 9001 certification.

BE-FL

The Decree on quality in education of 8 May 2009 had stipulated that primary and secondary schools were responsible for their own quality and it was part of the school’s autonomy to decide how to conduct their self-evaluation. The quality assurance approach thus comprised internal reviews at VET provider level, however, external reviews could also be carried out by the inspectorate. Pedagogical support services assisted schools in strengthening internal quality assurance and their ability to implement policies. As with providers of IVET, CVET providers had to monitor their own quality systematically and had room in deciding on the procedure for it.

On the 14th of March 2019 the Flemish Parliament approved a new decree on common principles about the quality assurance in VET offered outside formal education but based on a professional qualification description that is formally linked to the Flemish Qualifications Framework (Vlaamse kwalificatiestructuur). The decree prescribes the terms for certifying professional qualifications by regulating the conditions for quality control. Every policy area can develop a quality assurance system for vocational training programmes that should respect the common conditions. Those are:

  • use the jointly defined quality assurance framework;
  • create an objective and neutral quality control organisation and procedure;
  • visit every training at least once every six years.

The quality assurance framework is in development and will be ready for use by Summer 2019. The first vocational training programmes based on professional qualifications will be organised by the end of 2019 at the earliest.

The scope of the decree is covering all the vocational training programmes offered outside formal education but relying on the professional qualifications standard. Vocational education is subject to the quality control by the Education Inspectorate. The jointly defined quality assurance framework will be aligned with the quality assurance framework of the Education Inspectorate.

BE-DE

There is limited information on quality assurance arrangements in the German-speaking Community. An external evaluation agency for VET schools and VET competence centres is in place. VET schools also apply to ISO compatible quality management systems (ISO 9001, ISO 14001).

In Belgium there are several mechanisms which take into account non-formal and informal training programmes. It is, however, necessary to distinguish the concepts of skills validation and the recognition of skills [51]Allinckx, I.; Karno, A.; Monico, D. (2019). Vocational education and training in Europe – Belgium. Cedefop ReferNet VET in Europe reports 2018. http://libserver.cedefop.europa.eu/vetelib/2019/Vocational_Education_Training_Europe_Belgium_2018_Cedefop_ReferNet.pdf
:

  • validation of non-formal and informal learning leads directly to certification which may be used either on the employment market or to enter an education programme in inter-operator transfers.
  • recognition of non-formal and informal learning allows an individual to promote a certain previous pathway (experience, training) when joining a public VET provider or Adult education schools. There is thus no need to repeat the pathway in its entirety; the learner continues its training to obtain certification with the same provider.

Validation of non-formal and informal learning

In the French-speaking Belgium, the Validation Skills Consortium grants skills credentials on behalf of the three governments. They can be used on the job market and are recognised by public services for employment and adult education schools. It allows to navigate between all the vocational training providers as long as they are members of the Consortium.

In the Flemish Community, there is an equivalent mechanism, developed by the SERV and organised by the Flemish Government with approved centres. Despite the differences (concerning how awards are designed and how they operate), both skills validation systems are communicable.

In the German-speaking Community, a skills validation system is under development. A steering group is going to be set in place at the end of this year to elaborate a concept for a validation system.

Recognition of non-formal and informal learning

In BE-FR, universities, adult education and VET providers recognise previous acquired competences and skills of learners, which can have been acquired in any teaching and training or through professional and personal experience. There is thus no need for respective learners to follow the programme in its entirety; however they must still take the final examination.

IN BE-FL, the immediate result of a successful recognition process is a proof of competences, which then in turn may lead to access to higher education programmes, or to the award of credits or a full degree (on the basis of an exemption). Providers of adult education pay great attention to approving acquired competences, both with regard to dispensations and the certification of acquired competences. A distinction is made between the measuring and testing of acquired competences to benefit from courses exemptions applied by training centres and the assessment of professional competences. Adult education centres may act as assessment bodies for the delivery of the Title of Professional Competence. The recognition of acquired competences in the context of dispensations from course components is the responsibility of the director of an educational institution.

For more information about arrangements for the validation of non-formal and informal learning please visit Cedefop’s European database [52]http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/data-visualisations/european-database-on-validation-of-non-formal-and-informal-learning
.

Measures taken in all federated entities

  • Paid educational leave – employees are entitled to follow an official training programme of up to 120 hours per year with remuneration (125 hours in Flanders as from September 2019 and up to 180 hours in Brussels in some cases, such as for trainings linked to bottleneck occupations).
  • Within the framework of a recognised vocational training programme, jobseekers receive free training, continue to receive unemployment benefits, and in certain instance a training allowance, reimbursement of travel and child care costs during the training period.
  • Individual vocational training agreements within a company are targeted at jobseekers. By signing a tripartite agreement, they benefit from practical training within a company followed by a job contract of the length of the training at least. The employment office pays the trainee an allowance, a productivity bonus and a reimbursement for his travel expenses.

Incentives for learners are also offered by regional authorities as well as the German-speaking Community.

Brussels

  • Matching language cheque: available to the learner who has taken a language test before signing the employment contract, the individual language lessons costs are paid by the Brussels Public Employment Service (Actiris). These courses are aimed at improving knowledge of Dutch, English or French in order to better carry out one's work.
  • Professional project language cheque: enables jobseekers to benefit from specific language training specially geared towards anything that can be useful in finding a job.
  • TIC-job cheque: intended to facilitate the hiring of jobseekers who need to improve their computer skills. Actiris offers beneficiaries to follow a free IT training programme related to their job: 69 checks of this type were distributed in 2015.
  • Young jobseekers are offered training opportunities in the workplace if they sign an employment contract with a Brussels public interest body. This measure aims to encourage the social integration of young jobseekers and help them to better position themselves on the labour market through a combination of training and employment experience. The number of positions available under this programme has been increased as new occupations have been funded under the Youth Guarantee mechanism.
  • Availability waiver measure: allows a compensated unemployed person to be released from job search obligations in order to enrol in training, internship or to return to school. Therefore, refuse a job offer or pause in applying is allowed.
  • Youth work-study bonus: awarded to young people (under 18) who carry out practical training in companies for at least 4 months as part of their work-study programme (CEFA / CDO or SFPME). The amount of this premium varies between EUR 500 and 750.

Wallonia

  • Experiencing a professional situation: 3 to 15 days in a work environment, the Walloon Office for Vocational Training and Placement (le Forem) offers reimbursement of transport costs and an all-risk insurance cover. This project is offered to jobseekers registered at le Forem and living in Wallonia.
  • EUR 750 are granted to learners having successfully completed their dual training contracts.
  • Outplacement check: it covers an outplacement fee of EUR 1 500, granted to any person over 45 years of age, who has been dismissed from the private sector and whose employer has not provided the outplacement measures (or when considered inadequate). Those measures are a set of services and guidance provided on behalf of the employer for the benefit of the worker to enable him to find a new job rapidly or to develop a professional activity. The first six months, 60 hours are devoted to guidance and help to find a job. These services are provided by a professional outplacement office.
  • EUR 350 are granted to job-seekers being registered at le Forem and having successfully completed a training in a bottleneck occupation.

Flanders

  • Professional transition programme: aims to recruit long-term unemployed people who are under-qualified, allowing them to gain experience and enter the job-market.
  • Training vouchers for employees and temps: aimed at employees in the Flemish or Brussels regions. Any employee without a secondary education diploma may benefit from a second voucher throughout the year. The total amount of vouchers issued per person is payable up to 50% by the employer and 50% by the Flemish authority. 91 597 vouchers were issued in 2014, 43 891 in 2015, 33 391 in 2016 and 28 507 in 2017.
  • Training bonus: for jobseekers who have been unemployed for at least 12 months and begin an educational training.
  • Financial benefits from the Flemish Employment and Vocational Training Agency (VDAB): a jobseeker who follows training courses recognised by the agency will receive a refund of his registration fee and the cost of the learning material. She or he is also entitled to additional premiums.

German-speaking Community

  • Young people can do a company familiarisation placement which allows them to prepare for work, acquire professional experience, and gain a better understanding of the world of work. The recipients receive a small allowance in addition to their travel expenses.
  • The BRAWO project covers an employee’s training expenses up to one third with a maximal amount of EUR 1 000 per year.

Incentives for enterprises are offered by regional authorities as well as the German-speaking Community [53]Allinckx, I.; Karno, A.; Monico, D. (2019). Vocational education and training in Europe – Belgium. Cedefop ReferNet VET in Europe reports 2018. http://libserver.cedefop.europa.eu/vetelib/2019/Vocational_Education_Training_Europe_Belgium_2018_Cedefop_ReferNet.pdf
.

Brussels

  • Work Training Bonus: intended to encourage the employer to train newly hired infra-skilled workers during the activation grant period. The bonus, with a maximum value of EUR 5 000, is granted in the case of a contract with an indefinite duration. It must make it possible to increase workers' skills in relation to the professional experience they develop.
  • Tutor premium: aimed at approved companies in Brussels which are involved in the dual training of a young person 15-25 years of age. The training must have a minimum duration of six months within the company. A tutor, who can supervise a maximum of 4 learners at the same time, is designated to transmit his skills. This premium amounts to EUR 1 000 per year and per tutor (and an additional of EUR 1 000 if the learner is from Brussels).
  • Aid for external training: depending on the size of the company and the sector of activity, the Region grants a premium to companies wishing to improve their activities and their competitiveness through training in the fields of day-to-day management and knowledge of business. The financial aid amounts to 50% of the costs, and ranges from EUR 500 to 5 000 maximum.
  • Material assistance for training programs through the availability of buildings and tools. This measure is aimed at companies in the manufacturing industry that wish to make available their facilities or tools for training or education purposes. These companies can obtain reimbursement of their costs through daily grants corresponding to the actual cost of the provisioning.

Wallonia

  • Training voucher: form of financial aid for continuing training, mainly of employees or self-employed, for companies employing less than 250 workers. The check is worth one hour of approved training; it is bought at the price of EUR 15 but has a face value of EUR 30. Depending on its size, the company can receive a number of training vouchers ranging from 100 to 800. In 2015, employees in the Walloon Region benefited from 684 827 training checks (533 354 hours of training).
  • Adaptation credit is a mechanism to promote training within companies, covering part of the costs of employee training. The training is supposed to lead to accreditation, whether specific or collective.
  • Adaptive credit - tutoring component is a mechanism similar to the one described above, but in which an experienced employee of the company agrees to be the guardian of another employee in order to train them.
  • Employers receive EUR 750 per young person trained within their company. To receive this grant, the training must be based on a contract of a minimum duration of 270 days (nine months), include an officially approved tutor and the young person needs to succeed in his year.
  • Self-employed workers who decide to train a young person for the first time receive a bonus of € 750 (once). This covers administrative expenses arising from social legislation.

Flanders

  • Through the ‘KMO’ (SMEs) portfolio, liberal professions, and private companies can receive 50% of funding (capped at EUR 15 000) for any initiative in the following areas: training, management consultancy, consultancy on internationalisation and innovation, in order to optimise management of SMEs.
  • Diversity in the work environment: companies, bodies, labour organisations in the commercial and non-commercial sectors and local administrations may request subsidies for a diversity plan they offer for disadvantaged groups. The priority target groups are immigrants, senior employees (50 years old and over) and disabled persons. Financial support is granted according to the type of plan and it varies between EUR 2 500 and EUR 10 000.
  • Admission training contract promotes the recruitment of jobseekers under favourable financial conditions. Jobseekers should be new graduates (secondary education at most) or have recently completed a training programme. The admission training is following by fixed-term recruitment or recent completion of a training programme.
  • Internship bonus: premium for companies that train learners in learning and working or dual learning with an alternating training agreement, an alternating training internship agreement or a part-time employment contract. The bonus is paid once per school year with a maximum of three times per learner (EUR 500 the first two times and 750 for the third).
  • ‘Target group reduction’ for mentors: companies can receive this reduction if they use one or more experienced employees as a supervisor / trainer for learners in dual training education. Reduction of a maximum of EUR 800 per quarter on the employer's social security contribution which companies pay for the employee who trains the learner). The company can only receive the target group reduction once (for one mentor) per started group of five learners.

German-speaking Community

  • An amount is allocated per hour of training within fixed limits of allowance and training time per employee. For companies, a total of EUR 9 (EUR 6 for large companies) is allocated per hour of training. The aid stands at a total of EUR 15 000 per annum for SMEs and EUR 20 000 per annum for larger companies. The training period may not exceed 150 hours per employee over a maximum period of 18 months.
  • Vocational training contracts can be offered to disabled persons by the Agency for a self-determined life [54]Dienststelle für Selbstbestimmtes Leben (DSL).
    . This measure grants the employer professional consultancy and a certain amount per month as a subsidy on the social security contributions for a tutor assisting young people with or without a disability during the training within their company.

Please see:

Vocational education and training system chart

BE-DE

BE-FL

BE-FR

Tertiary

Click on a programme type to see more info
Programme Types

Professional bachelor programmes

3 years

 

ISCED 6

(BE-DE)

Professional bachelor programme
EQF level
EQF levels on qualifications are being discussed.
ISCED-P 2011 level

3

Usual entry grade

11

Usual completion grade

12

Usual entry age

17

Usual completion age

18

Length of a programme (years)

2

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

 

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

N

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

N

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Credit systems are not applicable yet.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • Dual learning: school-based learning (20%) with in-company training (80%)
Main providers

Autonomous College AHS (Autonome Hochschule in der Deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft) in collaboration with the Vocational training centres ZAWM (Zentrum für Aus- und Weiterbildung im Mittelstand)

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Information not available

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at AHS
  • in-company training
Main target groups

Programmes are available for adults.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Certificate of upper secondary education and a successful internship in the appropriate field of occupational activity.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Examinations are organised at the end of each school year. Learners need to succeed to access the next education level. A practical part may also be organised.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Entrepreneur certificate and a bachelor’s degree

Examples of qualifications

Financial services and accounting, public and business administration

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Those who complete VET can enter the labour market directly.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

General education subjects

N

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each sector.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Short cycle graduate degree programmes, 33% WBL

2 years

 

ISCED 5

(BE-FL)

Short cycle graduate degree (Graduaatsopleidingen)
EQF level
EQF levels on qualifications are being discussed.
ISCED-P 2011 level

5

Usual entry grade

12+

Usual completion grade

12+

Usual entry age

18+

Usual completion age

18+

Length of a programme (years)

2

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace). 

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

N

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

N

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Graduate courses of 90 or 120 credits.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

Focus is put on the workplace learning (learning and applying competence in real work situations), the programme is less theoretical than professional bachelor programmes.

Main providers

University colleges (Hogescholen)

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

>=33%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

Practical training in a company

Main target groups

Programmes are available for young people and also for adults.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Learners must possess the Certificate of upper secondary education or an equivalent certificate. Learners aged 18 without the required certificate, have the possibility to take an admission test.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Examinations are organised during the school year and may include a practical part.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Graduate degree (in a specific field)

Examples of qualifications

Architecture, Nursing, Education, Biotechnology, etc.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Those who complete the short cycle graduate degree have direct access to the labour market.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

N

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each sector.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Professional bachelor programmes

3 years

 

ISCED 6

(BE-FL)

 

Professional bachelor (Professionele bachelor)
EQF level
EQF levels on qualifications are being discussed.
ISCED-P 2011 level

6

Usual entry grade

12+

Usual completion grade

12+

Usual entry age

18+

Usual completion age

18+

Length of a programme (years)

3

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace).

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

N

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

N

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

180 credits (60 per school year).

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

School-based learning with internships

Main providers

University colleges (Hogescholen)

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Information not available

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

Practical training in a company

Main target groups

Programmes are available for young people and also for adults.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Learners must have obtained the Certificate of upper secondary education (Diploma Secundair Onderwijs).

Assessment of learning outcomes

Examinations are organised during the school year; it may involve a practical part. 

Diplomas/certificates provided

Bachelor's degree

Examples of qualifications

Agrotechnology, digital arts and entertainment, hotel management, international journalism, music management, etc.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Those who complete VET can enter the labour market or continue their studies with a Ba-n-Ba programme (bridging programme) allowing them access to the Master level.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

General education subjects

N

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each sector.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Professional bachelor prog.

3-4 years

 

ISCED 6

(BE-FR)

Professional bachelor programme
EQF level
EQF levels on qualifications are being discussed.
ISCED-P 2011 level

6

Usual entry grade

12+

Usual completion grade

12+

Usual entry age

18+

Usual completion age

18+

Length of a programme (years)

3 to 4

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace). 

Is it part of formal education and training system?

N

Is it initial VET?

N

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

N

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

180 to 240 credits depending on the programme (each year counts for 60 credits).

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

School-based learning with traineeships offering practical experience in a work environment

Main providers

University colleges (Hautes Ecoles)

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Information not available

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school;
  • practice at the work place (end-of-studies traineeship).
Main target groups

Programmes are available for adults having completed the secondary level of education.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

The certificate of upper secondary education (CESS, Certificat d’enseignement secondaire supérieur) is required to enrol in a professional bachelor programme.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Examination are organised twice a year and may include a practical part.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Professional bachelor's degree

Examples of qualifications

Business management, accounting, account manager, marketing, etc.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Those who complete VET can enter the labour market or continue their studies on a master level. They may be required to follow a one-year bridging programme to do so.

Learners can also access a supplementary one-year bachelor programme (ISCED 6).

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

General education subjects

N

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each professional bachelor programme.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Dual bachelor prog.

WBL 40-60%

3 years

 

ISCED 6

(BE-FR)

 

Dual bachelor programme
EQF level
EQF levels on qualifications are being discussed.
ISCED-P 2011 level

6

Usual entry grade

12+

Usual completion grade

12+

Usual entry age

18+

Usual completion age

18+

Length of a programme (years)

3

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace).

Is it part of formal education and training system?

N

Is it initial VET?

N

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

N

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

180 credits

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

School-based learning combined with work-based learning (proportions are 40%/60% both ways)

Main providers

University colleges (Hautes Ecoles)

Universities

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

40-60%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • in-company practice (learning by doing system);
  • practical training within the education facility.
Main target groups

Programmes are available for adults having completed the secondary level of education.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Learners must hold a certificate of upper secondary education (CESS, Certificat d’enseignement secondaire supérieur).

Assessment of learning outcomes

Examination are organised twice a year and may include a practical part.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Bachelor's degree

Examples of qualifications

Dual Bachelor in mechatronics and robotics

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Those who complete the dual bachelor programme are ready to enter the labour market. They can, if they choose, continue their studies at a higher level, either with a dual master or a master programme.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

General education subjects

Y

Key competences

Y

Key competencies are specific to each study field.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Bachelor special.

1 year

 

ISCED 6

(BE-FR)

Bachelor specialisation
EQF level
EQF levels on qualifications are being discussed.
ISCED-P 2011 level

6

Usual entry grade

12+

Usual completion grade

12+

Usual entry age

18+

Usual completion age

18+

Length of a programme (years)

1

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace).

Is it part of formal education and training system?

N

Is it initial VET?

N

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

N

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

60 credits

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • school-based learning
  • traineeship
Main providers

University colleges (Hautes Ecoles)

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Information not available

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

Traineeship (practical training at the work place)

Main target groups

Programmes are available for adults having completed a professional bachelor programme.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Learners must hold a professional bachelor's degree.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Learners need to pass a final examination.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Bachelor's degree

Examples of qualifications

Mediation, distribution management

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Learners having completed their one-year specialisation can enter the market labour directly or continue their studies at a master level.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

Y

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to the study field.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Dual master prog.

WBL 40-60%

2 years

 

ISCED 7

(BE-FR)

Dual master programmes
EQF level
EQF levels on qualifications are being discussed.
ISCED-P 2011 level

7

Usual entry grade

12+

Usual completion grade

12+

Usual entry age

18+

Usual completion age

18+

Length of a programme (years)

2

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace).

Is it part of formal education and training system?

N

Is it initial VET?

N

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

N

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

120 credits

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

School-based learning combined with work-based learning (proportions are 40%/60% both ways).

Main providers
  • University colleges (Hautes Ecoles),
  • Universities.
Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

40-60%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • in-company practice (learning by doing)
Main target groups

Programmes are available for adults having completed a bachelor programme.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Learners must hold a bachelor's degree (traditional, dual or professional bachelor).

Assessment of learning outcomes

Examination are organised during the school year, they can be theoretical and practical.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Master's degree

Examples of qualifications
  • master's degree in analytical engineering biochemistry;
  • master in production management;
  • master's degree in general service management;
  • master's degree in construction site management specialising in sustainable construction;
  • master in electromechanical maintenance management;
  • business analyst.
Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Learners having completed a dual master’s programme can enter the labour market directly.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

Y

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each study field.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Post-secondary

Click on a programme type to see more info
Programme Types

Nursing programme

3 years

 

ISCED 4

(BE-DE)

Nursing programme
EQF level
EQF referencing has not yet been done.
ISCED-P 2011 level

4

Usual entry grade

Not applicable

Usual completion grade

Not applicable

Usual entry age

18+

Usual completion age

18+

Length of a programme (years)

3

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

The programme leads to a formal, officially recognized diploma which grants access to the reglemented profession of nurse responsible for general care.

Is it initial VET?

N

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Information not available

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • School-based programme for theoretical lessons and clinical practice for practical training
Main providers

Autonomous Higher Education Institution (Autonom Hochschule in der Deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft, AHS)

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

>=50%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school
  • clinical training
Main target groups

Programmes are available for adults.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

To enrol in the nursing programme, learners must meet one of the following requirements:

  • successfully complete the sixth year of vocational secondary education;
  • pass the board examination of the German-speaking Community;
  • provide a training certificate from the employment office of the German-speaking community (covering at least 1 300 hours of training).
Assessment of learning outcomes

Theoretical and practical examinations are organised throughout the programme. Learners are also required to write a thesis during their last year of studies.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Health and Nursing Certificate meeting the requirements of the European directive 2005/36/CE.

Examples of qualifications

Nurse responsible for general care

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Those who complete VET can enter the labour market. The nursing programme gives also access to tertiary education programmes.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

General education subjects

N

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to the nursing programme in line with national legislation.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Master craftsperson

programme, 2-3 years

 

ISCED 4-6

(BE-DE)

Master craftsperson programme (Meister)
EQF level
EQF referencing has not yet been done.
ISCED-P 2011 level

4 to 6

Usual entry grade

Not applicable

Usual completion grade

Not applicable

Usual entry age

18+

Usual completion age

18+

Length of a programme (years)

2 to 3 years

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

as it leads to formal, officially recognised diplomas.

Is it initial VET?

N

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

N

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Credit systems are not applicable yet.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • Training centre-based learning (theoretical knowledge) and practical lessons
Main providers

Vocational training centres ZAWM (Zentrum für Aus- und Weiterbildung)

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Information not available

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • in-company training
  • theoretical lessons at training centre
Main target groups

Programmes are available for adults who wish to become a qualified entrepreneur or open their own enterprise.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Access to the master craftsperson programmes is reserved to people who already have basic vocational training in the profession or who have demonstrable experience with a definite business project.

Assessment of learning outcomes

The master craftsperson exam consists of three parts: the management, the subject (theory), the subject (practical examination). To receive the master craftsman certificate, learners must succeed in all three parts of the examination.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Master craftsman certificate

Examples of qualifications

Food related qualifications: butcher, baker; commercial qualifications: designer for visual marketing, etc. [62]For more information, see: https://www.zawm.be/fileadmin/user_upload/Meisterkurse_2018-2019_Angebote_Version_1.04.18.pdf

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Those who complete VET can enter the labour market directly.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

N

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each track.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Graduate degree programme in nursing

(HB05)

3 years

 

ISCED 5

(BE-FL)

Graduate degree in nursing (HBO5, hoger beroepsonderwijs, Verpleegkunde)
EQF level
EQF levels on qualifications are being discussed.
ISCED-P 2011 level

5

Usual entry grade

12+

Usual completion grade

12+

Usual entry age

18+

Usual completion age

18+

Length of a programme (years)

3

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace). 

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

N

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

Information not available

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Information not available

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • School-based learning with internships (practical learning)
Main providers

Schools for full-time secondary education

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Information not available

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

Internship in a work environment (hospital), clinical training

Main target groups

Programmes are available for adults.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Learners aged 18 can access the programme with the following qualifications:

  • certificate of secondary education;
  • 3rd degree certificate (BSO) – no age requirements;
  • certificate of secondary adult education (at least 900 lessons).
Assessment of learning outcomes

Information not available

Diplomas/certificates provided
  • partial certificate after successfully completing a module;
  • graduate in nursing after successfully completing all the modules.
Examples of qualifications

Nurse

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Those who complete VET can enter the labour market or continue their studies in tertiary education.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

General education subjects

N

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to the nursing sector.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Follow-up technical programme,

1 year 

 

ISCED 4

(BE-FL)

Follow-up programme to technical secondary education (Secundair-na-secundair onderwijs, Se-n-Se)
EQF level
EQF levels on qualifications are being discussed.
ISCED-P 2011 level

4

Usual entry grade

12+

Usual completion grade

12+

Usual entry age

18+

Usual completion age

18+

Length of a programme (years)

1

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace).

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

N

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Credit systems are not applicable yet.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

School-based learning combined with workplace-based learning

Main providers

Schools for secondary education

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Information not available

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

Practical training within a company

Main target groups

This programme is available to young learners who want to follow an education allowing them the choice between entering the job market or continuing into tertiary education.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Learners must have successfully completed their 6th year of technical secondary education.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Examination are organised during the school year and may include a practical part.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Professional qualification certificate

Examples of qualifications

Pharmacy assistant, agriculture, chemistry, computer technology, etc.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Learners may enter the labour market directly or continue their studies at tertiary level.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

Y

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each sector.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Complementary degree in nursing

3 years

 

ISCED 4

(BE-FR)

Complementary degree in nursing (Brevet infirmier hospitalier)
EQF level
EQF levels on qualifications are being discussed.
ISCED-P 2011 level

4

Usual entry grade

12+

Usual completion grade

12+

Usual entry age

18+

Usual completion age

18+

Length of a programme (years)

3

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace).

Is it part of formal education and training system?

N

Is it initial VET?

N

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

N

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Information not available

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • school-based learning (theoretical and practical courses specific to the field);
  • traineeships (regular practice in clinical environment).
Main providers

Schools for post-secondary education

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Information not available

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school
  • traineeships (practice in clinical environment)
Main target groups

Programmes are available for adults.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

The Certificate of upper secondary education (CESS) is not a mandatory condition for entrance; however, students who did not yet hold it, obtain it at the end of the first year (if they succeed). It is also accessible to those who hold certain adult education certifications.

Assessment of learning outcomes

To complete a VET programme, learners need to pass final examinations (both theoretical and practical).

Diplomas/certificates provided

hospital nursing licence;

hospital nursing licence - mental health and psychiatry orientation;

learners who accessed the training without the CESS (Certificate of upper secondary education), obtain it at the end of the first year.

Examples of qualifications
  • Degree in nursing,
  • Degree in nursing – mental health and psychiatry. 
Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Those who complete VET can enter the labour market or continue their studies at tertiary level.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

N

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to the nursing studies.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Technical and vocational follow-up prog.

(school-based; or dual with 60% WBL)

1 year

 

ISCED 4

(BE-FR)

Technical and vocational follow-up programme
EQF level
EQF levels on qualifications are being discussed.
ISCED-P 2011 level

4

Usual entry grade

12+

Usual completion grade

12+

Usual entry age

18+

Usual completion age

18+

Length of a programme (years)

1

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace).

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

N

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

The programme is available to adult through adult education.

ECVET or other credits

Credit systems are not applicable yet.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • school-based learning (technical and practical lessons);
  • dual learning with 60% work-based learning (two days at school and three days in a company).
Main providers

Secondary Education Schools

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

>=60%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school
  • in-company practice: learning by doing system, learners can acquire practical experience during their in-company training
Main target groups

Programmes are available for young people having completed a vocational programme.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Learners must be in possession of a certificate issued by a vocational programme or technical ones (Qualification Certificate 6, level ISCED 3).

Assessment of learning outcomes

To complete this VET programme, learners need to pass a final examination.

Diplomas/certificates provided

VET learners may receive two certificates simultaneously: the Certificate of upper secondary education (CESS) and/or a Qualification Certificate (CQ7, ISCED 4).

Examples of qualifications

Management of small businesses.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Those who complete this VET programme can enter the labour market directly. This special 7th year also gives learners from qualification education access to the tertiary level of education:

  • Bachelor programmes,
  • Dual bachelor programmes,
  • Professional bachelor programmes.
Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

Y

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to the VET sector.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Secondary

Click on a programme type to see more info
Programme Types

Technical prog.

2 years

 

ISCED 2-3

(BE-DE)

Technical VET programme [57] (Technischer Befähigungsunterricht)
EQF level
EQF referencing has not yet been done.
ISCED-P 2011 level

2-3 [58]

Usual entry grade

9

Usual completion grade

10

Usual entry age

15

Usual completion age

16

Length of a programme (years)

2

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace).

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Credit systems are not applicable yet.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • school-based learning (technical-theoretical lessons)
  • practical learning
Main providers

Schools for technical secondary education

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

This depends on the chosen track.

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

Practical training at school

Main target groups

The programme is available to learners within the compulsory education age. It is also available to adults within the Adult education programme.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Accessible to learners aged 15 having successfully completed the first degree of education (and thus met the full-time education requirement).

Assessment of learning outcomes

Examinations are organised at the end of each school year. Learners need to succeed to access the next education level. A practical part may be organised.

Diplomas/certificates provided

This VET programme allows access to the next education level within the programme.

After successfully completing nine years of education, learners obtain the certificate of lower secondary education (Abschlusszeugnis der Unterstufe).

Examples of qualifications

Education, office assistant.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Those who complete this VET programme can continue their studies within the same stream to achieve the complete technical programme.

Furthermore, they also can progress in one of the following programmes: 

  • general programme;
  • vocational programme;
  • apprenticeship.
Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

Y

Learners receive both a general and a technical education.

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each track.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Technical prog.

2 years

 

ISCED 3

(BE-DE)

Technical VET programme [59] (Technischer Befähigungsunterricht)
EQF level
EQF referencing has not yet been done.
ISCED-P 2011 level

3

Usual entry grade

11

Usual completion grade

12

Usual entry age

17

Usual completion age

18

Length of a programme (years)

2

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace).

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Credit systems are not applicable yet.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • school-based learning (technical-theoretical lessons)
  • practical learning
Main providers

Schools for technical secondary education

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

It depends on the chosen track.

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

Practical training at school

Main target groups

The programme is available to learners in compulsory education age. It is also available to adults within the Adult education programme.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Accessible to learners having successfully completed the first degree of secondary education.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Examinations are organised at the end of each school year. Learners need to succeed to access the next education level. Examinations are organised in the general courses and in the technical option. A practical part may also be organised.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Certificate of upper secondary education (CESS, Abschlusszeugnis der Oberstufe des Sekundarunterrichts)

Examples of qualifications

Education, office assistant.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Those who complete the technical programme can enter the labour market or continue their studies in a bachelor or professional bachelor programme.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

Y

Learners receive general and technical education and thus have access to the labour market directly or can continue their education at tertiary level.

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each track.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Vocational prog.

2 years

 

ISCED 2-3

(BE-DE)

Vocational programme (Berufsbildender Befähigungsunterricht)
EQF level
EQF referencing has not yet been done.
ISCED-P 2011 level

2-3

Usual entry grade

9

Usual completion grade

10

Usual entry age

15

Usual completion age

16

Length of a programme (years)

2

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace).

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

N

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Credit systems are not applicable yet.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

Practically-oriented type of education in which the youngster receives general education but where the focus primarily lies on learning a specific profession.

Main providers

Schools for vocational education

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

It depends on the chosen track.

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

practical training at school

Main target groups

The programme is available to young learners up to 18 years old and also to adults within the Adult education programme.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

To access vocational education at school, learners must either be aged 15 and have completed the first degree of secondary education or aged 16 without any further conditions.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Examinations are organised throughout the programme and learners need to succeed them to access the next education level. A practical part may be organised.

Diplomas/certificates provided

This VET programme allows access to the next education level within the programme. After successfully completing year 10, learners receive the certificate of lower secondary education (Abschlusszeugnis der Unterstufe).

Examples of qualifications

Family assistant (services to persons), nursing assistant, sales and clothing, administration and management.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Completing this VET programme allows learners to continue their education within the programme.

Furthermore, they also can progress in one of the following programmes: 

  • general programme;
  • technical programme;
  • apprenticeship.
Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

Y

Learners receive a general and a vocational education. 

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each track.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Vocational prog.

2 years

 

ISCED 3

(BE-DE)

Vocational programme (Berufsbildender Befähigungsunterricht)
EQF level
EQF referencing has not yet been done.
ISCED-P 2011 level

3

Usual entry grade

11

Usual completion grade

12

Usual entry age

17

Usual completion age

18

Length of a programme (years)

2

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace).

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Credit systems are not applicable yet.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

Practically-oriented type of education in which the youngster receives general education but where the focus primarily lies on learning a specific profession.

Main providers

Schools for vocational education

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Information not available

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

Practical training at school

Main target groups

The programme is available to learners in compulsory education age. It is also available to adults within the Adult education programme.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

This programme is offered to learners who successfully completed the second degree of vocational training.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Examinations are organised at the end of each school year. Learners need to succeed to receive their certificate of 6th year vocational education. Examinations are organised in the general courses and in the vocational option. A practical part may also be organised.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Certificate of 6th year vocational secondary education

Examples of qualifications

Family assistant (services to persons), nursing assistant, sales and clothing, administration and management.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Those who complete VET can enter the labour market or continue their studies with a 7th year of vocational education allowing them to obtain the Certificate of upper secondary education. They can also enrol in a nursing programme of three years.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

Y

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each track.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

VET for SEN learners (ages 12-18), access to and from all

other programmes

 

ISCED 2-3

(BE-DE)

 

Vocational education and training for special education needs (SEN) learners (Förderschule)
EQF level
EQF referencing has not yet been done.
ISCED-P 2011 level

2-3

Usual entry grade

7

Usual completion grade

12

Usual entry age

12

Usual completion age

18

Length of a programme (years)

6

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace). 

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

N

ECVET or other credits

Credit systems are not applicable yet.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

Information not available

Main providers

Centre for Special Education (Zentrum für Förderpädagogik)

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Information not available

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • school-based learning
  • dual learning (school-based and work-based training available to allow a better social integration)
Main target groups

The programme targets SEN learners aged 12 but not older than 21. The special needs must have officially been determined in accordance with the procedure fixed by law (Article 93.7 of the decree of 31 August 1998).

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Information not available

Assessment of learning outcomes

Information not available

Diplomas/certificates provided

Information not available

Examples of qualifications

Information not available

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Information not available

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

Y

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each track.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Apprenticeship

80% WBL

2-3 years

 

ISCED 3

(BE-DE)

Apprenticeship (Lehre)
EQF level
EQF referencing has not yet been done.
ISCED-P 2011 level

3

Usual entry grade

10 - The programme is offered by training providers, not at school.

Usual completion grade

12

Usual entry age

16

Usual completion age

18

Length of a programme (years)

2 to 3

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace).

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Credit systems are not applicable yet.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • dual learning programme: training centre-based learning (1/2 days/week) and practical training within a company (3/4 days/week)
Main providers

IAWM (Institut für Aus- und Weiterbildung des Mittelstandes – the Institute for vocational and educational training in small and medium sized enterprises) manages the programme. The learning is provided by ZAWM (Zentrum für Aus- und Weiterbildung des Mittelstands) centres.

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

>=80%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • in-company practice (3/4 days in a company and 1/2 days at the training centre)
Main target groups

The programme is available to learners in compulsory education age. Also available to young people to 25 years of age with conditions.

The programme is available to adults within the Adult education programme.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

To access the apprenticeship programme, learners must be at least 15 years old and have completed the second year of general education or the third year of secondary vocational education, or they must be 16 years old without any further conditions. IAWM, the Institute for alternating training and small and medium enterprises in BE-DE, also organises entrance examination for learners who don’t meet these requirements.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Examinations are organised at the end of each school year. Learners need to succeed to access the next education level. Examinations are organised for all courses and some are specific to the vocational programme. A practical part may also be organised.

Diplomas/certificates provided

VET learners receive a qualification certificate at the end of the last year of the programme which allows them to start their professional life immediately.

Examples of qualifications

Bakery, butcher, metal, cooking, mechanics.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Those who complete an apprenticeship can enter the labour market or continue their studies at post-secondary level by directly accessing the Master Craftsperson (Meister).programme or following the nursing programme. Learners who want to continue their studies at tertiary level need to continue their secondary education with a 7th complementary year.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

General education subjects

Y

General subjects such as mathematics, French, German are part of the VET programme.

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each track.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Programme for HE access, 1 year

 

 

ISCED 3

(BE-DE)

Programme for higher education access (7. Jahr Berufsbildender Befähigungsunterricht)
EQF level
EQF referencing has not yet been done.
ISCED-P 2011 level

3

Usual entry grade

12+

Usual completion grade

13+

Usual entry age

18+

Usual completion age

18+

Length of a programme (years)

1

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Credit systems are not applicable yet.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

Practically-oriented type of education in which the youngster receives general education but where the focus primarily lies on learning a specific profession.

Main providers

Schools for vocational education 

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Information not available

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

Practical training at school

Main target groups

The programme is aimed at learners aged 18+. It is also available to adults within the Adult education programme.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Learners must have completed the sixth year of vocational education or an apprenticeship to access the 7th-year.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Examinations are organised at the end of the year, they may combine theoretical and practical knowledge. 

Diplomas/certificates provided

Learners are granted a certificate of upper secondary education.

Examples of qualifications

Digitally controlled machine tools, nursing assistant, children’s caregiver, etc. [61]For more information, see: https://www.ostbelgienbildung.be/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-2240/4392_read-31714/

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Learners can access the labour market with their certificates or they can continue their education in tertiary education.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

Y

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each track.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Technical prog.

2 years

 

ISCED 3

(BE-FL)

Technical secondary education (Technisch secundair onderwijs, TSO)
EQF level
EQF levels on qualifications are being discussed.
ISCED-P 2011 level

3

Usual entry grade

9

Usual completion grade

10

Usual entry age

15

Usual completion age

16

Length of a programme (years)

2

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

Compulsory education applies to learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace). 

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Credit systems are not applicable yet.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

School-based learning with technical-theoretical classes and practical lessons

Main providers

Schools for secondary education

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Information not available

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

Practical training at school

Main target groups

This programme is available to young people within the compulsory education system.

Adult learners can access the programme through adult education.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Learners can access technical secondary education after having completed two years in general secondary education.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Examinations in the general courses and technical option are organised throughout the programme. Learners need to succeed to access the next education level. A practical part may be organised.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Successful completion of this VET programme allows access to the next education level within this and other programmes.

Upon successfully completing the two years of this programme, learners receive a certificate of the second degree of secondary education (getuigschrift van de tweede graad).

Examples of qualifications

Construction techniques, fashion, electromechanics, electrical engineering, photography, etc.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Those who complete VET can enter the labour market or continue their studies on the next level within the same programme.

Besides, they also can progress at the next education level one of the following pathways: 

  • general programme;
  • vocational programme;
  • apprenticeship.
Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

Y

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each sector.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Technical prog.

2 years

 

ISCED 3

(BE-FL)

Technical secondary education (Technisch secundair onderwijs, TSO)
EQF level
EQF levels on qualifications are being discussed.
ISCED-P 2011 level

3

Usual entry grade

11

Usual completion grade

12

Usual entry age

17

Usual completion age

18

Length of a programme (years)

2

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace).

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Credit systems are not applicable yet.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • School-based learning with technical-theoretical classes and practical lessons
Main providers

Schools for secondary education

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Information not available

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school
Main target groups

This programme is available to young people within the compulsory education system.

Adult learners can access the programme through adult education.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Learners must have completed four years of secondary education to enter the programme.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Examinations in the general courses and technical option are organised throughout the programme. A practical part may also be organised. Learners need to succeed to receive their certificate.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Certificate of upper secondary education (Diploma Secundair Onderwijs)

Examples of qualifications

Construction techniques, fashion, electromechanics, electrical engineering, photography, etc.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Learners who complete this VET programme can enter the labour market or continue their studies at post-secondary or tertiary level.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

Y

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each sector.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Vocational prog.

2 years

 

ISCED 3

(BE-FL)

Vocational secondary education (Beroepssecundair Onderwijs, BSO)
EQF level
EQF levels on qualifications are being discussed.
ISCED-P 2011 level

3

Usual entry grade

9

Usual completion grade

10

Usual entry age

15

Usual completion age

16

Length of a programme (years)

2

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace).

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Credit systems are not applicable yet.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • School-based learning with theoretical subjects supporting the practical learning
Main providers

Schools for secondary education

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Information not available

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school
Main target groups

This programme is available to young people within the compulsory education system.

Adult learners can access the programme through adult education.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Learners can access the vocational programme after having completed the first two years of general secondary education.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Examinations are organised at the end of each school year. Learners need to succeed to access the next education level. Examinations are organised in the general courses and in the vocational option. A practical part may also be organised.

Diplomas/certificates provided

This VET programme allows access to the next education level within the programme.

Upon successfully completing the two years of this programme, learners receive a certificate of the second degree of secondary education (getuigschrift van de tweede graad).

Examples of qualifications

Basic mechanics, construction, accounting, retail, etc.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Learners who complete this VET programme can continue their studies within the same stream to achieve the complete vocational programme.

Besides they also can progress at the next education level one of the following pathways: 

  • general programme;
  • technical programme;
  • apprenticeship.
Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

Y

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each sector.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Vocational prog.

2 years

 

ISCED 3

(BE-FL)

Vocational secondary education (Beroepssecundair Onderwijs, BSO)
EQF level
EQF levels on qualifications are being discussed.
ISCED-P 2011 level

3

Usual entry grade

11

Usual completion grade

12

Usual entry age

17

Usual completion age

18

Length of a programme (years)

2

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace).

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Credit systems are not applicable yet.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • School-based learning with theoretical subjects supporting the practical learning
Main providers

Schools for secondary education

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Information not available

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school
Main target groups

This programme is available to young people within the compulsory education system.

Adult learners can access the programme through adult education.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Learners can access the vocational programme after having completed four years of secondary education.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Examinations are organised during the school year. Examinations are organised in the general courses and in the vocational option. A practical part may also be organised. Learners need to succeed to obtain their certificate.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Professional qualification certificate

Examples of qualifications

Basic mechanics, construction, accounting, retail, etc.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Those who complete the VET programme can enter the labour market or continue their studies with a one year follow-up programme granting them a Certificate of upper secondary education (Diploma Secundair Onderwijs) (and giving them access to tertiary education) or continue their studies at post-secondary level.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

Y

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each sector.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Apprenticeships organised by SYNTRA centres (80% WBL)

or by vocational prog. schools (60% WBL)

2-3 years

 

ISCED 2-3

(BE-FL)

Apprenticeship programmes (Leren en werken, Duaal leren in deeltijds beroepssecundair onderwijs, DBSO)
EQF level
EQF levels on qualifications are being discussed.
ISCED-P 2011 level

2-3

Usual entry grade

10

Usual completion grade

12

Usual entry age

16

Usual completion age

18

Length of a programme (years)

2 to 3

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace).

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Credit systems are not applicable yet.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • Leren en werken (organised by schools): general, technical, theoretical and practical courses for two days/week at school and in-company training during three days/week.​
  • Duaal leren (organised by training centres): general, technical, theoretical and practical courses for one day/week at the training centre and in-company training during four days/week.
Main providers
  • Schools (Centra voor deeltijds onderwijs; CDO);
  • training centres of SYNTRA, the Flemish Agency for Entrepreneurial Training.
Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

>=60%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school/in the training centre;
  • in-company practice (three or four days/week).
Main target groups

This programme is available to young people within the compulsory education system.

Adult learners can access the programme through adult education.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Available to young persons between 16 and 25 years old.

Every 15-year-old who has completed at least the first two years of full-time secondary education is admissible. At the end of the school year (30 June) in which the young person turns 25, the apprenticeship ends.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Information not available

Diplomas/certificates provided

Depending on the programme, learners can obtain a:

  • certificate of acquired competences;
  • partial certificate for a module;
  • certificate of a course;
  • 2nd degree secondary education certificate;
  • study certificate from the 2nd year of the 3rd stage of secondary education;
  • secondary education diploma;
  • certificate about the basic knowledge of business management.
Examples of qualifications

Hairdresser, waiter, childcare supervisor, sports coach, etc.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Those who complete VET can enter the labour market or continue their studies at post-secondary level or, if they have obtained their Certificate of upper secondary education (Diploma Secundair Onderwijs), learners can access tertiary education.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

N

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each sector.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

VET for SEN learners (ages 12-18),

access to and from all other programmes

 

ISCED 2-3

(BE-FL)

VET for SEN learners (Buitengewoon secundair onderwijs, BUSO)
EQF level
EQF levels on qualifications are being discussed.
ISCED-P 2011 level

2-3

Usual entry grade

7

Usual completion grade

12

Usual entry age

13

Usual completion age

18

Length of a programme (years)

6

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace).

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

N

ECVET or other credits

Credit systems are not applicable yet.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

School-based learning

Main providers

Schools for special education

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Information not available

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

Information not available

Main target groups

VET for SEN learners is offered to youngsters with special needs aged 12 to 21 years old.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Learners can register in a school for special education once they have received a report for special education. This report is prepared and delivered by the Centre for Student Guidance (CLB) and integrates a certificate and a protocol.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Information not available

Diplomas/certificates provided

After following the common curriculum, learners obtain the same certificates as the other students.

After following an individually adapted curriculum, learners obtain a certificate of acquired competences.

Examples of qualifications

Information not available

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Learners who have completed a SEN VET programme can enter the labour market or continue their studies at tertiary level.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

Y

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each sector.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Adult education prog. equivalent

to secondary level prog.

(16+ and 18+)

incl. follow-up prog.

 

ISCED 2-4

(BE-FL)

 

Adult education programme equivalent to secondary level programmes (Secundair Volwassenenonderwijs, SVO)
EQF level
EQF levels on qualifications are being discussed.
ISCED-P 2011 level

2-4

Usual entry grade

Not applicable

Usual completion grade

Not applicable

Usual entry age

18+

Usual completion age

18+

Length of a programme (years)

From 1 to 3 years

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace).

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

Yes and No

Courses are free for jobseekers but workers (or their employers) have to pay to attend specific courses.

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Credit systems are not applicable yet.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • school-based learning;
  • self-learning/distance-learning: a form of learning which consists in learning the subject matter individually, either at home or at work;
  • E-learning (digital platform);
  • practical learning in a training centre: ‘group learning' or 'centre learning' offered [by the Flemish Employment and Vocational Training Agency ‘VDAB’ as well as by external training providers];
  • open learning: a form of learning the subject matter individually and at your own pace in a competence centre (organised by VDAB);
  • blended learning: a combination of learning methods e.g. combination group learning & online learning or group learning & open learning;
  • part-time working and VDAB Dual learning (depending on the chosen form of learning, young people may have to register with VDAB);
  • workplace learning: the jobseeker learns a job on the ‘work floor’.
Main providers

Centres for Adult Education (Centra voor volwassenenonderwijs, CVO)

Training centres of SYNTRA (the Flemish Agency for Entrepreneurial Training)

VDAB centres (Public Employment Service)

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

>=60%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school;
  • practical training in a training centre;
  • learning at a workplace: the focus is on customization, the jobseeker learns a job 'on the work floor';
  • apprenticeship training.
Main target groups

Programmes are available for adults, unemployed people who want to obtain a certificate but also to workers who wish to gain more knowledge.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

There are no minimum entry requirements but learners must be at least 16 years old to enrol (or 15 if they have completed the first two years of secondary education). Specific conditions may apply depending on the programme.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Continuous evaluation is organised during the school year. Some centres organise additional exams, others do not (e.g. when a module is completed).

Diplomas/certificates provided
  • partial certificate for a module;
  • certificate for a complete module;
  • certificate of upper secondary education;
  • certificate in Business Management.
Examples of qualifications

Bus driver, tourism related qualifications (guide, travel agent), electrician, languages qualifications, etc.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Those who complete VET can enter the labour market or, if they have obtained the certificate of upper secondary education (Diploma Secundair Onderwijs), continue their studies at tertiary level.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

General education subjects

Information not available

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each sector.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Technical or artistic prog. (qualification education;

school-based or dual for 15+ with 60% WBL),

2 years

 

ISCED 3

(BE-FR)

Technical or artistic VET programme (enseignement technique ou artistique de qualification) [63]
EQF level
EQF levels on qualifications are being discussed.
ISCED-P 2011 level

3

Usual entry grade

9

Usual completion grade

10

Usual entry age

15

Usual completion age

16

Length of a programme (years)

2

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

Compulsory education applies to learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace).

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

The programme is offered to adults through the adult education system.

ECVET or other credits

Credit systems are not applicable yet.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • school-based learning;
  • self-learning/e-learning;
  • dual learning with 60% work-based learning (two days at school and three days in a company).
Main providers

Secondary education schools

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

>=60%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • technical training at school
  • in-company practice: learning by doing system, learners can acquire practical experience during their in-company training
Main target groups

This programme is available for young people within the compulsory education system.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Accessible to learners aged 14/15, having completed the first degree of secondary education.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Examinations are organised at the end of each school year. Learners need to succeed to access the next education level. At the end of the programme, examinations are organised in the general courses and in the chosen grouped basic subject option. Examinations also include a practical part. 

Diplomas/certificates provided

After this programme, learners obtain an official certificate giving them access to the next education level within the same programme or to continue in a different system of education. 

Examples of qualifications

Beautician, office employee, retail employee, electrician, mechanic.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

After this programme, learners can access the next education level within the same programme.

Furthermore, they also can progress to one of the following pathways: 

  • general programme (nationally referred to as transition education);
  • vocational qualification programme;
  • apprenticeship.
Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

Y

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each sector.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Technical or artistic prog. (qualification education;

school-based or dual with 60% WBL),

2 years

 

ISCED 3

(BE-FR)

Technical or artistic VET programme (enseignement technique ou artistique de qualification) [64]
EQF level
EQF levels on qualifications are being discussed.
ISCED-P 2011 level

3

Usual entry grade

11

Usual completion grade

12

Usual entry age

17

Usual completion age

18

Length of a programme (years)

2

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace).

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Credit systems are not applicable yet.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • school-based learning;
  • self-learning/e-learning;
  • dual learning with 60% work-based learning (two days at school and three days in a company).
Main providers

Schools for qualification education [65]VET is nationally referred to as qualification education.

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

>=60%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • technical training at school;
  • in-company practice: learning by doing system, learners can acquire practical experience during their in-company training.
Main target groups

This programme is available for young people within the compulsory education system.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Accessible to learners aged 16, having completed the second degree of secondary education.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Examinations are organised at the end of each school year. Learners need to succeed to access the next education level. At the end of the programme, examinations are organised in the general courses and in the chosen grouped basic subject option. The examination also includes a practical part.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Qualification Certificate (CQ6) Certificate of upper secondary education (CESS, Certificat d’enseignement secondaire supérieur)

Examples of qualifications

Beautician, office employee, retail employee, electrician, mechanic.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Those who complete VET can enter the labour market with the qualification certificate. The certificate of upper secondary education (CESS) allows learners to continue their studies in post-secondary and tertiary education:

  • Bachelor programmes (ISCED 6);
  • Dual bachelor programmes (VET, ISCED 6);
  • Professional bachelor programmes (VET, ISCED 6);
  • Entrepreneurial & leading and coordination training (Adult Learning, ISCED 4 & 5);
  • Nursing (ISCED 4);
  • Technical and vocational follow-up programme (ISCED 4).
Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

Y

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each sector.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Vocational prog. (qualification education;

school-based or dual for 15+ with 60% WBL),

2 years

 

ISCED 3

(BE-FR)

Vocational programme (enseignement professionnel de qualification) [66]
EQF level
EQF levels on qualifications are being discussed.
ISCED-P 2011 level

3

Usual entry grade

9

Usual completion grade

10

Usual entry age

15

Usual completion age

16

Length of a programme (years)

2

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace). 

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

This programme is offered to adults through the adult education system.

ECVET or other credits

Credit systems are not applicable yet.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

School-based learning/dual learning with 60% work-based learning (two days at school and three days in a company)

Main providers

Secondary education schools

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

>=60%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school;
  • in-company practice: learning by doing system, learners can acquire practical experience during their in-company training.
Main target groups

This programme is available for young people within the compulsory education system.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Available to learners aged 14 and up.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Examinations are organised at the end of each school year. Learners need to succeed to access the next education level. Examinations also include a practical part.

Diplomas/certificates provided

After this programme, learners obtain an official certificate giving them access to the next education level within the same programme or to continue in a different system of education.

Examples of qualifications

Assistant in animal care, jeweller, butcher, baker, truck driver.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

After this programme, learners can access the next education level within the same programme.

Furthermore, they also can progress to one of the following pathways: 

  • general programme (nationally referred to as transition education);
  • technical or artistic programme;
  • apprenticeship.
Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

Y

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each sector.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Vocational prog. (qualification education;

school-based or dual with 60% WBL),

2 years

 

ISCED 3

(BE-FR)

Vocational programme (enseignement professionnel de qualification) [67]
EQF level
EQF levels on qualifications are being discussed.
ISCED-P 2011 level

3

Usual entry grade

11

Usual completion grade

12

Usual entry age

17

Usual completion age

18

Length of a programme (years)

2

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace).

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

This programme is offered to adults through the adult 

ECVET or other credits

Credit systems are not applicable yet.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • school-based learning
  • self-learning/e-learning
  • dual learning with 60% work-based learning (two days at school and three days in a company)
Main providers

Secondary Education Schools

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

>=60%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical and technical training at school
  • in-company practice: learning by doing system, learners can acquire practical experience during their in-company training
Main target groups

This programme is available for young people within the compulsory education system.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Accessible to learners aged 16, having completed the second degree of secondary education.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Examinations are organised at the end of each school year. Learners need to succeed to access the next education level. Practical examination may be organised. To complete this VET programme, a final examination is organised at the end of the last school year, it must include a practical examination.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Qualification Certificate (CQ6)

Examples of qualifications

Assistant in animal care, jeweller, butcher, baker, truck driver.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Those who complete VET can enter the labour market or continue their studies at the post-secondary level:

  • technical and vocational follow-up programme (1 year, ISCED 4),
  • complementary degree in nursing (3 years, ISCED 4).
Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

Y

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each sector.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

VET for SEN learners (ages 12-18),

access to and from all other programmes

 

ISCED 2-3

(BE-FR)

VET programmes for SEN learners (enseignement professionnel au sein de l’enseignement spécialisé)
EQF level
EQF levels on qualifications are being discussed.
ISCED-P 2011 level

2-3

Usual entry grade

7

Usual completion grade

12

Usual entry age

12

Usual completion age

21

Length of a programme (years)

6 (up to)

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace).

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

N

ECVET or other credits

Credit systems are not applicable yet.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • school-based learning;
  • dual learning (school-based and work-based training available to allow a better social integration).
Main providers

Schools for special education needs

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

>=60%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school (practical skills orientated workshops);
  • in-company practice.
Main target groups

Programmes are available for young people aged 12-18 in need of special education.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

No minimum entry requirements, dual training education system is available from 15 years of age. Enrolling require specific administration procedures (from the medical point of view).

Diplomas/certificates provided

VET for SEN is offered in four different streams, which each lead to a different certificate of completion:
1) social adjustment;
2) social adjustment and training in work skills;
3) vocational education;
4) general, vocational, art and technical education.

SEN of stream 2 and 3 leads to the Qualification Certificate.

SEN of stream 4 awards the same diploma/certificate as normal education of the same type: qualification certificate and/or certificate of upper secondary education (CESS, Certificat d’enseignement secondaire supérieur).

Examples of qualifications

Personal care, HORECA, administrative work, etc.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Learners from stream 4 (in some cases also from stream 3) can access upper secondary VET programmes.

Furthermore, those who complete VET under stream 4, can also enter the labour market or continue their studies:

  • Bachelor programmes (3 years, ISCED 6),
  • Dual bachelor programmes (3 years, ISCED 6),
  • Professional bachelor programmes (3-4 years, ISCED 6).
Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

Y

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each sector.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Apprenticeship offered by

regional training providers 80% WBL

3 years

 

ISCED 3

(BE-FR)

Apprenticeship programme (formation en alternance)
EQF level
EQF levels on qualifications are being discussed.
ISCED-P 2011 level

3

Usual entry grade

10

Usual completion grade

12

Usual entry age

16

Usual completion age

18

Length of a programme (years)

3

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace).

Is it part of formal education and training system?

N

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

The programme is offered to adults up to age 25.

ECVET or other credits

Credit systems are not applicable yet.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • dual learning (one day at school and four days within a company)
Main providers
  • centres for dual education and training, CEFA
  • training providers for small and medium enterprises, SFPME/EFP, IFAPME
Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

>=80%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • in-company practice (learning by doing system)
  • practical training within the training facility
Main target groups

Programmes are available for young people and adults (up to 25 years of age).

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

There are no minimum entry requirements but learners must be at least 15 years old to enrol.

Assessment of learning outcomes

There are examinations on general and vocational theoretical knowledge at the end of each academic year. The vocational accomplishments are continuously evaluated during the apprenticeship, and a practical test before a jury of professionals is organised at the end of the programme.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Apprenticeship certificate approved by the French Community.

In some occupations, the apprenticeship certificate is considered equivalent to the certifications of qualifying education (CQ6 + CQ7) and allows direct access to the 7th years of vocational education. In this way a transition from dual training to higher education is possible (higher education is also accessible via adult education or the juries of the French Community).

Examples of qualifications

Baker, hairdresser, florist, electrician, builder, etc.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Those who complete VET can enter the labour market or continue their studies:

  • adult learning (entrepreneurial & leading and coordinating training, ISCED 4 & 5).
Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

Y

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each sector.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Adult education prog. at

primary, secondary and tertiary levels

(age 18+ and partly for 15+)

 

ISCED 1-7

(BE-FR)

Adult education programmes at primary, secondary and tertiary levels
EQF level
EQF levels on qualifications are being discussed.
ISCED-P 2011 level

1 to 7

Usual entry grade

12+

Usual completion grade

12+

Usual entry age

18+ (partly for 15+)

Usual completion age

18+

Length of a programme (years)

Information not available

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace). 

Is it part of formal education and training system?

N

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

This programme is specifically designed for adults.

ECVET or other credits

Credit systems are not applicable yet at primary or secondary levels.

Tertiary education: 180 credits (bachelor programmes) or 120 (master programmes).

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • modular approach with flexible schedule – theoretical and practical learning within an adult centre, and an traineeship;
  • self-learning/e-learning.
Main providers

Adult Education Schools

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Information not available

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

Practical learning within the adult centre and a traineeship

Main target groups

These programmes are targeted at adult wishing to obtain a degree or certificate for primary education, secondary education, specific qualifications for teachers (CAP and CAPAES) and higher education qualifications, including professional Bachelors and Masters for certain professions.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Anyone who is no longer subject to compulsory education (18 years of age) can be admitted unconditionally to adult education, except in special cases in which access can be authorised as of 15 years of age (they have to be registered in a school or a training centre to access this programme).

Assessment of learning outcomes

A finale examination is organised to obtain the certification.

Diplomas/certificates provided
  • Alpha Certificate (certificate for reading and writing skills);
  • basic education certificate (CEB);
  • adult education qualification certificates (CQ6 + CQ7), adult education Certificate of upper secondary education (CESS);
  • teaching certificate (CAP);
  • higher education teaching certificate (CAPAES);
  • bachelor's diploma;
  • master's diploma.
Examples of qualifications

The adult education learning system offers the same qualifications as the ‘regular’ system.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

The Alpha Certificate is a basic education tool which gives access to the Basic education certificate (CEB).

The CEB allows learner to continue their education at secondary level (either in general, technical or professional secondary education).

Obtaining the certificate of upper secondary education through adult education gives access to the tertiary level education.

With a qualification certificate, learners may also choose to enter the labour market immediately without pursuing to tertiary education.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

General education subjects

Y

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each programme.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

VET available to adults (formal and non-formal)

Click on a programme type to see more info
Programme Types

Adult education programmes

(15+ and 18+ olds)

 

ISCED 2-5

(BE-DE)

Adult education programmes (Erwachsenenbildung)
EQF level
EQF referencing has not yet been done.
ISCED-P 2011 level

2-5

Usual entry grade

Not applicable

Usual completion grade

Not applicable

Usual entry age

15+, 18+

Usual completion age

15+, 18+

Length of a programme (years)

Information not available

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

N

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Information not available

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Credit systems are not applicable yet.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

Information not available

Main providers

13 recognised and subsidised adult education institutions

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Information not available

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

Information not available

Main target groups

Programmes are available for adults.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

There are no minimum entry requirements but learners must be at least 15 years old to enrol.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Information not available

Diplomas/certificates provided

Adults can obtain formal certificates of secondary education. 

Examples of qualifications

Electrical engineering and maintenance; housekeeping, cooking and sewing; nutrition professionals; etc. [60]For more information, see : https://www.weiterbildungsdatenbank.be/

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Learners who obtain their Certificate of upper secondary education can enrol in tertiary education. Adults obtaining a qualification certificate can enter the labour market immediately.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

General education subjects

Y

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each track.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

CVET for employees

(sectoral training funds)

 

 

(BE-FR)

 

 

Continuing VET for employees (formation continue pour adultes)
EQF level
Not applicable
ISCED-P 2011 level

Not applicable

Usual entry grade

Not applicable

Usual completion grade

Not applicable

Usual entry age

18+

Usual completion age

18+

Length of a programme (years)

Information not available

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace).

Is it part of formal education and training system?

N

Is it initial VET?

N

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Not applicable

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • dual training (theoretical courses at a training centre combined with in-company practice);
  • training centres courses.
Main providers

Training providers:

  • Bruxelles Formation, the French-language public service for vocational training in Brussels;
  • Le Forem, the Employment and Vocational Training Agency in Wallonia.
Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

The share of work-based learning depends on the programme.

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at a training centre,
  • in-company practice.
Main target groups

Programmes are available for adults.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

There are no minimum entry requirements.

Assessment of learning outcomes

To complete a VET programme, learners need to pass a final examination.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Learners receive a certification of accomplished training.

Examples of qualifications

Enhancement of social, linguistic and digital skills in particular, but also short training courses related to their occupations.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

This programme aims at giving the opportunity of enhancement of skills for workers.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

N

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each training.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

EQF 4 & 5

Entrepreneurial & leading

and coordinating training

 

ISCED 4, 5

(BE-FR)

Entrepreneurial & leading and coordinating training (formation en chef d’entreprise, formation de coordination et d’encadrement)
EQF level
4 & 5
ISCED-P 2011 level

4 & 5

Usual entry grade

Not applicable

Usual completion grade

Not applicable

Usual entry age

18+

Usual completion age

18+

Length of a programme (years)

1 to 3

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace).

Is it part of formal education and training system?

N

Is it initial VET?

N

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

N

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Information not available

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

Dual learning programme (work-based with theoretical courses at the training centre)

Main providers

Training providers:

  • IFAPME, the Walloon Institute for apprenticeship and entrepreneurial training in small and medium enterprises in Wallonia;​
  • SFPME/EFP, the training service and the training centre for small and medium-sized enterprises, in Brussels.
Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Share of work-based learning provided by training centre and companies depends on the programme and the training provider.

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • in-company practice
Main target groups

Programmes are available for young people and for adults.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

The courses are open under conditions to participants over 18 years of age who have completed the compulsory education requirement. For some professions the access conditions are stricter, for example by requiring the CESS, as for estate agents or accountants.

Assessment of learning outcomes

To complete a VET programme, learners need to pass a final examination.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Entrepreneurship training degree

Examples of qualifications

Commercial agent, estate agent, accountant, financial advisor, etc.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Learners that have completed the training can enter the labour market directly.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

General education subjects

N

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each training.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Publicly subsidised training

for unemployed and other vulnerable groups

 

 

(BE-FR)

Publicly subsidised training for unemployed and other vulnerable groups (Formation subsidiée par l’autorité publique pour les sans emploi et autres groupes vulnérables)
EQF level
Not applicable
ISCED-P 2011 level

Not applicable

Usual entry grade

Not applicable

Usual completion grade

Not applicable

Usual entry age

18+

Usual completion age

18+

Length of a programme (years)

Information not available

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace). 

Is it part of formal education and training system?

N

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Not applicable

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • school-type learning within the training facility;
  • practical training (workshops within the facility) and in-company training.
Main providers

Socio-professional Integration Centres

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Information not available

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training in a business;
  • practical training in workshops within the training facility.
Main target groups

Most vulnerable target groups, inadequately qualified and estranged from the job market.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

There are no minimum entry requirements.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Information not available

Diplomas/certificates provided

Information not available

Examples of qualifications

Literacy programmes, basic training, pre-qualifying training, workplace training and training for disabled job seekers

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Completing this VET programme allows learners to continue their training at a higher level within the VET.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Not applicable

General education subjects

Y

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each training.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

EQF 2 to 4

Public employment/

training services

 

ISCED 2, 3, 4

(BE-FR)

 

 

Public employment/training services
EQF level
2 to 4
ISCED-P 2011 level

2 to 4

Usual entry grade

Not applicable

Usual completion grade

Not applicable

Usual entry age

18+

Usual completion age

18+

Length of a programme (years)

Information not available

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Compulsory education covers learners aged 6 to 18. It begins with admission to primary school; full-time attendance is required until 15. Learners may then choose to continue into part-time education (alternating learning at school/in a training centre with learning at the workplace).

Is it part of formal education and training system?

N

Is it initial VET?

N

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Not applicable

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • dual training (theoretical courses at a training centre combined with in-company practice);
  • training centres courses.
Main providers

Training providers :

  • Bruxelles Formation, French-speaking Brussels Institute for Vocational Training;
  • Le Forem, the Walloon Office for Vocational Training and Employment.
Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Information not available

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • training centres practices,
  • work-based practice.
Main target groups

Programmes are available for young people and also for adults.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

No requirements.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Information not available

Diplomas/certificates provided

Certification of acquired skills 

Examples of qualifications

Administrative assistant

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Those who complete VET can enter the labour market directly.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

General education subjects

N

Key competences

Y

Key competences are specific to each training.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available