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General themes

Main aspects of VET system in Lithuania in 2018:

  • in 2017/18, participation in VET at all levels of education slightly decreased due to negative natural population growth and emigration;
  • participation in lower secondary VET is low, most IVET learners follow upper-secondary and post-secondary programmes;
  • early leaving from education and training is among the lowest in the EU (5.4%) and decreasing, and still higher from VET (12% in 2017) ([1]Kvalifikacijų ir profesinio mokymo plėtros centras (2019). Vocational education and training in Europe: Lithuania, p.28. Cedefop ReferNet VET in Europe reports 2018.
    http://libserver.cedefop.europa.eu/vetelib/2019/Vocational_Education_Training_Europe_Lithuania_2018_Cedefop_ReferNet.pdf,
    );
  • participation in lifelong learning and increasing access to VET for adults is a challenge.

Distinctive features ([2]Adapted from Cedefop (2018a). Spotlight on vocational education and training in Lithuania. Luxembourg: Publications Office.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/8121_en.pdf
):

Initial VET (IVET) is centralised and highly regulated by the State. Continuing VET (CVET) is delivered by IVET and other training providers, public or private organisations.

Provision of IVET at all levels is free of charge; CVET programmes are offered for a fee, except for the unemployed and those at risk of unemployment whose training is supported from European structural funds (ESF) projects. CVET for the unemployed is funded by a voucher system, which allows them to choose their training provider. The provision of training is based on contracts between the local public employment service, the unemployed and, if applicable, the enterprise. In this last instance, the employer undertakes to employ the person for at least six months after the training.

Most IVET learners participate in post-secondary programmes (ISCED 4, 443.7% in 2017) and upper-secondary (ISCED 3, 43.9%) The popularity of ISCED level 4 programmes has substantially increased in recent years, especially among adults who enter VET with a VET or higher education qualification. The number of adults in formal IVET programmes is increasing. The average age of IVET learners in 2016 was 24.6 years; compared to 2012 this has increased by three years. In 2012 learners aged 14 to 22 comprised 78% of learners; in 2016 the share decreased to 61%.

From 2002, VET curricula in Lithuania have been competence-based, with clearly defined learning outcomes. The content of VET qualifications is defined by sectoral qualifications standards (replacing the previous VET standards). These standards describe the main qualifications in specific sectors of the economy at different national qualifications framework levels. VET programmes are being gradually redesigned into modular programmes consisting of mandatory and optional units.

Data adapted from Cedefop (2018) Spotlight on VET Lithuania 2017 ([3]http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/8121_en.pdf).

The Cedefop forecasts for Lithuania up to 2025 predict a loss of one fifth of the total labour force and approximately a third of labour force with medium-level qualifications. This is prompting a review of human resources development policy to guarantee labour force productivity and economic competitiveness.

The challenge remains to encourage participation in VET. 53% of students in upper secondary education (2017/18) were enrolled in vocationally oriented programmes ([4]http://www.mukis.lt/lt/profesinio_orientavimo_paslaugos_mokyklose/stebesenos_ataskaitos.html). 10.5% of upper secondary education graduates move to VET, and 63% of upper secondary education graduates move to higher education directly after graduation (2017/18).

Participation in life-long learning remains low (6.6% in 2018) and is lower than in most other EU countries. The national goal is to increase it to 12% by 2022. Ministries of Education and Science, Social Security and Labour and Economy will offer various adult training opportunities for key competences development, with training of the unemployed and employees jointly funded by ESF. VET and lifelong learning promotion campaigns will be organised and career guidance services further developed.

Participation in apprenticeship is low and efforts are being made to motivate VET institutions and companies to cooperate in enhancing WBL and apprenticeship. Support will be given to apprenticeship pilot projects, assistance for enterprises, strengthening of sectoral practical training centres and expanding access to learners from other VET institutions. Implementation of an apprenticeship system is under development.

An action plan for the development of lifelong learning for 2017-20 addresses these aspects. In the document, VET and lifelong learning actions are grouped under three objectives:

  • update of VET curricula and VET methods focusing on competitive 21st century competences;
  • development of VET institution sustainable networking and increase in social inclusion;
  • development of efficient conditions and incentives for lifelong learning.

A new law on VET was adopted in December 2017. Envisaged changes relate to strengthening work-based learning and apprenticeship, enhancing the role of sectoral professional committees, reforming arrangements for publicly funded IVET, and introducing a regular external VET quality evaluation system ([5]Adapted from Cedefop (2018a). Spotlight on vocational education and training in Lithuania. Luxembourg: Publications Office.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/8121_en.pdf
).

The modularisation of VET programmes is expanding and should allow for more flexible and diverse forms of learning. VET programmes are being reformed and will be based on sectoral qualifications standards currently being developed in specific sectors of the economy ([6]Cedefop (2019). European inventory on NQF, 2018: Lithuania. Cedefop country specific report.
https://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/country-reports/lithuania-european-inventory-nqf-2018
).

Reforming VET management, financing schemes and quality assurance mechanisms are part of policy priorities and developments to raise the prestige of VET and its attractiveness among all VET stakeholders.

 

 

Population in 2018: 2 808 901 ([7]NB: Data for population as of 1 January. Eurostat table tps00001 [extracted 16.5.2019].).

Population decreased by 5.5% since 2013, due to negative natural growth and migration ([8]NB: Data for population as of 1 January. Eurostat table tps00001 [extracted on 16.5.2019].).

Population is ageing.

It is expected that the old-age dependency ratio will increase from 28 in 2015 to 64 in 2060.

 

Population forecast by age group and old-age-dependency ratio ([9]Old-age-dependency ratio is defined as the ratio between the number of persons aged 65 and more over the number of working-age persons (15-64). The value is expressed per 100 persons of working age (15-64).)

Source: Eurostat, proj_15ndbims [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

Since 2017, emigration increased by 13.8% ([10]Statistics Lithuania; population in 2018:
https://osp.stat.gov.lt/en/gyventojai1
) especially in the age span 15 to 44 (76% of all emigrants). Emigration is higher than immigration, which also increased.

The shrinking population calls for more effective use of the potential of the workforce, especially of elderly people involvement in economic activity. Ageing will remain an important concern for the future, as it is likely that the employed population will have to bear a heavier burden to support retirees.

The country is multicultural and has a bilingual community: In June 2017, Lithuanians represented 84.2% of the whole population, Poles 6.6%, Russians 5.8%, Byelorussians 1.2% and other nationalities 1.1%. Most VET institutions teach in Lithuanian, though there are schools where they use both Lithuanian and Russian.

Most companies are micro and small-sized.

Economic sectors with the largest employment (%) in 2017:

Since 2013, the employment in the industry has seen a steady growth. This has been the result of the recovery in exports market and increased tangible investments. The construction and service sectors decreased. To reflect recent trends in economic activity, VET institutions set themselves to the challenge of developing programs, taking into account the needs of workers and their employment in individual sectors of the economy.

The labour market is considered flexible.

Total unemployment ([12]Percentage of active population, 25 to 74 years old.) (2018): 5.8% (6% in EU28). It increased by 0.8 percentage points since 2008 ([13]Eurostat table tps00203 [etracted 16.5.2019].).

 

Unemployment rate (aged 15-24 and 25-64) by education attainment level in 2008-18

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011; breaks in time series, low reliability.
ISCED 0-2 = less than primary, primary and lower secondary education. ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education. ISCED 5-8 = tertiary education.
Source: Eurostat, lfsa_urgaed [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

Unemployment correlates with level of qualifications and age. During the crisis, it rose sharply, especially for those with low and medium-level qualifications, and hasn’t reached the pre-crisis levels. In 2018, the unemployment rate of the low qualified is almost 2.5 times higher than of people (including the majority of VET graduates) with medium level qualifications.

Employment rate of 20 to 34-year-old VET graduates increased from 74% in 2014 to 83.6% in 2018 ([14]Eurostat table edat_lfse_24 [extracted 16.5.2019].).

 

Employment rate of VET graduates (20 to 34 years old, ISCED levels 3 and 4)

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011; breaks in time series.
ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education.
Source: Eurostat, edat_lfse_24 [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

Between 2014 and 2018, the employment rate of 20-34 year-old VET graduates increased by 9.6 percentage points; at the same period the respective increase in employment of all 20-34 year-old graduates was 5.8 percentage points ([15]Eurostat table edat_lfse_24 [extracted 16.5.2019].).

Lithuania has the lowest rate of people without or with low qualifications in the EU (5.2% against 21.8% in the EU-28 in 2018). At the same time higher education is valued. Lithuania has the 9th highest share of the population aged 25-64 with high level qualifications in the EU (41.7% against 32.2% in the EU-28). Half of the population (53.1%) in the same age group has medium (ISCED 3 and 4) level qualifications ([16]Eurostat, lfsa_pgaed [extracted 16.5.2019].)

 

Population (aged 25 to 64) by highest education level attained in 2018

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011; low reliability for ‘no response’ for Czechia, Iceland, Latvia and Poland.
ISCED 0-2 = less than primary, primary and lower secondary education.
ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education.
ISCED 5-8 = tertiary education.
Source: Eurostat, lfsa_pgaed [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

Share of learners in VET by level in 2017

lower secondary

upper secondary

post-secondary

2.4%

27.4%

100%

Source: Eurostat, educ_uoe_enrs01, educ_uoe_enrs04 and educ_uoe_enrs07 [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

Share of initial VET learners from total learners at upper-secondary level (ISCED level 3), 2017

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011.
Source: Eurostat, educ_uoe_enrs04 [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

Traditionally, there are more males in VET – 56% then females – 44% ([17]National statistics 2018; see:
http://svisold.emokykla.lt/lt/index/wpage_view/42#
).

Most popular 2018 education area among males was engineering. In the engineering sector, the most popular fields are:

  • motor vehicles;
  • aircraft;
  • mechanics (and metal works in the education subsector).

The share of early leavers from education and training has decreased from 8.7% in 2009 to 4.6% in 2018. It is below the national target for 2020 of not more than 9% and the EU-28 average of 10.6%.

In 2017, early leaving from education and training was among the lowest in the EU (5.4%) and decreasing, but still higher from VET ([18]Kvalifikacijų ir profesinio mokymo plėtros centras (2019). Vocational education and training in Europe: Lithuania, p. 28. Cedefop ReferNet VET in Europe reports 2018.
http://libserver.cedefop.europa.eu/vetelib/2019/Vocational_Education_Training_Europe_Lithuania_2018_Cedefop_ReferNet.pdf,
). 12% of students in IVET programmes (ISCED levels 2 to 4) discontinued their training (mostly due to life abroad, early entry into the labour market of lack of motivation to continue their studies).

 

Early leavers from education and training in 2009-18

NB: Share of the population aged 18 to 24 with at most lower secondary education and not in further education or training.
Source: Eurostat, edat_lfse_14 [extracted 16.5.2019] and European Commission: https://ec.europa.eu/info/2018-european-semester-national-reform-programmes-and-stability-convergence-programmes_en [accessed 14.11.2018].

 

Under the action plan for the development of lifelong learning for 2017-20, activities partly ESF-funded are in place to increase the efficiency of the network of initial and continuing VET providers to attract more learners in VET.

In 2017, new professional empowerment programmes were launched. They provide information and guidance services to students on available education and training programmes and career choices to help them make informed decisions about their future.

Lifelong learning offers training opportunities for adults, including early leavers from education.

 

Participation in lifelong learning in 2014-18

NB: Share of adult population aged 25 to 64 participating in education and training.
Source: Eurostat, trng_lfse_01 [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

Participation in lifelong learning is lower than in the majority of other EU countries (6.6%) and below the EU 2020 benchmark (15%).

According to national statistics, a large share of the population aged 25-64 has completed general education programmes (28% in 2017). Increasing access to lifelong learning and VET for adults is still challenging.

To reach the national target of 73% employment rate by 2020, the employment programme for 2014-20 ([19]Government resolution, 2014:
https://www.e-tar.lt/portal/lt/legalAct/ebe20890a52c11e3aeb49a67165e3ad3/fiSHCENHEe
) goal is to support job creation mostly by linking (formal) VET qualifications to the needs of the labour market. Quality guidance and counselling services accessible to all (young people and adults), strengthening validation of prior learning and better and diversified formal VET qualifications aligned with sectoral needs are priority areas.

There are no data available for the distribution of VET learners by age.

In 2017/18, participation in VET at all levels of education slightly decreased due to negative natural population growth and migration.

In 2018, VET institutions admitted 45% (compared with 47% in 2017) of the total of those who have completed or left basic education (dropouts) and who wish to continue training or studies ([20]Statistics refer to both, initial VET and continuing VET institutions offering formal VET programmes.). Universities accounted for 29% of overall admissions (28% in 2017) and colleges – for 26% (25% in 2017)

The Lithuanian education and training system comprises:

  • general education at primary (ISCED 0-1), lower (ISCED 2) and upper secondary (ISCED 4) levels;
  • initial VET at lower (ISCED 2), upper (ISCED 3) and post-secondary (ISCED 4) levels;
  • tertiary level academic/university education (ISCED 6-8) and college-based higher VET programmes (ISCED 6);
  • continuing VET programmes providing formal qualifications at EQF levels 2-4 (ISCED 2-4) and other non-formal training courses.

Learners have the obligation to education and training until age 16. Basic education, attested by a lower secondary school leaving certificate, is necessary to access upper secondary programmes.

Compulsory (basic) education is completion of lower secondary education (ISCED level 2) and receiving a basic school certificate at EQF level 2. After completing basic education, learners can choose upper secondary general education or VET programmes at ISCED level 3 (leading to an EQF level 3 vocational qualification) or to an EQF level 4 vocational qualification and an upper secondary leaving certificate, also known as matura, which allows higher education access.

Access to VET programmes is possible for learners aged 14 or older. Those who fail to graduate from lower secondary education may enter VET programmes or youth schools at ISCED level 2 (respectively 254, 252) leading to EQF level 2 qualifications. At ISCED level 254, graduates receive also the basic school certificate and may move on to upper secondary programmes, either in the general or vocational streams.

Graduates of upper secondary programmes leading to a matura certificate (either vocational ISCED 354 or general education-oriented ISCED 344) may enter either post-secondary vocational training (ISCED 454) leading to EQF level 4 (EQF level 5 programmes are also being piloted); or higher VET programmes to acquire a professional bachelor (ISCED 655/EQF 6) or higher education (ISCED level 6 or 7) programmes leading to EQF level 6 or 7 respectively ([21]Adapted from Cedefop (2013). Vocational education and training in Lithuania: short description. Luxembourg: Publications Office.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/publications/4128
).

As stipulated in the Law on Vocational Education and Training (1997, amended in 2007 and 2017), the VET system covers IVET ([22]IVET in the national context is used to refer to lower, upper and post-secondary education levels, Higher VET programmes (ISCED 655) are considered part of higher education.), CVET and vocational guidance ([23]Cedefop (2013). Vocational education and training in Lithuania: short description. Luxembourg: Publications Office.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/publications/4128
).

 

Formal IVET and CVET programmes

Most IVET in Lithuania is school-based. The main aim of training is to prepare learners for work. In lower and upper secondary, VET programmes (ISCED 252 and 352) prepare learners for a VET qualification and access the labour market. In parallel, there are VET (ISCED 254 and 354) programmes that, in addition to the VET diploma, deliver a general education certificate allowing progression to the upper level studies. Access to post-secondary (ISCED 454) and college-based higher VET (ISCED 655) progression is possible for learners with the matura (end of upper secondary) certificate.

Formal CVET programmes are provided by labour market training centres offering in-company training (apprenticeships) to learners over 18 to refresh existing knowledge or acquire new skills leading to qualifications at EQF levels 2-4. Formal CVET is designed for people with different education attainment levels, from primary to post-secondary; in some cases, a vocational qualification or work experience is a prerequisite to access these programmes.

Learning forms in formal VET programmes (offered in both IVET and CVET) include:

  • school-based group learning, where a teacher-led group (class, joint class, VET group, subgroup, temporary group, special medical physical fitness group or other) is set up for a certain period. It can be implemented part time or remotely; and
  • individual learning, where, for a certain period, a student gets individual tuition, or s/he individually and periodically attends a group and/or individual teacher consultations. It can be implemented individually, independently or remotely;
  • apprenticeships in formal IVET programmes are available in a small scale, as this pathway is not established as a clear VET pathway. In apprenticeship-type delivery, the programme in total (theoretical and practical parts) should not exceed more than 48 hours per week in total (Labour code law effective as of July 2017;
  • in IVET work-based learning ([24]In the national context is referred to as 'practical training' either at a VET institution or an enterprise.) comprises 44% to 60% of the total time allocated to teaching vocational subjects, of which 8 to 15 weeks is organised in a company or school-based workshop simulating working conditions;
  • in formal CVET, practical training covers 60-80% of the programme. Training for jobseekers is provided on the basis of contracts concluded between local employment offices, the unemployed and, if applicable, the enterprise.

After the end of a VET programme, learners must take an exam after which a VET diploma is awarded.

Qualification exams are detached from the training process and are carried out by accredited institutions (different types of accredited assessment centres exist: including those established by social partners, enterprises and employers’ associations)

Non-formal VET programmes exist alongside with formal VET, for the unemployed and the (self-) employed. According to legislation the requirements for non-formal VET programmes and their implementation may be set by the organisation that requests training under these programmes or finances any such training. The objectives of the programme, admission criteria and duration are different and mostly depend on the target group. Decisions on tuition fees are made by providers. Non-formal adult education may be offered by any education provider, freelance teachers, and agencies, as well as companies or organisations that do not have education as their main activity but are authorised to provide education.

Non-formal VET is widely applied in continuing VET and is designed for the acquisition of a vocational qualification or individual competences. It is carried out in various forms: learning at the workplace, attending non-formal training courses, distance learning, etc. In most cases, the following three forms are used:

  • non-formal courses for the (self-) employed initiated by the employer. It is organised in various settings, using forms and programmes chosen by the employer. Some companies apply internationally-recognised sectoral qualifications and programmes;
  • state-funded training programmes for employees (such as civil servants and employees in certain economic sectors, for instance, healthcare, agriculture, etc.);
  • training courses for the unemployed and people notified of dismissal, this type of training is funded through a voucher system introduced in 2012 to finance training in formal and non-formal education programmes.

The Law on VET (2017) provides a legal basis for apprenticeship. It clarifies the provisions for apprenticeship organisation based on an apprenticeship labour contract (between the employer and the VET student) and a VET (learning) contract between the apprentice and the VET provider.

The Law on VET also states that sectoral professional committees should participate in planning the in-take of apprentices. However, apprenticeship has still not gained its position as a clear VET pathway and receives little attention from VET providers and companies.

The new Labour Code and accompanying legislation entering into force on 1 July 2017 introduces two types of apprenticeship contracts: with and without learning agreements.

For apprenticeships that are part of formal VET, the regulation stipulates employers’ responsibility to ensure that apprentices acquire the learning outcomes defined in the VET programme. The law specifies also the main conditions for apprenticeship delivery: work and learning time should not exceed 48 hours per week in total; apprentices’ salaries should not be less than a minimum wage; and learning time spent in the VET institutions would not be paid by the employer and should not exceed one third of the contract duration.

Learn more about apprenticeships in the national context from the European database on apprenticeship schemes by Cedefop: http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/data-visualisations/apprenticeship-schemes/scheme-fiches

The Ministry of Education and Science is the main body responsible for shaping and implementing vocational education and training (VET) policy. The Ministry of Economy and Innovation ([25]http://eimin.lrv.lt/en/) participates in human resources development and VET policy. Other ministries and government bodies are involved in VET policy in the remit of their responsibilities (planning VET funding, managing enrolments in CVET upskilling programmes, etc.).

Following the new VET Law ([26]Republic of Lithuania, Law No XIII-888 amending Republic of Lithuania Law on Vocational Training No VIII-450 of 14 December 2017:
https://e-seimas.lrs.lt/portal/legalAct/lt/TAD/b0b6cda0eb0a11e7a5cea258c39305f6
), in force since February 2018, the Research and Higher Education Monitoring and Analysis Centre (MOSTA) ensures the monitoring framework for VET and higher education, research and innovation. It plans human resources and forecasts new qualification requirements in line with national policies and the needs of the economy ([27]Adapted from Cedefop (2018a). Spotlight on vocational education and training in Lithuania. Luxembourg: Publications Office.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/8121_en.pdf
).

The main tasks of the education ministry on VET delivery include:

  • human resources planning, continuing professional development of VET school teachers and tutors and vocational guidance for VET learners;
  • managing the list of accredited/licenced VET providers and accredited competence assessment bodies;
  • implementing formal initial VET/continuing VET programmes; guarantee quality of formal qualifications based on qualification standards; and monitor the national register of qualifications ([28]The register lists all formal VET qualifications (diplomas and certificates) and vocational qualifications programmes leading to such qualifications (Studijų, mokymo programų ir kvalifikacijų registras):
    https://www.aikos.smm.lt/en/StudyProgramm/SitePages/Study%20and%20Learning%20Programmes.aspx?ss=3f66a1ab-bcb9-4009-bdda-3e02a6fc2b63
    );
  • draw up investment programmes for IVET and other retraining programmes; run the funding system of VET schools (per capita financing) and approve student enrolment in state-funding VET programmes ([29]except for programmes of corrections officers VET and internal service VET institutions);

The Qualifications and VET Development Centre (KPMPC) organises development of qualifications standards and training programmes. It organises assessment and recognition of competences acquired in formal, non formal and informal learning thought competences assessment centres ([30]http://www.kpmpc.lt/kpmpc/profesinis-mokymas-3/kompetenciju-vertinimo-instituciju-akreditavimas/). It supervises and coordinates the work of sectoral professional committees.

The new VET law strengthened the role of sectoral professional committees (SPCs) ([31]Assuming the role of the previous central professional committee.), advisory bodies that ensure cooperation on VET delivery between all VET stakeholders in a particular sector. They are actively involved in shaping and assess new (modules of) vocational training programmes, create and approve sectoral qualifications standards (used to design new VET content), make proposals to the education ministry on qualifications that can be acquired through apprenticeships, new qualifications to be added in the national register of qualifications ([32]The register lists all formal VET qualifications (diplomas and certificates) and vocational qualifications programmes leading to such qualifications (Studijų, mokymo programų ir kvalifikacijų registras):
https://www.aikos.smm.lt/en/StudyProgramm/SitePages/Study%20and%20Learning%20Programmes.aspx?ss=3f66a1ab-bcb9-4009-bdda-3e02a6fc2b63).
) and validation arrangements.

Reforming VET management, financing schemes and quality assurance mechanisms is part of policy priorities and developments in progress to raise the prestige of VET and its attractiveness among all VET stakeholders (learners, VET teachers and trainers, companies).

Funding for IVET institutions by source (000) EUR

 

2014

2015

2016

2017

State budget

75.1

94.7

101.8

103.0

Private sources (physical and legal entities)

7.1

10.6

13.1

13.4

International organisations

17.8

9.9

4.5

4.7

Source: Statistics Lithuania, 2018.

Funding for formal IVET is allocated from the State budget. Training costs are calculated per student (per capita financing of vocational schools). The methodology determines the level of direct funding needed for training per learner enrolled in a formal training programme for one VET academic hour. The unit costs (the so-called ‘student basket’) include allocations for staff salaries and social insurance, in-service training of teachers and funding for the acquisition of various training resources, including practical training. The latter category is calculated using a coefficient that varies depending on the programme area.

Funding is allocated to the VET provider based on the actual number of learners multiplied by the number of hours for implementing the programme and costs of a training hour. Unit costs for learners with special needs are defined separately.

The share of funding from international organisations depends on the availability of European funds.

In addition, VET providers may receive funding from the State budget (annual investment programme) for infrastructure, updating training facilities, etc. Such developments could also be supported from other funds, including EU structural funds. VET providers may receive income from physical and legal entities for services provided (such as training courses, rent of premises). This income is used for education and training purposes.

Vocational guidance is integral part of the national VET system, as stipulated by legislation. It is funded from the ‘student basket’ (see above) and other national and local budgets, sponsors, etc. An ESF-funded project 2010-15 was used to fund guidance programmes and tools for 1 600 career guidance staff and 163 000 beneficiaries (VET learners).

Non-formal CVET for the self-employed and employees is funded by the enterprise or learner. According to national legislation in certain cases training can be sponsored by the State ([33]A company that needs to train a large number of employees to new technologies may apply to the Employment service or the Ministry of Social Security and Labour for funding such training actions for their staff to acquire the necessary technical skills.).

EU and enterprise funds are used to finance training of employees in the private sector. The ministry of economy and innovation is managing ESF funds. Measures include workplace-based training to upskill company employees and managers (ESF funds 2007-13); and two new projects being implemented in the period 2017-23 (ESF funds 2014-20): the competence voucher programme to train 42 000 private sector employees and the HR invest LT project to train employees of foreign companies based in Lithuania. Companies contributions vary from 30% (small-sized) or 40% (medium-sized companies) to 50% (large companies) of the total training cost.

Non-formal CVET for the unemployed is mainly covered from ESF support through the ‘training voucher’ scheme managed by local public employment services. A training voucher issued by the PES to an unemployed may be used, within the limits of its value, to fund an agreed training action, the beneficiary of the voucher may select a provider from those listed in the dedicated PES online website. CVET training of the unemployed is provided on the basis of two types of training contracts:

  • a bipartite VET contract between the unemployed person and the local PES: the unemployed person selects from a list of available VET programmes established based on labour market forecasts and employers surveys. After the completion of the training programme, the unemployed person undertakes to work in the position offered by the local PES for at least six months or start own business; or
  • a tripartite VET and employment contract (between the unemployed person, local PES and employer): a training programme and its provider are agreed with the employer. After the end of the training programme, the employer undertakes to employ the unemployed person for at least six months. If the actual costs of training exceed the limits established by the government, the difference is covered by the learner or the employer. The same procedure is applied to training persons notified of dismissal.

In 2014-20 up to EUR 84.6 million ESF funding are to be allocated in Lithuania for lifelong learning and VET: EUR 44.6 million for increasing the relevance and attractiveness of vocational and adult training to the labour market needs; and EUR 40 million for providing opportunities and incentives for life-long learning and ensuring efficient support.

The funding system for general education schools and VET institutions depends on the number of students which leads to competition between these two networks in attracting and keeping learners. The new Law on VET (2017) ([34]Republic of Lithuania, Law No XIII-888 amending Republic of Lithuania Law on Vocational Training No VIII-450 of 14 December 2017:
https://e-seimas.lrs.lt/portal/legalAct/lt/TAD/b0b6cda0eb0a11e7a5cea258c39305f6
) set the requirements for a new funding model for the entire VET system, implementing provisions are being developed. The new funding for VET combined with new VET programmes tailored on the basis of skills forecasts is expected to raise the attractiveness of VET.

Teaching personnel in IVET institutions

School year

Teaching personnel, total (*)

Of which, vocational teachers

Total

%

2015/16

3 507

2 011

57.3

2016/17

3 481

1 958

56.2

2017/18

3 263

1 822

55.8

(*) At the beginning of the school year.

Source: Statistics Lithuania database, 2018.

In IVET institutions there are two main types of teachers (see table above):

  • general education subject teachers;
  • vocational teachers. On average, vocational teachers represent more than half of all teaching personnel in IVET institutions.

In formal CVET programmes, theoretical or practical vocational content is provided by IVET teachers.

Apprenticeships in formal IVET/CVET are marginal and requirements for in-company tutors are not clearly defined in respective legislation.

VET institutions that focus on training the (un)employed, such as labour market training centres, may introduce in-company trainers (nationally referred to as apprenticeship tutors or practical training instructors). Private training providers offering training leading to formal VET qualifications need a licence from the Education ministry.

General requirements for all VET teachers are set by the 2011 Law on Education ([35]VET school teachers must either: (a) have attained a tertiary education level and a teacher qualification; or (b) have attained a tertiary education level (or a post-secondary education level prior to 2009, or a specialised secondary education level prior to 1995) and would then have to complete a 120-hour pedagogical-psychological course in basics of pedagogy, pedagogical psychology and didactics) during the first year of their placement as a VET teacher; or (c) have completed a VET programme, attained an upper secondary education level, acquired a vocational qualification, achieved a three-year work experience in a relevant field, and completed a pedagogical-psychological course.). VET teacher training follows a consecutive model whereby a vocational qualification is studied first, followed by studies on pedagogy.

VET teachers without a pedagogical qualification, irrespective of their educational attainment level, are offered a 120-hour course on pedagogy and psychology. These courses are organised by accredited institutions and companies.

Additionally, universities provide programmes for the pedagogical education of vocational teachers ([36]ISCED level 4 basic courses on pedagogy and psychology, ISCED level 6 programmes for subject teachers (mathematics, physics, languages, etc.).).

Since September 2018, a new teachers’ remuneration system has been put in place with a view to introducing more favourable payment conditions for (VET) teachers. Salaries are calculated not only for actual lessons but for all the time spent working. This will give teachers greater stability and security. The job consists of three components: contact hours (lessons, after-school activities, counselling, supervising students’ final projects), non-contact hours (preparation for lessons, assessment of achievements) and non-contact hours for the school community ([37]https://e-seimas.lrs.lt/portal/legalAct/lt/TAD/7f76a3f244d311e8b20ee1645...) (work with parents, guiding student pedagogical practical training and other efforts relevant to the school community).

Continuing professional development training courses for VET teachers in schools include topics such as creativity, distance learning methods, digitalisation of curricula, VET for special needs learners, as well as on training resources, mentorship, teaching methodologies and differentiation of learning.

In 2017, 764 vocational teachers and VET institutions’ managers attended training courses on such topics as empowerment of sectoral practical training centres, evaluation of learning outcomes, VET didactics, application of research in VET practice and other topics.

In October 2016, a national level project ([38]http://www.kpmpc.lt/kpmpc/projektai/vykdomi-projektai/projektas-profesij...) Development of the system for the development of vocational and adult teachers' qualifications was launched. It is coordinated by the Qualifications and VET Development Centre ([39]http://www.kpmpc.lt/kpmpc/profesinis-mokymas-3/kompetenciju-vertinimo-instituciju-akreditavimas/), under the responsibility of the education ministry ([40]Cedefop (2018b). Developments in vocational education and training policy in 2015-18: Lithuania. Cedefop monitoring and analysis of VET policies [unpublished].).

A joint EU-funded Baltic project is testing a joint training project for VET subject teachers in schools and in-company trainers. A pilot training programme run in 2017 with 56 VET schools and apprenticeships tutors trained.

More information is available in the Cedefop ReferNet thematic perspective on teachers and trainers ([41]http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/country-reports/teachers-and-trainers).

Since 2016, a monitoring system has been developed mapping occupational qualifications of skilled workers. It provides skills forecasts on future employment trends using a set of indicators approved by the education ministry (such as graduates tracking; number of people in employment and further education). These are used to inform education and lifelong learning policies and plan funding of public schools (VET schools and vocational guidance are state funded based on a per capita financing system, the so-called ‘student basket’).

Following the new VET law (in force since Feb 2018), the Research and Higher Education Monitoring and Analysis Centre (MOSTA) coordinates the monitoring framework for VET and higher education, research and innovation. Its first report (September 2018) presents trends in human resources development and a detailed analysis of skill needs per region; it also examines integration of skilled workforce into the labour market at the beginning of their career, and correspondence of HE and VET qualifications to the labour market needs ([42]https://www.mosta.lt/images/tyrimai/nauji_pav/HR-status-2018-ENG.pdf).

Medium-term forecasts are also being developed as part of a two-year ESF-funded project (2017-19) to monitor trends in employment and better matching of occupations and training programmes listed in the national register of qualifications ([43]The register lists all formal VET qualifications (diplomas and certificates) and vocational qualifications programmes leading to such qualifications (Studijų, mokymo programų ir kvalifikacijų registras):
https://www.aikos.smm.lt/en/StudyProgramm/SitePages/Study%20and%20Learning%20Programmes.aspx?ss=3f66a1ab-bcb9-4009-bdda-3e02a6fc2b63).
).

A methodical framework for the development of sectoral qualifications standards and VET curricula in line with the Lithuanian and European Qualifications Frameworks is under development ([44]The project runs under the on-going ESF-funded project for 2016-20 Development of the Lithuanian Qualifications System (first stage).): in total, 24 qualifications standards will be created defining the major qualifications offered at different levels and sectors.

See also Cedefop’s skills forecast ([45]http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/data-visualisations/skills-forecast) and European Skills Index ([46]https://skillspanorama.cedefop.europa.eu/en/indicators/european-skills-index).

From 2002, VET curricula in Lithuania have been competence-based, with clearly defined learning outcomes.

VET programmes are being gradually redesigned into modular programmes consisting of mandatory and optional units ([47]Cedefop (2018a). Spotlight on vocational education and training in Lithuania. Luxembourg: Publications Office.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/8121_en.pdf
).

Sectoral qualifications standards

To improve the Lithuanian qualification development system, qualifications standards were given a legal basis by legislation in 2007. They are developed for a particular economic sector and are use to describe the most important qualifications in the specific sector at different national qualifications (LTQF) levels. For each qualification the qualifications standard describes competences that are grouped into qualification units ([48]Sectoral qualification standards are available at:
https://www.e-tar.lt/portal/lt/legalAct/871e12205c0b11e79198ffdb108a3753 (in Lithuanian)
).

Since 2018, the education ministry (in charge of national qualification system policy) has delegated development of sectoral qualifications standards to the Qualifications and VET development centre ([49]The new VET law (2017) foresees that from 2019 on, qualifications standards shall be approved by director of Qualifications and VET Development Centre after sectoral professional committees have endorsed them.) through its 18 sectoral professional committees (SPCs), which have been set up to ensure effective social dialogue. SPCs operate in specific sectors of the economy (where skill mismatch ito ensure matching of skills demand and supply). When relevant, other ministries and governmental institutions participate in developing qualifications standards.

Till 2018, ten sectoral qualifications standards were designed ([50]Within the project Formation of qualifications and development of modular VET system implemented in 2010-15.) and 14 new standards in different sectors will be designed till the end of 2020 ([51]Trade; polygraph, mass media and advertisement; manufacture of computer, electronic, optical and electrical equipment and products; manufacture of chemicals and chemical products; manufacture of machinery and equipment and motor vehicles; financial, insurance and real estate activities and others.).

Sectoral qualifications standards are also used to assess the learning outcomes of a vocational qualification. Identifying qualifications standards in all sectors and at all qualification levels is necessary to improve permeability between different education levels ([52]From EQF level 2 VET qualifications up to EQF level 8 in higher education.) and flexibility in skill acquisition.

The MoES has delegated development of sectoral qualifications standards to the Qualifications and VET development centre ([53]The new VET law (2017) foresees that from 2019 on, qualifications standards shall be approved by director of Qualifications and VET Development Centre after sectoral professional committees have endorsed them.) through its 18 sectoral professional committees (SPCs) set up to ensure effective social dialogue. Sectoral professional committees are responsible for designing qualifications standards in specific sectors of the economy.

VET curricula design

Since 2010, the Qualifications and VET development centre (KPMPC) is responsible for designing or updating national modular VET programmes. Before a new programme is issued, sectoral professional committees are also consulted on sectoral qualifications standards used for developing the programme curricula (see above).

VET providers and enterprises can also initiate and design modular training programmes, but in this case the quality of the VET programme has to be evaluated by the Qualifications and VET development centre.

In 2018, 89 modular programmes are registered in the national register of qualifications ([54]The register lists all formal VET qualifications (diplomas and certificates) and vocational qualifications programmes leading to such qualifications (Studijų, mokymo programų ir kvalifikacijų registras):
https://www.aikos.smm.lt/en/StudyProgramm/SitePages/Study%20and%20Learning%20Programmes.aspx?ss=3f66a1ab-bcb9-4009-bdda-3e02a6fc2b63).
), of which 58 were implemented in the school year 2017/18 (47 in 2016/17), in the same year, 38% of VET learners were enrolled in such programmes (compared with 11% in 2016/17). New sectoral qualifications standards and modular programmes are being developed ([55]Under the ESF funded project for 2016-20: Development of the Lithuanian qualifications system (1st stage).); by 2020, 70 new programmes will be developed.

The national quality assurance approach for VET is set out in the VET quality assurance (QA) system concept (2008). The approach includes licensing and supervision of training providers, mandatory self-assessment by all VET providers, external evaluation of the quality of training programmes, support to VET providers (related training and counselling), and a national regulation on developing standards for learning outcomes. The 2017 Law on VET ([56]Republic of Lithuania, Law No XIII-888 amending Republic of Lithuania Law on Vocational Training No VIII-450 of 14 December 2017:
https://e-seimas.lrs.lt/portal/legalAct/lt/TAD/b0b6cda0eb0a11e7a5cea258c39305f6
) set the rules for quality assurance in line with the European Quality Assurance in Vocational Education and Training (EQAVET).

Internal quality management systems

The same QA arrangements apply for IVET providers as well as for CVET providers offering formal CVET programmes which are under the responsibility of the education ministry (MoES):

  • new national monitoring indicators were created in 2017 and are used to conduct annual forecasts ([57]As a result of an ESF-funded project launched in 2017 to improve skills forecasting in the labour market by linking the occupational groups under the Lithuanian classification of occupations with training programmes, and other related activities.);
  • most VET schools have introduced an ISO evaluation system adapted to education;
  • since 2018, a new system of supervisor and school assessment is under development (system of leadership promotion).

No specific requirements are in place for non-formal VET providers ([58]Cedefop (2018b). Developments in vocational education and training policy in 2015-17: Lithuania, p. 13. Cedefop monitoring and analysis of VET policies.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/country-reports/vetpolicy-developments-lithuania-2017 ,
).

VET providers are free to choose their quality management model and to define periodicity and criteria for self-assessment.

The PDCA (plan-do-check-adjust) method is embedded into VET provision and is regarded as the backbone of VET quality assurance.

External evaluation and accreditation of VET providers

VET programmes have to follow qualifications standards. Training programmes are designed by the Qualifications and VET development centre (centrally) or by any other VET provider. In the latter case, the quality of the VET programmes must be checked by the Qualifications and VET development centre. If the VET programme receives a positive evaluation it is included in national register of qualifications ([59]The register lists all formal VET qualifications (diplomas and certificates) and vocational qualifications programmes leading to such qualifications: Studijų, mokymo programų ir kvalifikacijų registras:
https://www.aikos.smm.lt/en/StudyProgramm/SitePages/Study%20and%20Learning%20Programmes.aspx?ss=3f66a1ab-bcb9-4009-bdda-3e02a6fc2b63
). A licence to carry out a registered VET programme is issued to a VET provider if it has sufficient resources to implement the VET programme, and vocational teachers or candidates for vocational teachers meet the requirements prescribed in VET programmes and the Law of Education;

Monitoring framework for VET and HE (state level)

Following the 2017 VET Law, the Research and Higher Education Monitoring and Analysis Centre (MOSTA) ensures the monitoring framework for VET and higher education, research and innovation. It plans human resources and forecasts new qualification requirements in line with national policies and the needs of the economy.

A unified electronic system for admissions to HE and VET institutions is place (2017). It is run by LAMA BPO, the ‘Lithuanian higher institutions association for organizing Joint Admission’- LAMA BPO ([60]http://www.lamabpo.lt/). The association involves 19 universities, 21 colleges (providing higher VET programmes) and over 70 VET institutions.

Design and approval of sectoral qualifications standards -which are the basis of VET programmes - and assessment of learner achievements are under the sole responsibility of the Qualifications and VET Development Centre (KPMPC).

As of 2019 sectoral qualifications standards will be approved by the director of KPMPC ([61]Previously, sectoral qualifications stadards where approved by the Minister for Education and Science and the Minister for Economy.) after sectoral professional committees have endorsed them.

Several EQAVET indicators are used, including those on the destination of VET learners, the share of employed learners on completion of their training, and the mechanisms to identify training needs in the labour market ([62]Cedefop (2018b). Developments in vocational education and training policy in 2015-17: Lithuania, p.14. Cedefop monitoring and analysis of VET policies.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/country-reports/developments-vocational-education-and-training-policy-2015-17-lithuania
).

Relevant divisions of the MoES supervise the teaching process and activities, and audit activities, while the State audit office performs random checks of VET institutions, during which the rationale of their activities is also analysed.

An independent system for validation of prior learning is being developed through a four-year ESF-funded project ([63]ESF 2018-22 project on the improvement of the system of assessment and recognition of competencies and qualifications otherwise acquired by individuals.) launched in 2018. It aims to improve the system of assessment and recognition of non-formal and informal learning and create monitoring and information tools for the assessment and recognition of prior learning.

Reforming the network of IVET and CVET providers

Funding for state schools (general or vocational ones) is calculated based on the number of students which leads to competition between the two types of school in attracting and keeping learners. Since 2015, a network of 42 sectoral practical training centres (SPTCs) was established in selected VET institutions to offer quality practical training in simulated environments using state-of-the-art technologies and equipment. The aim is to provide learners with skills valued in the (local) economy. These centres are open to VET and HE students, employees in enterprises, vocational teachers, etc. ([64]http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/news-and-press/news/lithuania-42-modern-practical-training-centres-established). Recent study commissioned by the education ministry suggest that selected SPTCs should become ‘competence centres’ with extended responsibilities, including piloting new training methods and VET programmes; and supporting the continuing professional development of VET teachers and training.

Individuals, with at least one-year work experience and older than 18, can apply to VET institutions for recognition of their competences. The skills and knowledge of an applicant are defined on the basis of sectoral qualifications standards and relevant VET programmes. The applicant and the school then agree on a timetable of courses as necessary and a final qualification exam. Individuals who pass the exam organised by an accredited competence assessment institution are awarded a VET diploma.

When pursuing VET studies at a higher level, prior learning (or VET programme) is recognised as part of their training programme, affecting the duration of the programme.

Since 2018, the Qualifications and VET development centre is coordinating a four-year ESF-funded project ([65]https://www.kpmpc.lt/kpmpc/en/ivairiais-budais-igytu-kompetenciju-ir-kvalifikaciju-vertinimo-ir-pripazinimo-sistemos-tobulinimas/) for the development of the national system for assessing and recognising competences and professional qualifications. Within this project, several sectoral practical training centres (SPTCs) ([66]A total of 42 sectoral practical training centres (SPTCs) were established in selected VET institutions to offer quality practical training in simulated environments using state-of-the-art technologies and equipment. The aim is to provide learners with skills valued in the (local) economy. These centres are open to VET and HE students, employees in enterprises, vocational teachers, etc.) have been selected to become competences assessment centres for the assessment of individually acquired competencies. Employers and employers’ representatives will be involved in the project. The legal framework is subject to parallel changes to ensure that in the future competences assessment will be performed only through these SPTCs/competence centres, which will eventually replace the 31 accredited institutions (independent private companies or associated business organisations operating as assessment centres, in charge of the final assessment of VET learners). The project aim is to support the unemployed (including newly arrived migrants) to gain qualifications though validation of prior learning and recognition of professional qualifications. The project activities include the creation of reference material for validation of prior learning (such as a bank of competence assessment tasks), methodologies and methodological tools (with model tasks) for the assessment of competencies. It will enhance institutional capacity to assess competencies and/or qualifications otherwise acquired by individuals; and create monitoring and information tools for the assessment and recognition of the acquired competencies.

For more information about arrangements for the validation of non-formal and informal learning please visit Cedefop’s European database ([67]http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/data-visualisations/european-database-on-validation-of-non-formal-and-informal-learning).

Bringing GE and VET closer together

Raising the attractiveness of VET is a policy priority. In the upper secondary general education path (11th and 12th grades) learners may choose from optional technological modules in textile and clothing; applied art, crafts and design; tourism and nutrition technologies; construction and wood processing; business, management and retail trade; mechanics and repair. Also, some general upper secondary curricula include VET programmes modules. When learners continue their studies in VET, the above-mentioned fields and VET modules are recognised as part of their VET programmes.

Since 2010, a technology subject can be part (on an optional base) of the matura exams at the end of upper secondary general education. It is possible for learners in either general or vocational streams to replace one general education subject with the technology subject.

Measures to improve mobility between VET and higher education

VET graduates who have finished upper secondary education programmes and who choose to continue in higher education have a few advantages over students coming from general education. Selection criteria and procedures for ranking graduates who apply for higher education studies are defined annually in a specific regulation. This regulation awards an additional enrolment point for graduates from VET in the same field of studies who performed exceptionally, or who have at least one year of work experience in this field. This additional point increases their chances of being admitted to a state-funded study place in colleges (professional bachelor programmes) and universities (from 2018).

In addition, to enter higher education institution at least three matura exams have to be taken. For example, from 2016, Lithuanian language and mathematics exams are compulsory for those willing to receive state funding for their studies. For upper secondary VET graduates who want to enrol in technological higher education programmes (ISCED 655), the final qualification exam may be recognised as a third matura exam.

Many Initial VET institutions have agreements regarding continuation of VET graduates studies in higher education institutions. They also cooperate with higher education institutions (colleges, universities) in drafting programmes that ensure continuity of VET programmes at tertiary level.

Incentives for youth

VET to acquire a first qualification is free of charge. Initial VET learners may receive a student grant (EUR 10-29) and other material support. Based on data from Statistics Lithuania, around 51% of IVET learners received such a student grant in 2017. Socially disadvantaged learners who do not receive the grant are provided free meals and other material support.

Learners who do not live near the learning institution are provided with hostel accommodation. Based on data from the Centre for Information Technologies in Education, around 99% of those who need hostel accommodation receive it (Statistics Lithuania, 2017).

Training leave for employees

The Labour Code (Parliament, 2016) sets out training leave conditions for employees participating in a VET programme, to prepare and take exams and tests, for consultations, etc. All employees who join a continuing VET course in formal continuing VET programmes at a VET provider are entitled educational leave while retaining their average salary. Since 2015, according to the Labour Code, employees may be granted training leave for up to five working days per year to participate in non-formal adult education.

To support participation in continuing VET tax incentives, grant schemes, paid and unpaid training leave and payback clauses are applied.

Tax incentives for individuals for both formal and non-formal VET were introduced in 2008. Persons paying income tax may claim training expenditure in their annual tax return. Up to 25% of training expenditure can be deducted. When a studying resident of Lithuania is not an income tax payer or has no possibility to exercise the right to deduct expenditure for VET or studies from their own income, such expenses may be deducted from their parents’ or other family members’ income.

Tax incentives for legal entities have been in place since 2005. The Law on Corporate Income Tax (Parliament, 2002) allows deductions for continuing training courses of employees that are linked to their present occupation.

Financial incentives To finance continuing VET, enterprises and organisations may use the grant schemes available from EU structural funds.

Payback clauses for individuals and future employers were both introduced in 2005. The provisions of the Labour Code allow employers to claim compensation from an employee for the costs of training over the past year if they quit their job before a previously agreed time.

Guidance services and providers

As defined by the Vocational Guidance Act ([68]MoES and Ministry of Social Security and Labour (2012). Vocational Guidance Act. Valstybės žinios [Official Gazette], 2012, No 82-4284.
https://www.e-tar.lt/portal/lt/legalAct/TAR.1F89593BBB2C
) the main educational institutions that provide guidance services (career education, information and counselling) to their learners are general education schools and VET institutions.

Municipalities are responsible for organising and coordinating guidance services within their territory.

Nation-wide guidance and counselling is coordinated by the Lithuanian Students’ Non-Formal Education Centre. The centre is responsible for methodological assistance and advice to schools and educational support agencies and is involved in training career guidance staff. It ensures accessibility to modern guidance and counselling tools, and takes part in nationwide monitoring of guidance services for learners.

The Lithuanian Students’ Non-Formal Education Centre, together with the Centre for Information Technologies in Education, are responsible for providing quality information on learning opportunities and career planning on the main national web portal on learning opportunities, AIKOS ([69]Atvira informavimo, konsultavimo ir orientavimo sistema:
http://www.aikos/smm.lt
). This is an open information, guidance and counselling system, which addresses students, employees and guidance and counselling personnel. It informs on education and training programmes, providers, qualifications, occupations, admission rules, education and employment statistics. Other education institutions (pedagogical and psychological services, education support agencies, etc.) are involved in providing guidance services to the extent this is related to their functions and actual guidance needs of learners.

The Education Exchange Support Foundation manages the Euroguidance project and disseminates information on good practice examples in Lithuania and other European countries, new methods, creates various guidance and counselling tools and organises training seminars for guidance practitioners.

Local PES also provide vocational information and counselling services for jobseekers in addition to employment mediation. Youth labour centres of PES organise info-days on career issues, job fairs, Youth Guarantee promotion events and help students and graduates with finding a job or traineeship.

Organisation and funding

General education and VET institutions appoint a coordinator who manages guidance-related activities of career guidance staff, class or group tutors, teachers/vocational teachers, social pedagogues, psychologists, and other support staff.

In 2014, a career education programme was approved by the Minister for education and science for implementation in general education and VET institutions starting from September, 2014 ([70]MoES (2014). Lietuvos Respublikos švietimo ir mokslo ministro 2014 m. sausio 15 d. įsakymas Nr. V-72 ‘Dėl ugdymo karjerai programos patvirtinimo’ [Legal act regarding the programme for career education]. Teisės aktų registras [Register of legal acts], 29.4.2014, No 2014-04888.
https://www.e-tar.lt/portal/lt/legalAct/99c37290cf9011e3a8ded1a0f5aff0a9
). The programme aims to help learners develop career management skills. It can be integrated into primary, general lower and upper secondary and VET curricula and can take the form of optional subjects or extracurricular activities.

Vocational guidance is funded from the ‘student basket’ (see Section 9. VET financing mechanisms) and other national and local budgets, sponsors, etc. In 2010-15 an ESF project was carried out by the Students’ Non-Formal Education Centre during which more than 1600 career guidance staff was employed in GE and VET institutions and trained. Funding was also provided for the development of guidance programmes and tools. By this project more than 163 000 learners received guidance and counselling services.

Learners can acquire career-related information on learning and job opportunities through information systems and various other activities such as study visits, excursions, meetings with representatives of educational institutions, employers and other people and other events. Vocational activation (profesinis veiklinimas), during which visits to enterprises and lectures are organised, is regarded as one of the most important aspects. Learners are encouraged to experience and learn about different types of work, employment areas, specific characteristics of occupations and career paths. Vocational counselling services help learners to identify and discuss individual needs and preferences, and advise them on issues related to career planning, choice of training or studies, employment and job search.

Please see also:

Vocational education and training system chart

Tertiary

Click on a programme type to see more info
Programme Types

EQF 6

Higher education

college studies,

3 years

ISCED 655

Professional bachelor - EQF level 6, ISCED 655 (Profesinio bakalauro studijos). Professional bachelor degree studies (tertiary non-academic education).
EQF level
6
ISCED-P 2011 level

655

Usual entry grade

13

Usual completion grade

16

Usual entry age

19+

Usual completion age

21

Length of a programme (years)

3 - (3 ½)

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Higher VET is formally a part of higher education and includes three to three and half year college study programmes (ISCED 655).

(in the national context, IVET programmes are considered only those delivered in lower-, upper-secondary and post-secondary levels).

Is it continuing VET?

N

Information not available

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

According to the Law on VET a state-funded qualification can be done twice by a person (from EQF level 2 till level 8). If it is first or second qualification - it’s free of charge.

Is it available for adults?

Y

Learners aged 19+ may enter these programmes.

ECVET or other credits

3 years’ programme – 180 credits. One national credit corresponds to one ECTS credit.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • full-time or
  • part-time
  • classroom-based learning
  • in-company learning

In terms of credits allocation:

  • compulsory subjects (141 credits),
  • specialisation subjects (15 credits),
  • general subjects of college studies (15 credits), and
  • optional subjects (9 credits).
Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Work-based learning (in colleges or companies) covers at least one third of the study programme; from which (30 ECTS credits points) the practical placement in companies might last up to six months.

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training in colleges (labs, workshops)
  • practical training placements / apprenticeships
Main target groups

ISCED 655 programmes are accessible to learners over 18 (including those with special educational needs related to hearing impairment) having completed upper secondary education ([122]Basic education, attested by a lower secondary school leaving certificate, is necessary to access upper secondary programmes.).

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

HE VET is available to those having completed upper secondary education (awarded the matura certificate, or completed individualised or adapted secondary education programmes, for those who have special educational needs).

Assessment of learning outcomes

After the end of the programme, learners must take an exam after which a professional bachelor's diploma is awarded. The higher education institution organizes its own examinations according to the study outcomes set out in the study description.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Learners receive a Professional bachelor degree studies (Professional bachelor diploma - Profesinio bakalauro diplomas) at EQF level 6.

The diploma is recognised by the HE institutions and labour authorities.

Examples of qualifications

Software engineering (professional bachelor in informatics); tourism management (professional bachelor in business); management of cultural activity (professional bachelor in business).

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Graduates from post-secondary ISCED 454 programmes may:

  • enter the labour market; or
  • enter higher VET non-academic programmes delivered in colleges (a type of higher education institutions (EQF 6/ISCED 655); or
  • enter higher education academic programmes (EQF 6/ISCED 645, EQF 7/ISCED 746).
Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

A higher education institution may include the results of student partial studies, formal, non-formal and informal learning in the scope of the study program.

General education subjects

N

Key competences

Y

  • communication in the mother tongue (Lithuanian)
  • foreign languages
  • social/civic competences
  • entrepreneurship
Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

All HE VET programmes are based on learning outcomes.

The national qualification system (LTQF) is based on learning outcomes / level descriptors defined according to two parameters: focusing on activity characteristics (complexity, autonomy and variability) and on types of competences (functional, cognitive and general) ([123]Source: Cedefop (2017) European inventory on NQF, 2016: Lithuania. Cedefop country specific report.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/lithuania_-_european_inventory_on_nqf_2016.pdf
).

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Post-secondary

Click on a programme type to see more info
Programme Types

EQF 4

Post-secondary VET,

WBL>60%,

1-2 years

ISCED 454

Initial VET programmes leading to EQF level 4, ISCED 454 (Profesinio mokymo programos turint vidurinį išsilavinimą). Post-secondary non-tertiary vocational education
EQF level
4
ISCED-P 2011 level

454

Usual entry grade

13

Usual completion grade

14 or 15

Usual entry age

19+

Usual completion age

20 or 21

Length of a programme (years)

1-2

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

Information not available

both IVET and CVET

Is it offered free of charge?

Yes and no

VET programmes to acquire a first qualification are provided free of charge ([115]According to the Law on VET a state-funded qualification can be done twice by a person (from EQF level 2 till level 8).)

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

30 to 110 credits depending on the programme complexity The scope of a formal VET programme was set by ministerial order in November 2018 ([114]Order of the Minister of Education and Science of 22 November 2018, No V-925, on approval of the description of the procedure for preparation and registration of vocational training programs.).

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • School-based group learning, where a teacher-led group (class, joint class, VET group, subgroup, temporary group, special medical physical fitness group or other) is set up for a certain period. It can be implemented part time or remotely; and
  • individual learning, where, for a certain period, a student gets individual tuition, or s/he individually and periodically attends a group and/or individual teacher consultations. It can be implemented individually, independently or remotely.
Main providers

The Law on VET stipulates that a VET provider may be any VET institution, a freelance teacher or any other provider (general education school, enterprise, organisation whose main activity is other than VET) authorised to develop and implement VET programmes. VET providers may accept learners and provide formal VET programmes after receiving a licence from the education ministry. VET providers may have licences for both IVET and CVET.

In 2017 formal IVET programmes were carried out by 70 state VET institutions and three private ones. 226 institutions, whose main activity is other than VET, specialise just in CVET.

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

>60%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school (labs, school workshops)
  • on-the-job practice / apprenticeships

Work-based learning in the national context is referred to as 'practical training' either at a VET institution or an enterprise. Practical training in ISCED 454 VET programmes comprises 60% of the total time allocated to teaching vocational subjects, of which 8 to 15 weeks is organised in a company or school-based workshop simulating working conditions.

Main target groups

ISCED 454 programmes are accessible to learners over 18.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Post-secondary VET is available to those having completed upper secondary education (awarded the matura certificate) or completed individualised or adapted secondary education programmes (for those who have special educational needs).

Assessment of learning outcomes

VET programmes are based on learning outcomes.

After the end of a training programme, learners must take an exam after which a VET diploma is awarded.

Qualification exams are detached from the training process and are carried out by accredited institutions (different types of accredited assessment centres exist, including those established by social partners, enterprises and employers’ associations).

Diplomas/certificates provided

VET learners receive a vocational qualification (VET diploma - Profesinio mokymo diplomas at EQF level 4. ([116]In 2016 a new type of VET programmes (ISCED 454) leading to EQF level 5 qualifications was introduced and implemented as a pilot. In 2018 there are three programmes in the Study, training programmes and qualifications register (Studijų, mokymo programų ir kvalifikacijų registras.
https://www.aikos.smm.lt/en/StudyProgramm/SitePages/Study%20and%20Learning%20Programmes.aspx?ss=3f66a1ab-bcb9-4009-bdda-3e02a6fc2b63). Implementation of EQF level 5 programmes is still under discussions.
)

The VET diploma is recognised by the education and training and labour authorities.

Examples of qualifications

Electronic equipment adjuster; landscaper; scaffold builder; installer of pipelines ([117]https://www.kpmpc.lt/kpmpc/kvalifikaciju-formavimas/standartai-2/profesiniai-standartai/\)

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Graduates from post-secondary ISCED 454 programmes may

  • enter the labour market; or
  • enter higher VET non-academic programmes delivered in colleges (a type of higher education institutions (EQF 6/ISCED 655); or
  • enter higher education academic programmes (EQF 6/ISCED 645, EQF 7/ISCED 746).
Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

Qualification exams are detached from the training process and are carried out by accredited institutions. Applicants participating to the exam to acquire a formal VET qualification, may have their prior learning ([118]Non-formal vocational programmes, informal learning (work experience, self-study) or learning from other education programmes.) assessed and certified (credits) based on the VET standards set for the given qualification ([119]See also Section 8. VET governance and 14. Validation of prior learning.).

General education subjects

N

Key competences

N

There is an ongoing ESF-funded programme to develop key competences curricula in all VET programmes by end of 2019, new sectoral qualification standards/modular programmes on key competences are to be developed by 2020.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

All IVET programmes are based on learning outcomes.

The national qualification system (LTQF) is based on learning outcomes / level descriptors defined according to two parameters: focusing on activity characteristics (complexity, autonomy and variability) and on types of competences (functional, cognitive and general) ([120]Source: Cedefop (2017). European inventory on NQF, 2016: Lithuania. Cedefop country specific report.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/lithuania_-_european_inventory_on_nqf_2016.pdf
).

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

43.9% ([121]2017/18)

VET learners in post- secondary VET compared with the total number of learners enrolled in IVET programmes (lower, upper and post- secondary VET programmes).

Secondary

Click on a programme type to see more info
Programme Types

EQF 2

Mainly school-based

programmes,

WBL>60%,

2-3 years

ISCED 252

Initial VET programmes leading to EQF level 2, ISCED 252 (Profesinio mokymo programos nesiekiantiems pagrindinio ugdymo). Lower secondary VET programmes open to learners over 14; training is mandatory until the age of 16.
EQF level
2
ISCED-P 2011 level

252

Usual entry grade

8

Usual completion grade

10-11 (after 2 or 3 years of studies)

Usual entry age

14

Usual completion age

17

Length of a programme (years)

2 to 3 years

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

VET programmes to acquire a first qualification are provided free of charge

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

60 credits/year.

The scope of a formal VET programme was set by ministerial order in November 2018 ([73]Order of the Minister of Education and Science of 22 November 2018, No V-925, on approval of the description of the procedure for preparation and registration of vocational training programs.); it may not be more than 110 credits.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • School-based group learning, where a teacher-led group (class, joint class, VET group, subgroup, temporary group, special medical physical fitness group or other) is set up for a certain period. It can be implemented part time or remotely; and
  • individual learning, where, for a certain period, a student gets individual tuition, or s/he individually and periodically attends a group and/or individual teacher consultations. It can be implemented individually, independently or remotely.
Main providers

The Law on VET stipulates that a VET provider may be any VET institution, a freelance teacher or any other provider (general education school, enterprise, organisation whose main activity is other than VET) authorised to develop and implement VET programmes. VET providers may accept learners and provide formal VET programmes after receiving a licence from the education ministry. VET providers may have licences for both IVET and CVET.

In 2017 formal IVET programmes were carried out by 70 state VET institutions and three private ones. 226 institutions, whose main activity is other than VET, specialise just in CVET.

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

>60%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school (labs, school workshops)
  • on-the-job practice / apprenticeships

Work-based learning in the national context is referred to as 'practical training' either at a VET institution or an enterprise. Practical training in ISCED 252 programmes comprises 60% of the total time allocated to teaching vocational subjects, of which 8 to 15 weeks is organised in a company or school-based workshop simulating working conditions

Main target groups

School-age learners and adults.

ISCED 252 VET programmes are designed to attract early leavers from education and training back into education or training to acquire a basic VET qualification.

Lower secondary two- or three- programmes (ISCED 252) do not lead to a basic education ([74]Basic education, attested by a lower secondary school leaving certificate, is necessary to access upper secondary programmes.) certificate. The main target group are adults and young people.

The two-year training programme is intended for those who have not acquired and do not seek to acquire basic education.

The three-year training programme is intended to provide a vocational qualification certificate for those with special education needs related to intellectual disabilities who have completed an individualised basic education programme, a social skills programme, an adapted basic education programme or an adapted secondary education programme.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

There are no minimum entry requirements, but learners must be at least 14 to enrol. ISCED 252 VET programmes are intended for learners without a basic education ([75]Basic education, attested by a lower secondary school leaving certificate, is necessary to access upper secondary programmes.) certificate, either young people over 14 or adults.

Assessment of learning outcomes

After the end of a VET training programme, learners must take an exam after which a VET diploma is awarded. Qualification exams are detached from the training process and are carried out by accredited institutions (different types of accredited assessment centres exist, including those established by social partners, enterprises and employers’ associations).

Diplomas/certificates provided

ISCED 252 programmes are accessible to learners without a basic education ([76]Basic education, attested by a lower secondary school leaving certificate, is necessary to access upper secondary programmes.) certificate.

VET learners receive a VET diploma at EQF level 2 (Profesinio mokymo diplomas) in a two- or three-year programme ([77]The three-year programmes is is targeted at learners with special needs.) giving access to the labour market.

Formal qualifications are recognised by the education and training and labour authorities.

Examples of qualifications

Room cleaner, bread and cake maker, cook ([78]https://www.e-tar.lt/portal/en/legalAct/871e12205c0b11e79198ffdb108a3753).

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

ISCED 252 programmes do not deliver a basic education certificate. Learners acquire a basic VET diploma giving access to the labour market.

Destination of graduates

information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

Qualification exams are detached from the training process and are carried out by accredited institutions. Applicants participating to the exam to acquire a formal VET qualification, may have their prior learning ([79]Non-formal vocational programmes, informal learning (work experience, self-study) or learning from other education programmes.) assessed and certified (credits) based on the VET standards set for the given qualification ([80]See also Section 8. VET governance and 14. Validation of prior learning).

General education subjects

N

Key competences

N

There is an ongoing ESF-funded programme to develop key competences curricula in all VET programmes by end of 2019, new sectoral qualification standards/modular programmes on key competences are to be developed by 2020.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

All IVET programmes are based on learning outcomes.

The national qualification system (LTQF) is based on learning outcomes / level descriptors defined according to two parameters: focusing on activity characteristics (complexity, autonomy and variability) and on types of competences (functional, cognitive and general) ([81]Source: Cedefop (2017). European inventory on NQF, 2016: Lithuania. Cedefop country specific report.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/lithuania_-_european_inventory_on_nqf_2016.pdf
).

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

12.1% ([82]2017/18) of VET learners are enrolled in lower secondary VET (ISCED 252 and 254 programmes) compared to the total number of learners enrolled in IVET programmes (lower, upper and post- secondary VET programmes).

No separate statistics are available for EQF level 2/ISCED 252 programmes.

EQF 2

Mainly school-based

programmes,

WBL >44%,

2-3 years

ISCED 254

Initial VET programmes leading to EQF level 2, ISCED 254 (Profesinio mokymo programos kartu su pagrindinio ugdymo programomis)
EQF level
2
ISCED-P 2011 level

254

Usual entry grade

8

Usual completion grade

10-11 (after 2 or 3 years of studies)

Usual entry age

14

Usual completion age

17

Length of a programme (years)

2 to 3 years ([83]Two years for young people over 14 with primary education only; three years for people with special education needs; one year, for adults with basic education (lower secondary school leaving certificate).)

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

Education is compulsory till 16 years of age

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

VET programmes to acquire a first qualification are provided free of charge.

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

60 credits /year

The scope of a formal VET programme was set by ministerial order in November 2018 ([84]Order of the Minister of Education and Science of 22 November 2018, No V-925, on approval of the description of the procedure for preparation and registration of vocational training programs.); it may not be more than 110 credits.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • School-based group learning, where a teacher-led group (class, joint class, VET group, subgroup, temporary group, special medical physical fitness group or other) is set up for a certain period. It can be implemented part time or remotely; and
  • individual learning, where, for a certain period, a student gets individual tuition, or s/he individually and periodically attends a group and/or individual teacher consultations. It can be implemented individually, independently or remotely.
Main providers

The Law on VET stipulates that a VET provider may be any VET institution, a freelance teacher or any other provider (general education school, enterprise, organisation whose main activity is other than VET) authorised to develop and implement VET programmes. VET providers may accept learners and provide formal VET programmes after receiving a licence from the education ministry. VET providers may have licences for both IVET and CVET.

In 2017 formal IVET programmes were carried out by 70 state VET institutions and three private ones. 226 institutions, whose main activity is other than VET, specialise just in CVET.

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

>44%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school (labs, school workshops)
  • on-the-job practice / apprenticeships

Work-based learning in the national context is referred to as 'practical training' either at a VET institution or an enterprise. Practical training in ISCED 254 VET programmes comprises 44% of the total time allocated to teaching vocational subjects, of which 8 to 15 weeks is organised in a company or school-based workshop simulating working conditions.

Main target groups

The main target group are school-age learners and adults.

VET ISCED 254 programmes are designed to attract early leavers from education and training ([85]Young people over 14 with primary education complete the programme in two years; adults with basic education complete the programme in one year.) back into education or training to acquire a basic VET qualification and a basic education ([86]Basic education, attested by a lower secondary school leaving certificate, is necessary to access upper secondary programmes.) certificate in two years.

The three-year training programme is intended for learners with special educational needs.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

There are no minimum entry requirements but learners must be at least 14 years old to enrol.

ISCED 254 VET programmes are intended for learners without a basic education ([87]Basic education, attested by a lower secondary school leaving certificate, is necessary to access upper secondary programmes.) certificate, either young people over 14 or adults ([88]Adults with a basic education may also enrol and complete the programme in one year, then they take the exam to obtain the VET qualification; see also Section 24. Assessment.).

Assessment of learning outcomes

VET programmes are based on learning outcomes.

After the end of a training programme, learners must take an exam after which a VET diploma is awarded. Learners also received a basic education certificate ([89]Basic education, attested by a lower secondary school leaving certificate, is necessary to access upper secondary programmes.) upon the completion of the two- (or three-) year programme.

Qualification exams are detached from the training process and are carried out by accredited institutions (different types of accredited assessment centres exist, including those established by social partners, enterprises and employers’ associations).

The VET qualification obtained allows holders to perform a job or work function ([90]For example truck driver (job) qualification allowing the holder to work at high altitude or to carry heavy loads (work function).).

Diplomas/certificates provided

In ISCED 254 VET programmes learners receive a basic vocational qualification (VET diploma - Profesinio mokymo diplomas) giving access to the labour market and a basic education ([91]Basic education, attested by a lower secondary school leaving certificate, is necessary to access upper secondary programmes.) certificate allowing them to pursuit upper secondary studies.

The VET diploma is recognised by the education and training and labour authorities.

Examples of qualifications

Waiter; bricklayer; plumber ([92]Sectoral qualification standards:
https://www.kpmpc.lt/kpmpc/kvalifikaciju-formavimas/standartai-2/profesiniai-standartai/
).

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Graduates from ISCED 254 programmes may:

  • enter the labour market; or
  • continue their studies at EQF level 3 general education or VET programmes (prior VET knowledge may be recognised affecting the duration of the programme).
Destination of graduates
  • Share of those entering the labour market – information not available
  • Share of those moving on to further studies – information not availalbe
Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

Qualification exams are detached from the training process and are carried out by accredited institutions. Applicants participating to the exam to acquire a formal VET qualification, may have their prior learning ([93]Non-formal vocational programmes, informal learning (work experience, self-study) or learning from other education programmes.) assessed and certified (credits) based on the VET standards set for the given qualification ([94]See also Section 8. VET governance and 14. Validation of prior learning.).

General education subjects

Y

Programmes learners receive a basic vocational qualification (VET diploma - Profesinio mokymo diplomas) and a basic education certificate.

Key competences

N

There is an ongoing ESF-funded programme to develop key competences curricula in all VET programmes by end of 2019, new sectoral qualification standards/modular programmes on key competences are to be developed by 2020.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

All IVET programmes are based on learning outcomes.

The national qualification system (LTQF) is based on learning outcomes / level descriptors defined according to two parameters: focusing on activity characteristics (complexity, autonomy and variability) and on types of competences (functional, cognitive and general) ([95]Source: Cedefop (2017). European inventory on NQF, 2016: Lithuania. Cedefop country specific report.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/lithuania_-_european_inventory_on_nqf_2016.pdf
).

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

12.1% ([96]2017/18) of VET learners are enrolled in lower secondary VET (ISCED 252 and 254 programmes) compared to the total number of learners enrolled in IVET programmes (lower, upper and post- secondary VET programmes).

No separate statistics are available for EQF level 2/ISCED 254 programmes.

EQF 3

Mainly school-based

programmes,

WBL>60%,

2-3 years

ISCED 352

Initial VET programmes leading to EQF level 3, ISCED 352 (Profesinio mokymo programos, neįgyjant vidurinio išsilavinimo)
EQF level
3
ISCED-P 2011 level

352

Usual entry grade

11

Usual completion grade

12-13 (after 2 or 3 years of studies)

Usual entry age

18

Usual completion age

19 (20 for those with special education needs)

Length of a programme (years)

2 to 3 years

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

VET programmes to acquire a first qualification are provided free of charge.

Is it available for adults?

Y

Learners enter at age 18

ECVET or other credits

30 to 110 credits depending on the complexity of the programme. The scope of a formal VET programme was set by ministerial order in November 2018 ([97]Order of the Minister of Education and Science of 22 November 2018, No V-925, on approval of the description of the procedure for preparation and registration of vocational training programs.).

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • School-based group learning, where a teacher-led group (class, joint class, VET group, subgroup, temporary group, special medical physical fitness group or other) is set up for a certain period. It can be implemented part time or remotely; and
  • individual learning, where, for a certain period, a student gets individual tuition, or s/he individually and periodically attends a group and/or individual teacher consultations. It can be implemented individually, independently or remotely.
Main providers

The Law on VET stipulates that a VET provider may be any VET institution, a freelance teacher or any other provider (general education school, enterprise, organisation whose main activity is other than VET) authorised to develop and implement VET programmes. VET providers may accept learners and provide formal VET programmes after receiving a licence from the education ministry. VET providers may have licences for both IVET and CVET.

In 2017 formal IVET programmes were carried out by 70 state VET institutions and three private ones. 226 institutions, whose main activity is other than VET, specialise just in CVET.

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

>60%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school (labs, school workshops)
  • on-the-job practice / apprenticeships

Work-based learning in the national context is referred to as 'practical training' either at a VET institution or an enterprise. Practical training in ISCED 352 VET programmes comprises 60% of the total time allocated to teaching vocational subjects, of which 8 to 15 weeks is organised in a company or school-based workshop simulating working conditions.

Main target groups

Upper secondary two- or three-year school-based VET programmes (ISCED 352) are accessible to learners having completed basic education ([98]Basic education, attested by a lower secondary school leaving certificate, is necessary to access upper secondary programmes.). They do not lead to an upper secondary general education matura certificate ([99]The matura certificate attests completion of upper secondary education and gives access to tertiary level programmes.).

The two-year training programme is accessible to both, young people (including those with special educational needs related to hearing impairment) or adults.

The three-year training programme is intended for those with special educational needs who have completed individualised basic education programme, social skills programme, adapted basic education programme or adapted upper secondary education programme.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Only holders of a basic education ([100]Basic education, attested by a lower secondary school leaving certificate, is necessary to access upper secondary programmes.) certificate may enter these programmes.

Assessment of learning outcomes

VET programmes are based on learning outcomes.

After the end of a training programme, learners must take an exam after which a VET diploma is awarded. Qualification exams are detached from the training process and are carried out by accredited institutions (different types of accredited assessment centres exist, including those established by social partners, enterprises and employers’ associations).

Diplomas/certificates provided

In ISCED 352 VET programmes learners receive a vocational qualification at EQF level 3 (VET diploma - Profesinio mokymo diplomas) giving access to the labour market.

The VET diploma is recognised by the education and training and labour authorities.

Examples of qualifications

Railroad builder; road worker; metal constructions assembler.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Graduates from ISCED 352 programmes may:

  • enter the labour market.
Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

Qualification exams are detached from the training process and are carried out by accredited institutions. Applicants participating to the exam to acquire a formal VET qualification, may have their prior learning ([101]Non-formal vocational programmes, informal learning (work experience, self-study) or learning from other education programmes.) assessed and certified (credits) based on the VET standards set for the given qualification ([102]See also Section 8. VET governance and 14. Validation of prior learning.).

General education subjects

N

Key competences

N

There is an ongoing ESF-funded programme to develop key competences curricula in all VET programmes by end of 2019, new sectoral qualification standards/modular programmes on key competences are to be developed by 2020.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

All IVET programmes are based on learning outcomes.

The national qualification system (LTQF) is based on learning outcomes / level descriptors defined according to two parameters: focusing on activity characteristics (complexity, autonomy and variability) and on types of competences (functional, cognitive and general) ([103]Source: Cedefop (2017). European inventory on NQF, 2016: Lithuania. Cedefop country specific report.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/lithuania_-_european_inventory_on_nqf_2016.pdf
).

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

43.7% ([104]2017/18)

of VET learners in upper secondary VET (ISCED 352 and 354 programmes) compared with the total number of learners enrolled in IVET programmes (lower, upper and post- secondary VET programmes).

No separate statistics are available for EQF level 3/ISCED 352 programmes.

EQF 4

Mainly school-based

programmes,

WBL>44%,

3 years

ISCED 354

Initial VET programmes leading to EQF level 4, ISCED 354 (Profesinio mokymo programos kartu su vidurinio ugdymo programomis).
EQF level
4
ISCED-P 2011 level

354

Usual entry grade

11

Usual completion grade

13

Usual entry age

18

Usual completion age

20

Length of a programme (years)

3

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

VET programmes to acquire a first qualification are provided free of charge ([106]According to the Law on VET a state-funded qualification can be done twice by a person (from EQF level 2 till level 8).).

Is it available for adults?

Y

Learners enter at 18.

ECVET or other credits

30 to 110 credits depending on the complexity of the programme.

The scope of a formal VET programme was set by ministerial order in November 2018 ([105]Order of the Minister of Education and Science of 22 November 2018, No V-925, on approval of the description of the procedure for preparation and registration of vocational training programs.).

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • School-based group learning, where a teacher-led group (class, joint class, VET group, subgroup, temporary group, special medical physical fitness group or other) is set up for a certain period. It can be implemented part time or remotely; and
  • individual learning, where, for a certain period, a student gets individual tuition, or s/he individually and periodically attends a group and/or individual teacher consultations. It can be implemented individually, independently or remotely.
Main providers

The Law on VET stipulates that a VET provider may be any VET institution, a freelance teacher or any other provider (general education school, enterprise, organisation whose main activity is other than VET) authorised to develop and implement VET programmes. VET providers may accept learners and provide formal VET programmes after receiving a licence from the education ministry. VET providers may have licences for both IVET and CVET.

In 2017 formal IVET programmes were carried out by 70 state VET institutions and three private ones. 226 institutions, whose main activity is other than VET, specialise just in CVET.

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

>44%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school (labs, school workshops)
  • on-the-job practice / apprenticeships

Work-based learning in the national context is referred to as 'practical training' either at a VET institution or an enterprise. Practical training in ISCED 354 VET programmes comprises 44% of the total time allocated to teaching vocational subjects, of which 8 to 15 weeks is organised in a company or school-based workshop simulating working conditions.

Main target groups

ISCED 354 programmes are accessible to learners over 18 (including those with special educational needs related to hearing impairment) having completed basic education ([107]Basic education, attested by a lower secondary school leaving certificate, is necessary to access upper secondary programmes.).

Upper secondary vocational education with secondary education.

For students who have a basic education, 2-3 years, after which the qualification or the right to perform a job or work function is awarded after the acquired competences have been assessed and secondary education is acquired after maturity examinations.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Only holders of a basic education ([108]Basic education, attested by a lower secondary school leaving certificate, is necessary to access upper secondary programmes.) certificate may enter these programmes.

Assessment of learning outcomes

VET programmes are based on learning outcomes.

After the end of a training programme, learners must take an exam after which a VET diploma is awarded. Qualification exams are detached from the training process and are carried out by accredited institutions (different types of accredited assessment centres exist, including those established by social partners, enterprises and employers’ associations).

Learners pass an exam to obtain also the general education matura certificate giving access to higher education.

Diplomas/certificates provided

VET learners receive a vocational qualification (VET diploma - Profesinio mokymo diplomas) and the matura (Brandos atestatas) general education certificate at EQF level 4 giving access to higher education.

The VET diploma is recognised by the education and training and labour authorities.

Examples of qualifications

Guest service worker; barmen; confectioner ([109]https://www.e-tar.lt/portal/en/legalAct/871e12205c0b11e79198ffdb108a3753).

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Graduates from ISCED 354 programmes may:

  • enter the labour market; or
  • enter post-secondary EQF 4 (ISCED 454) programmes (prior VET knowledge may be recognised affecting the duration of the programme);
  • enter higher VET non-academic programmes delivered in colleges (a type of higher education institutions (EQF 6/ISCED 655);
  • enter higher education academic programmes (EQF 6/ISCED 645, EQF 7/ISCED 746).
Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

Qualification exams are detached from the training process and are carried out by accredited institutions. Applicants participating to the exam to acquire a formal VET qualification, may have their prior learning ([110]Non-formal vocational programmes, informal learning (work experience, self-study) or learning from other education programmes.) assessed and certified (credits) based on the VET standards set for the given qualification ([111]See also Section 8. VET governance and 14. Validation of prior learning.).

General education subjects

Y

Key competences

N

There is an ongoing ESF-funded programme to develop key competences curricula in all VET programmes by end of 2019, new sectoral qualification standards/modular programmes on key competences are to be developed by 2020.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

All IVET programmes are based on learning outcomes.

The national qualification system (LTQF) is based on learning outcomes / level descriptors defined according to two parameters: focusing on activity characteristics (complexity, autonomy and variability) and on types of competences (functional, cognitive and general) ([112]Source: Cedefop (2017). European inventory on NQF, 2016: Lithuania. Cedefop country specific report.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/lithuania_-_european_inventory_on_nqf_2016.pdf
).

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

43.7% ([113]2017/18)

of VET learners in upper secondary VET (ISCED 352 and 354 programmes) compared with the total number of learners enrolled in IVET programmes (lower, upper and post- secondary VET programmes).

No separate statistics are available for EQF level 3/ISCED 354 programmes.

EQF 2-4

CVET

programmes

CVET programmes (Tęstinio profesinio mokymo programos)
EQF level
2-4
ISCED-P 2011 level

2 - 4

Usual entry grade

Information not available

Usual completion grade

Information not available

Usual entry age

18+

Usual completion age

Information not available

Length of a programme (years)

Up to one year

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

CVET training to acquire formal qualifications is part of the national VET system and delivers the formal VET qualifications at EQF levels 2-4 (ISCED 2-4).

Is it initial VET?

N

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

CVET programmes are offered for a fee, except for the unemployed and those at risk of unemployment whose training is supported from European structural funds (ESF) projects. CVET for the unemployed is funded by a voucher system, which allows them to choose their training provider.

Is it available for adults?

Y

Formal CVET courses are available to learners over 18.

ECVET or other credits

20 to 90 credits depending on the programme.

The scope of a formal VET programme was set by ministerial order in November 2018 ([125]Order of the Minister of Education and Science of 22 November 2018, No V-925, on approval of the description of the procedure for preparation and registration of vocational training programs.); it may not be more than 110 credits.

The volume of one year of formal vocational training is 60 learning credits. The scope of the formal vocational training program may not be less than 30 learning credits and more than 110 learning credits.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • School-based group learning, where a teacher-led group (class, joint class, VET group, subgroup, temporary group, special medical physical fitness group or other) is set up for a certain period. It can be implemented part time or remotely; and
  • individual learning, where, for a certain period, a student gets individual tuition, or s/he individually and periodically attends a group and/or individual teacher consultations. It can be implemented individually, independently or remotely.
Main providers

Main providers of formal CVET programmes are labour market training centres offering in-company training (apprenticeships). Formal CVET is designed for people with different education attainment levels, from primary to post-secondary; in some cases, a vocational qualification or work experience is a prerequisite to access these programmes.

The Law on VET stipulates that a VET provider may be any VET institution, a freelance teacher or any other provider (general education school, enterprise, organisation whose main activity is other than VET) authorised to develop and implement VET programmes. VET providers may accept learners and provide formal VET programmes after receiving a licence from the education ministry. VET providers may have licences for both IVET and CVET.

In 2017 formal IVET programmes were carried out by 70 state VET institutions and three private ones. 226 institutions, whose main activity is other than VET, specialise just in CVET.

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

60-80%

Formal CVET programmes (accessible to learners over 18) average duration up to one year leading to recognised vocational qualifications EQF levels 2-4. In CVET, practical training covers 60-80% of the programme.

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training in labour market training centres
  • on-the-job practice / in-company training (apprenticeships)
Main target groups
  • programmes for the unemployed
  • programmes for those notified of dismissal

Training for the unemployed and for those who have been notified of dismissal is organised via formal CVET programmes listed in the national register of qualifications ([126]The register lists all formal VET qualifications (diplomas and certificates) and vocational qualifications programmes leading to such qualifications (Studijų, mokymo programų ir kvalifikacijų registras):
https://www.aikos.smm.lt/en/StudyProgramm/SitePages/Study%20and%20Learning%20Programmes.aspx?ss=3f66a1ab-bcb9-4009-bdda-3e02a6fc2b63).
). The local public employment service ([127]PES: http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=105&langId=en) is responsible for training the unemployed. The unemployed and those notified of dismissal are referred to training providers, which they have chosen from the list published on the public employment service website.

Training programmes are organised taking into account the specific needs of employers. Most unemployed persons follow programmes agreed with employers, who are obliged to hire the unemployed persons for a period of at least six months after training. Where it is agreed with the employer, practical training is organised at the workplace.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Entry requirements are included in the program (the basic curriculum is linked to 3 LTQF level, and secondary education programmes to 4 LTQF level).

Assessment of learning outcomes

VET programmes are based on learning outcomes.

After the end of a training programme, learners must take an exam after which a VET diploma is awarded. Qualification exams are detached from the training process and are carried out by accredited institutions (different types of accredited assessment centres exist, including those established by social partners, enterprises and employers’ associations).

Diplomas/certificates provided

VET learners receive a vocational qualification (VET diploma - Profesinio mokymo diplomas).

The VET diploma is recognised by the education and training and labour authorities.

Examples of qualifications

Water treatment plant operator; Building insulator; Beer maker; Confectioner ([128]Vocational training program base:
https://www.kpmpc.lt/programos.html
).

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

After completing a formal CVET programme learners may enter the labour market.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

Qualification exams are detached from the training process and are carried out by accredited institutions. Applicants participating to the exam to acquire a formal VET qualification, may have their prior learning ([129]Non-formal vocational programmes, informal learning (work experience, self-study) or learning from other education programmes.) assessed and certified (credits) based on the VET standards set for the given qualification ([130]See also Section 8. VET governance and 14. Validation of prior learning).

General education subjects

N

Key competences

N

There is an ongoing ESF-funded programme to develop key competences curricula in all VET programmes by end of 2019; new sectoral qualification standards/modular programmes on key competences are to be developed by 2020.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

All VET programmes are based on learning outcomes.

The national qualification system (LTQF) is based on learning outcomes / level descriptors defined according to two parameters: focusing on activity characteristics (complexity, autonomy and variability) and on types of competences (functional, cognitive and general) ([131]Source: Cedefop (2017). European inventory on NQF, 2016: Lithuania. Cedefop country specific report.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/lithuania_-_european_inventory_on_nqf_2016.pdf
).

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

VET available to adults (formal and non-formal)

Programme Types
Not available

General themes

Luxembourg’s education system (including VET) is shaped by the country’s political, economic, demographic and linguistic particularities, and strongly influenced by its:

  • relatively small territory;
  • multinational population and workforce: almost half of the country’s population have are foreign citizens (47%), among them the largest group being Portuguese (16%) and 24.6% from other European Union countries;
  • multilingualism: there are three official languages (German, French and Luxembourgish);
  • fast growing number of inhabitants since 1991 (the population has increased by 50% to a total of 602 000 inhabitants in 2018).

Distinctive features of VET ([1]Cedefop (2017.) Spotlight on vocational education and training in Luxembourg. Luxembourg: Publications Office.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/8112_en.pdf
)

Social partner involvement is a core principle in VET policy. The professional chambers act as independent policy institutes; they are represented in the tripartite advisory committee on vocational training and consulted on VET legislation. The 2008 reform reinforced their role, which includes involvement in developing and revising VET programmes. They also accompany enterprises and apprentices through practical training and organise CVET.

Learners have an opportunity to follow cross-border apprenticeship to acquire qualifications that Luxembourg’s education system cannot offer; the number of learners is not always sufficient given the small size of the country. Practical training in a company based in Luxembourg is combined with learning at school in one of the neighbouring countries. Teaching in vocational programmes has been based on units and modules since the VET reform of 2008, which was implemented until 2013/14 ([2]SCL (2008a). Loi du 19 décembre 2008 portant réforme de la formation professionnelle]. Mémorial A 220, 3273-3288.
http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2008/0220/a220.pdf#page=2
). Each module focuses on concrete professional situations; the learning outcomes to be acquired (competences and knowledge) are defined for each module.

Learner progression to general education or (pre-) VET in secondary education is guided based on achievements and interests, parents’ opinions and the view of education staff, including a (pre-) VET representative.

Close ties with neighbouring countries, multilingualism in all spheres of life and the high share of foreign citizens with a mother tongue other than one of the three official languages have a strong impact on VET. Luxembourg provides more language training than any other country, in terms of both the number of foreign languages studied per learner and time spent in learning. Multilingualism is a strength but also a challenge: the official language used varies, depending on the type and level of education and training.

Tackling youth unemployment and investment in skills are high on the policy agenda. Reinforced stakeholder involvement and youth guarantee measures aim to match young people’s skills/qualifications better to labour market demand, and to target the low-skilled. In line with the Europe 2020 headline targets, national policies focus on keeping the share of early leavers from education and training below 10%. One of the challenges is to ensure education and training equity, irrespective of origin or socioeconomic status. One of the education ministry’s priorities is to ensure a diversified offer to meet the needs of increasingly heterogeneous target groups. Implementation of the 2008 VET reform has revealed weaknesses in the system. Bringing about change was difficult: adapting to new realities was challenging for institutions, teachers and learners. Amendments to current legislation were developed to fine-tune the reform. The law of 22 June 2017 art. 12) which gives its legal basis to the House of Guidance (Maison de l’orientation) also foresees that each secondary school should develop its own clear and general guidance approach.

To give learners better opportunities in the labour market, the education ministry is expanding the apprenticeship offer in vocational and technician programmes.

There is a need for stronger links between the world of education and training and that of work. Emphasis has been put on dovetailing in-company and school-based training phases, and on strengthening on-the-job training requirements. In collaboration with professional chambers, the government promotes implementation of quality assurance in work-based learning. This implies defining the process that will ensure better quality without disrupting doing business.

Data from VET in Luxembourg Spotlight 2017 ([3]Cedefop (2017) Spotlight on vocational education and training in Luxembourg. Luxembourg: Publications Office.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/8112_en.pdf
).

Population in 2018: 602 005 ([4]NB: Data for population as of 1 January; break in series. Eurostat table tps00001 [extracted 28.1.2019].)

It increased by 12.1% since 2013 due to immigration ([5]NB: Data for population as of 1 January; break in series. Eurostat table tps00001 [extracted 28.1.2019].).

Luxembourg's population growth is mainly due to immigration, as the natural balance is relatively low. The share of foreigners in Luxembourg's total population is growing steadily.

As in many other EU countries, the population is ageing.

The old-age dependency ratio ([6]Old-age-dependency ratio is defined as the ratio between the number of persons aged 65 and more over the number of working-age persons (15-64). The value is expressed per 100 persons of working age (15-64).) is expected to increase from 21 in 2015 to 44 in 2060

 

Population forecast by age group and old-age-dependency ratio

Source: Eurostat, proj_15ndbims [extracted 6.05.2019].

 

Demographic changes have an impact on VET.

In 2018, Luxembourg had 602 005 inhabitants. Since 1991 the population has increased by 50% mainly due to immigration, which has a major impact on VET.

The figure below shows that 47% of the country’s population are foreign citizens ([7]Foreign citizens residing in Luxembourg can obtain Luxembourgish nationality by naturalisation. Legislation requires them to attend citizenship training and to pass an oral Luxembourgish language exam.). Their share has more than doubled in the past 25 years. In the first half of the 1960s most of the immigrants came from Italy. However, since 1966, the immigrant population from Portugal increased from 1 100 to 82 400 in 2011 ([8]The latest population census available from 2011.) and became the largest in the country. In 2018, the Portuguese community was 96 800 inhabitants (16.0%).

 

Population structure by nationality - 2018 (%)

Source: Statec 2018- Table b1101 [accessed 30.7.2018].

 

The share of the population with a foreign nationality and a mother tongue other than the official German, French and Luxembourgish languages is high. Multilingualism is one of the country’s strengths but it is also a challenge for education and training. The high share of foreign nationals requires education and training and labour market integration policies. A public agency for integration (Office Luxembourgeois de l'Accueil et de l'Intégration) under the auspices of the Ministry of Family, Integration and the Greater Region implements this policy. This includes providing information on training in the official languages and information about the recognition of foreign diploma and secondary general education ([9]General education is nationally referred to as ‘classical education.) and VET certificates and reports ([10]This information is also easily accessible at
www.guichet.lu and
www.lifelong-learning.lu [accessed 23.1.2019].
).

The economy has undergone structural changes in the past two decades (see Figure below). The industrial economy evolved into a service economy with jobs that often require tertiary level qualifications. Employment in the industrial sector decreased from 16.9% in 1997 to 9.0% in 2017. The service, professional, scientific and technical sectors and the administrative and support service sectors have had the highest growth, from 9.0% to 16.1%. Adapting VET provision to the constantly changing employment structure has been a challenge. In 2017, more than 40% of employment was concentrated in the following sectors:

  • wholesale and retail trade;
  • transport and storage;
  • accommodation and food service activities;
  • public administration and other public services.

The public administration includes civil servants and public employees from the State and municipalities and permanent staff from national railways. In 2016, there were approximately 11 204 teachers; 4 931 of these were in secondary general and technical education ([11]MENJE (2018a). Les chiffres clés de l’Éducation nationale: statistiques et indicateurs 2016-2017 [Key figures of national education: statistics and indicators 2016-17]. Luxembourg: MENJE.
http://www.men.public.lu/fr/actualites/publications/themes-transversaux/statistiques-analyses/chiffres-cles/2016-2017/index.html
).

 

Employment by activity sector in 1997 and 2017 (%)

Source: Statec 2018 Table - B3003 Emploi salarié intérieur par branche d'activité - données désaisonnalisées 1997-2017

 

Access to skilled craftsperson and commercial activities and some liberal professions is regulated.

Commercial activities and skilled craftsmanship in the territory require a business permit, issued if the manager satisfies qualification requirements and professional integrity. Qualification requirements for skilled craftsperson companies differ depending on the trade. For main craft trades such as baker/confectioner, dental technician, specialist in mechatronics, the manager must have a master craftsperson certificate (brevet de maîtrise) or a bachelor degree (if not linked to the core business it should be complemented with at least two years of professional experience), or a vocational aptitude diploma (diplôme d'aptitude professionnelle, DAP) completed by managing experience of six years in the field. For secondary craft trades such as dry-cleaner/launderer, heating mechanic, the manager must have a DAP or similar in a related field or three years’ professional experience in the activity.

Total unemployment ([12]Percentage of active population, 25 to 74 years old.) (2017): 5.6% (7.6% in EU28), it increased by 1.4 percentage points since 2007 ([13]Eurostat table tps00203 [extracted 25.1.2019].).

 

Unemployment rate (aged 15-24 and 25-64) by education attainment level in 2008-18 ([14]Time series for the 15-24 group must be considered with caution due to the small number of observations taken into account.)

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011; breaks in time series.
ISCED 0-2 = less than primary, primary and lower secondary education.
ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education.
ISCED 5-8 = tertiary education.
Source: Eurostat, lfsa_urgaed [extracted 16.05.2019].

 

Unemployment differed between those with low- and high-level qualifications only slightly for the age group 25-64 during 2008-18. In 2018 it was the lowest for VET graduates at ISCED levels 5-8 (4.1%) and highest for those at ISCED level 0-2 (6.5%). Since 2008 the unemployment rate of the age group 25-64 has increased for ISCED level 0-2 (by 1.7 percentage points) and 5-8 (1.9 pp.) but remained stable for VET graduates at ISCED level 3-4.

The age group 15-24, however, faced a much higher risk of unemployment during those years (2008-18), especially those having only ISCED level 0-2 who suffered unemployment of 22.4-19.9%.

Employment of 20 to 34-year-old VET graduates is high rate, but decreased between 2014 and 2018, from 88.6% to 81.6%. However, it was always higher than the EU-28 average which was 76.9% in 2014 but increased to 80.5% in 2018.

 

Employment rate of VET graduates (20 to 34 years old, ISCED levels 3 and 4) ([15]Time series must be considered with caution due to the small number of observations taken into account.)

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011; breaks in time series.
ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education
Source: Eurostat, edat_lfse_24 [extracted on 16.05.2019]

 

The employment rate of VET graduates (20 to 34 years old, ISCED levels 3 and 4) ([16]Time series must be considered with caution due to the small number of observations taken into account.) decreased between 2014 and 2018 by 7.5 percentage points; it increased from 76.9% to 80.5% across the EU-28.

The employment rate of all graduates aged 20 to 34 years was 85% in 2014 and decreased by 1.3 percentage points to 83.7% in 2018. Whereas the employment rate of VET graduates was still above that of all graduates in 2014, in 2018 the employment rate of VET graduates was the below that of all graduates ([17]NB: Break in series. Eurostat table edat_lfse_24 [extracted 16.5.2019].).

Among the working population aged 25-64, 41.9% had ISCED level 5-8, above the EU-28 average of 32.2%, but only 32.8% had ISCED level 3-4, 12.9 percentage points below the EU-28 level. 20.4% of the population only had a low or no qualification (ISCED 0-2), 1.4 percentage points below the EU-28 average.

 

Population (aged 25 to 64) by highest education level attained in 2018

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011. Low reliability for ‘No response’ in Czechia, Iceland, Latvia, and Poland.
ISCED 0-2 = less than primary, primary and lower secondary education.
ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education.
ISCED 5-8 = tertiary education.
Source: Eurostat, lfsa_pgaed [extracted 16.05.2019].

 

Share of learners in VET by level in 2016

lower secondary

upper secondary

post-secondary

Not applicable

61.0%

100%

Source: Eurostat, educ_uoe_enrs01, educ_uoe_enrs04 and educ_uoe_enrs07 [extracted 31.1.2019].

 

Share of initial VET learners from total learners at upper-secondary level (ISCED level 3), 2016

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011; not applicable for Ireland.
Source: Eurostat, educ_uoe_enrs04 [extracted 31.1.2019].

 

In 2016/17, in lower, middle and upper technical secondary programmes (27 221 learners), there were more males (53%) than females (47%).

The share of early leavers from education and training has fallen from 7.7% in 2009 to 6.3% in 2018. It is below the national target for 2020 of no more than 10%, and the EU-28 average of 10.6% (2018).

 

Early leavers from education and training in 2009-18

NB: Share of the population aged 18 to 24 with at most lower secondary education and not in further education or training; break in series.
Source: Eurostat, edat_lfse_14 [extracted 16.5.2019] and European Commission: https://ec.europa.eu/info/2018-european-semester-national-reform-programmes-and-stability-convergence-programmes_en [accessed 14.11.2018].

 

However, these data are subject to important variations due to the small sample size in the country and may not allow easy identification of the causes of early school leaving at national level. In response to the lack of reliable data, the national education authorities produce annual statistics based on administrative data and on a survey of early school leavers. These data indicate a higher early leaving rate for those up to age 25 (13.5%) ([18]MENJE (2017b). Le décrochage scolaire au Luxembourg, année scolaire 2014-2015 [School drop out in Luxembourg, school year 2014/15]. Luxembourg: MENJE.
http://www.men.public.lu/fr/actualites/publications/secondaire/statistiques-analyses/decrochage-scolaire/decrochage-14-15/index.html
) for 2015 than the rate calculated via the labour force survey for this year. The share of early leavers is relatively high among the migrant population, especially for those not having one of the three national languages as mother tongue.

Lifelong learning offers training opportunities for adults, including early leavers from education.

 

Participation in lifelong learning in 2014-18

NB: Share of adult population aged 25 to 64 participating in education and training; break in series.
Source: Eurostat, trng_lfse_01 [extracted on 16.05.2019]

 

Participation in lifelong learning in Luxembourg has been increasing in the past decade. While it was at 14.5% in 2014, it increased to 18.0% in 2018, almost seven percentage points above the EU-28 average.

 

VET learners in secondary education by age group

NB: VET learners include learners from lower, medium and upper technical secondary education

Source: National data.

 

The education and training system comprises:

  • pre-school education (ISCED level 0);
  • primary and lower secondary education (ISCED levels 1 and 2);
  • upper secondary education (ISCED level 3);
  • post-secondary non-tertiary education (ISCED level 4);
  • higher education (ISCED levels 5, 6, 7 and 8).

School attendance is compulsory between 4 and 16, i.e. for at least 12 years, including two years of pre-school education. At the end of primary education (enseignement primaire), learners receive an end-of-cycle report, stating the level attained for each competence domain. Learners are guided towards either general or vocational secondary education by dedicated councils, which include a teacher working in VET ([19]Following the Law of 29 August 2017 (SCL, 2017d) on secondary education ‘general secondary education’ is nationally referred to as ‘classical secondary education’ (éducation secondaire classique - ESC) while ‘technical secondary education’ is referred to as ‘general secondary education’ (éducation secondaire générale - ESG). However, to allow comparison at EU level, the previous terminology will be kept.). The guidance takes account of learning achievement (based on the end-of-cycle report), parent and teacher opinions and performance in standardised basic skills tests (in relation to the national average).

Secondary education comprises two types with different objectives:

- general secondary education (enseignement secondaire classique ESC) which conveys general knowledge in humanities, mathematics and natural sciences and prepares for higher education studies;

- vocational secondary education, nationally referred to as technical secondary education (enseignement secondaire général) which gives access to higher education and/or to the labour market.

Various programmes at post-secondary and tertiary levels are available as general; others as vocational pathways ([20]Based on: INFPC (2019). Vocational education and training in Europe: Luxembourg. Cedefop ReferNet VET in Europe reports 2018.http://libserver.cedefop.europa.eu/vetelib/2019/Vocational_Education_Training_Europe_Luxembourg_2018_Cedefop_ReferNet.pdf).

The Luxembourgish VET system comprises initial and continuing VET which are composed of several VET learning options:

  • school-based learning;
  • practical training at school;
  • in-company training in form of apprenticeship or short term work placements.

The dual system is an important feature of secondary VET (hereafter referred to as technical secondary education), which implies a strong relationship between school-based education and work-based learning in enterprises.

In technical secondary education (enseignement secondaire général, ISCED 353 and 354) learners are prepared both for professional life and enrolment in higher education. It is divided into three cycles:

(a) the lower cycle (cycle inférieur);

(b) the medium cycle (cycle moyen);

(c) the upper cycle (cycle supérieur).

A preparatory programme (programme préparatoire) supports learners who find it difficult to adapt to secondary education.

After successful completion of the lower cycle, learners can choose between technical, vocational and technician programmes. Depending on the programme, duration varies between six and eight years. Since 2013/14, all technical secondary programmes are based on principles implemented with the 2008 VET reform, providing also the possibility for learners to move from one type of secondary education to another. Tuition is in French, German and Luxembourgish.

Depending on the occupation, secondary VET programmes may be provided in technical secondary schools or in mixed schools that offer both technical and general secondary education. While most VET learners in 2016/17 attended public schools (86.9%), some were enrolled in private schools that apply national curricula (12.1%) or in private/international schools that do not apply them (1%).

Lower cycle

The lower cycle of technical secondary education (ISCED 244, EQF 1) is considered as pre-VET and lasts three years. It offers learners an orientation phase in which they can decide on their further education pathway. Upon successful completion, they can continue in the medium cycle of technical, technician or vocational programmes.

Practical activities in workshops make up an important part of the technical secondary programmes and focus on supporting learners in choosing their career.

Depending on their performance at the end of primary school, learners are directed to a preparatory (préparatoire) or orientation (orientation) path.

Medium and upper cycles

The medium and upper cycles of technical secondary education offer (mainly) school-based VET programmes, apprenticeships and similar schemes. Learners acquire occupational qualifications for which a certificate or a diploma is awarded. Schooling includes various training schemes, which last from six to eight years, depending on the chosen orientation. There are four different programmes within these cycles:

(a) technical programmes (régime technique) leading to a technical secondary school leaving diploma (diplôme de fin d’études secondaires générales) (ISCED 354, EQF 4);

(b) vocational programmes leading to a vocational capacity certificate (certificat de capacité professionnelle, CCP) (ISCED 353, EQF 2);

(c) vocational programmes leading to a vocational aptitude diploma (diplôme d’aptitude professionnelle, DAP) (ISCED 353, EQF 3);

(d) technician programmes (régime de la formation de technicien) leading to a technician diploma (diplôme de technicien, DT) (ISCED 354, EQF 4).

Learners can choose between three different training programmes which (can) include an apprenticeship contract and lead to different qualifications:

  • vocational capacity certificate (certificat de capacité professionnelle, CCP) at EQF level 2 always includes an apprenticeship contract. This programme is designed for learners facing difficulties in being accepted on another programme and lead to semi-skilled worker skills ;
  • vocational aptitude diploma (diplôme d’aptitude professionnelle, DAP) at EQF level 3 can be done under an apprenticeship contract or an internship contract. They provide the graduate access to the labour market as a skilled worker;
  • technician programme (diplôme de technician, DT) at EQF level 4 which are school-based and include a job placement of 12 or more weeks. They are mostly organised under an internship contract but can also be organised under an apprenticeship contract. This programme offers in-depth and diversified competences and a higher part of general education than the vocational programmes.

Learners are responsible for finding a training place in an enterprise. The vocational guidance service of the public employment service (Agence pour le Développement de l'Emploi, ADEM) supports young people through counselling and a central register of all available apprenticeship places.

Once the learner has signed a contract with a company, (s)he has the legal status of an apprentice and receives an apprenticeship allowance which varies between EUR 400 and 1 300 depending on the trade/profession learned ([21]https://www.lllc.lu/fr/formation-professionnelle-initiale/indemnites-d-apprentissage-nouveau-regime-dt-dap-ccp). Upon successful completion of an academic year, learners receive a premium allowance based on a monthly rate of EUR 130 for CCP or EUR 150 for DAP and DT. The best apprentices receive an award which also includes a prize of EUR 1 500.

Enterprises offering apprenticeship places need to comply with certain criteria, verified by the professional chambers. Financial support and an award to encourage their engagement are available. VET trainers, who receive special training, supervise the apprentices in the training companies. In accordance with the amended VET legislation of 2008, an apprenticeship is based on key principles such as:

• qualitative assessment of learning outcomes (transcript of acquired and non-acquired skills rather than marks in figures);

• modular system allowing apprentices who fail a required module to continue their training and catch up at a later stage during their apprenticeship ([22]Cedefop (2017.) Spotlight on vocational education and training in Luxembourg. Luxembourg: Publications Office.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/8112_en.pdf
).

Learn more about apprenticeships in the national context from the European database on apprenticeship schemes by Cedefop: http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/data-visualisations/apprenticeship-schemes/scheme-fiches

The Ministry of National Education, Children and Youth ([23]Ministère de l'Éducation Nationale, de l’Enfance et de la Jeunesse (MENJE). Hereinafter referred to as education ministry.) is responsible for all types of education, including initial and continuing VET. Initial and continuing higher education is under the Ministry of Higher Education and Research ([24]Ministère de l'Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche (MESR). Hereinafter referred to as higher education ministry.). In cooperation with the Ministry of Labour, Employment and the Social and Solidarity Economy ([25], Ministère du Travail, de l’Emploi et de l’Économie Sociale et Solidaire (MTE). Hereinafter referred to as labour ministry.), the Ministry of National Education, Children and Youth is also responsible for training measures for the unemployed.

Higher education is under the responsibility of the higher education ministry.

Cooperation between the State and the social partners is a core principle in VET. As stated in the law reforming VET ([26]SCL (2008). Loi du 19 décembre 2008 portant réforme de la formation professionnelle. Mémorial A, 220, 3273–3288.
http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2008/0220/a220.pdf#page=2
), social partners are essential stakeholders who contribute to its organisation and implementation. The professional chambers’ opinion is systematically sought on laws and regulations on economic, financial and social policy: labour law, social security, taxation, the environment, initial and continuing vocational training, and education. Development and periodic revision of programmes are ensured by curriculum teams.

There are five professional chambers in Luxembourg. The Chamber of Commerce ([27]Chambre de Commerce.), Chamber of Trades and Skilled Crafts ([28]Chambre des Métiers.) and Chamber of Agriculture ([29]Chambre d’Agriculture.) represent employers. The Chamber of Employees ([30]Chambre des Salariés.), and Chamber of Civil Servants and Public Employees ([31]Chambre des Fonctionnaires et Employés Publics.) represent wage earners. These chambers act as independent policy institutes; they are involved in Luxembourg’s legislative procedures and are officially consulted on education matters. They are represented both at national (Economic and Social Council, Tripartite Advisory Committee on Vocational Training) and at European level (Cedefop Governing Board, Advisory Committee on Vocational Training). In contrast to trade unions and employers’ associations, membership in the professional chambers is compulsory (with an annual subscription) for all employees and private companies.

The professional chambers were created by law in 1924 ([32]SCL (1924). Loi du 4 avril 1924 portant création de chambres professionnelles à base élective. Mémorial A, A(2).
http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/textescoordonnes/compilation/code_administratif/VOL_1/CHAMBRE_PROF.pdf
) and in 1964 (Chamber of Civil Servants and Public Employees ([33]SCL (1964). Loi du 12 février 1964 ayant pour objet de compléter la loi du 4 avril 1924, portant création de chambres professionnelles à base élective par la création d’une chambre des fonctionnaires et employés publics. Mémorial A, 13, 230.
http://www.legilux.public.lu/rgl/1964/A/0230/1.pdf
). They are public establishments, legal persons governed by civil law. Although the professional chambers are supervised by the government, they enjoy financial autonomy. Since 1929, the chambers have been involved in initial education, especially with regard to VET preparing for an occupation. They also have substantial powers regarding apprenticeships; in 1945, their remit in the establishment, supervision and termination of apprenticeship contracts was extended. Their power and involvement were reinforced by the 2008 law reforming VET ([34]SCL (2008a). Loi du 19 décembre 2008 portant réforme de la formation professionnelle. Mémorial A, 220, 3273–3288.
http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2008/0220/a220.pdf#page=2 and SCL (2008b). Loi du 19 décembre 2008 portant révision du régime applicable à certains. Mémorial A, 207, 3135–3138.
). Their involvement in vocational training includes:

  • identifying training needs;
  • guidance and information on training;
  • determining the professions or trades offered in VET;
  • training offers;
  • organising training;
  • designing framework training programmes;
  • assessing training programmes and the training system;
  • qualifications and validating experience acquired.

Professional chambers have established a platform for supervisors/tutors where they can find all the necessary support during apprenticeship. They have also created the label ‘training enterprise’ to put the companies committed to training young people into the limelight.

The Chamber of Commerce and the Chamber of Trades and Skilled Crafts have appointed apprenticeship counsellors for each trade and profession. Their main mission is to inform companies and apprentices about vocational training issues (legislation, organisation, programmes, class visits). They also assist enterprises and apprentices in practical process where they:

  • can intervene as mediators in case of disagreement or conflict between the company, the school or the apprentice;
  • participate in organisation of intermediary tests and support the relationship between the school and the company in case of difficulties;
  • are available to apprentices who need to reorient themselves and find an appropriate apprenticeship;
  • follow their evaluation and, if needed or concerned, take part in the class council and in the disciplinary councils;
  • signal irregularities in legislation on vocational training to the competent institutions.

The professional chambers are also authorised by law to organise continuing training courses.

The Education Ministry has created two new structures, to improve the adaptation of schools to the needs of learners and the professional world.

A National Programme Council ([35]Conseil national des programmes.) was created alongside the National Observatory of School Quality at the beginning of 2018, to allow more exchanges and debates about educational matters and to build a bridge between the educational and professional worlds. It should represent the voice of society in discussions about school programmes. The council has eight members (at least three men and at least three women), chosen according to their experience and expertise in different fields such as culture, economics, ecology, associations and others ([36]This section is based on: INFPC (2019). Vocational education and training in Europe: Luxembourg. Cedefop ReferNet VET in Europe reports 2018.
http://libserver.cedefop.europa.eu/vetelib/2019/Vocational_Education_Training_Europe_Luxembourg_2018_Cedefop_ReferNet.pdf
).

Total total government expenditure for public education in percentage of GDP increased from 4.8% in 2008 to 5.0% in 2017 ([37]Eurostat - Table gov_10a_exp [accessed 7.11.2018].). Luxembourg devotes the highest level of financial resources to education per learner among the OECD ([38]OECD - Table 10.1787/ca274bac-en [accessed 7.11.2018].) countries. At secondary level, the expenditure per learner is EUR 18 484, while the OECD average is about EUR 8 080 ([39]OECD (2015). Regards sur l’éducation 2015 [Education at a glance 2015].
http://www.oecd.org/education/education-at-a-glance-2015.htm
, [40]European Central Bank Euro foreign exchange reference rate as on 3 June 2016 EUR/USD=1.1154,
https://www.ecb.europa.eu/stats/exchange/eurofxref/html/index.en.html [accessed 9.1.2019].
).

In 2017, funding for initial public education was EUR 2.09 billion ([41]MENJE (2018b). Rapport d’activités 2017 [Activity report 2017]. Luxembourg: MENJE.
http://www.men.public.lu/fr/actualites/publications/themes-transversaux/rapports-activites-ministere/rapport-activite-2017/index.html
), shared between the three levels of initial education: primary, general secondary, and technical secondary. Education is financed at two levels: central government and local administrations (106 municipalities).

In 2015, more than half (54.5%) of the funding went to primary education (EUR 928 million). At secondary level, expenditure on technical education was higher (EUR 517 million, 30.4% of total funding) than general education (EUR 258 million, 15.1% of total funding). It covered remuneration of teachers, administrative and technical staff, operating costs and investments.

 

Investment in education 2002-15

Source: MENJE 2018.

 

Public funding for general and VET schools was slightly, but constantly, increasing up to 2012. In 2013, it fell by 3.7% but increased in 2014 (+8%) and remained stable in 2015 (+1%). There was a break in time series in 2009; since then the State has been fully in charge of remunerating primary education teachers, previously shared between the State and the communes.

Public funding includes:

  • teachers’ salaries;
  • non-teaching staff salaries;
  • current expenses (goods and services to ensure the daily functioning of educational services; school allowances; care of children outside school hours at municipal level for extra-curricular and after-school activities; the costs incurred by school medicine and school transport);
  • capital expenses (movable and immovable assets).

 

School funding in 2015, % (EUR million)

Source: MENJE (2018). The key figures of national education : statistics and indicators 2016-17. http://www.men.public.lu/fr/actualites/publications/themes-transversaux/statistiques-analyses/chiffres-cles/2016-2017/index.html

 

As shown in the above figure, salaries make up the highest costs of all education programmes (73-77%). The share is greater in primary education (77%) than in secondary education. The share of current expenses is higher in primary (14.5%) education than in general (12.5%) or in technical (13.0%) secondary education, possibly because care of children outside school hours at municipal level is costlier at this level.

 

Funders of public education in 2015

Source: MENJE (2018). The key figures of national education: statistics and indicators 2016-17. http://www.men.public.lu/fr/actualites/publications/themes-transversaux/statistiques-analyses/chiffres-cles/2016-2017/index.html

 

According to the latest available data, total central government expenditure (the cumulative expenditure of the various ministries and administrations involved in the financing of education) was nearly EUR 1 390 million. With a total contribution of 81.7%, the State is the primary funder of education in Luxembourg. The 106 communes contribute 18.3%, or about EUR 311 million.

Apart from national funds, money spent on public education can also come from foreign sources. The Schengen-Lyzeum Perl is a German and Luxembourgish high school set up in 2007, located in Germany close to the border. Learners can acquire the general and technical secondary school leaving diplomas (administrative and commercial division). The Landkreis Merzig-Wadern (LKMV), a German neighbouring district, pays 60% of the running costs and 50% of the building maintenance and investment in school equipment. The Luxembourg State pays the other part.

Funding for individuals in higher education

The government offers higher education learners financial support in the form of a grant and a loan (basic grant: EUR 1 000, mobility grant: EUR 1 225, grant on social criteria: EUR 0 to 1 900, family grant: EUR 250, student loan: EUR 3 250, registration fee: EUR 0 to 1 850) per academic semester: the grant and loan proportions depend on the applicant’s income ([42]http://portal.education.lu/etudes/Laide-financi%C3%A8re [accessed 6.3.2017].). Tuition fees are taken into account when calculating the financial support. In each academic year, higher education learners apply for the support twice: before the winter and summer semesters ([43]SCL (2010). Loi du 26 juillet 2010 concernant l’aide financière de l’état pour études supérieures. Mémorial A 118, 2039 - 2043.
http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2010/0118/a118.pdf#page=2
).

Funding continuing VET

Continuing training for employees or for individuals (private initiative) is normally funded by the enterprises or individuals themselves. However, in some sectors, companies must pay a levy to sectoral training providers to benefit from specific access conditions and prices. Companies may also contribute to training centres voluntarily to benefit from specific access conditions and prices. Companies and individuals can receive support and incentives for CVET, often non-financial but linked to working time arrangements.

Funding training for the unemployed and other vulnerable groups

Training for the unemployed and other groups excluded from the labour market is supported by the labour and the education ministries. The labour ministry finances training schemes run by the national centres for continuing vocational training and training schemes run by private centres under contract with the labour and the education ministries. The public employment service also provides financial support for different training programmes for job seekers.

Some projects for job seekers are jointly financed by the European Social Fund. Most are focused on job segments with a high development potential, such as Fit4coding (development of skills for the IT sector) or Fit4 Greenjobs (in cooperation with Institute for Construction Training - IFSB) ([44]This section is based on: INFPC (2019). Vocational education and training in Europe: Luxembourg. Cedefop ReferNet VET in Europe reports 2018.
http://libserver.cedefop.europa.eu/vetelib/2019/Vocational_Education_Training_Europe_Luxembourg_2018_Cedefop_ReferNet.pdf
).

The Law of 25 March 2015 established different teacher careers in the Luxembourgish educational system.

Teacher career

Type of teacher

Type of teaching

Required diploma

Secondary school Teachers A1

Technical and general secondary education

BA and MA

Technical education Teachers A2

Technical secondary education

BA

Master of technical education B1

Technical secondary education

Master craftsman diploma or BTS

There are no additional specific access or training requirements for VET teachers beyond a diploma and language requirements (proficiency in the three administrative languages). Recruitment procedures and training provisions for teachers in general secondary education are the same as for teachers in technical secondary education.

All teacher applicants must have a relevant bachelor or master degree for the subject that is being taught. They must pass an examination, and complete a three-year induction course at the Training Institute of National Education (Institut de formation de l’Éducation nationale, IFEN) created in 2015 ([45]SCL (2015). Collection of laws concerning the Training Institute of National Education. Mémorial A, 166.
http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2015/0166/a166
). During the induction course, future teachers are already teaching at secondary schools while attending a teacher education programme at the IFEN. The induction course ends with a final examination.

Luxembourg University has provided a master degree in secondary education since the 2016-17 academic year, accessible to students holding a bachelor degree in maths, Romance or German languages, who wish to develop the necessary didactic skills to teach in class. Trainee teachers can thereby acquire teaching skills before applying for the examination at the IFEN. The programme includes courses in educational sciences, sociology of education, and psychology, to provide learners with the necessary skills to understand and meet the challenges of teaching in a multicultural and multilingual school system. Four options are available: maths, French language and literature, German language and literature, Luxembourgish language and literature.

The Chamber of Commerce has a training programme for teachers providing continuing vocational training, to facilitate the transfer and appropriation of knowledge by learners. This programme provides fundamental tools for effective teaching, as well as specific aspects to help perfect teachers’ pedagogic approaches.

The law of 19 December 2008 stipulates that an enterprise offering training or apprenticeship has to designate one or more tutors to mentor apprentices throughout their apprenticeship. The tutor is in charge of the practical training and the pedagogic supervision of the apprentice. He is also appointed as the contact person for the apprenticeship counsellor and the competent professional chamber with regard to the progress of the apprentice. The law has increased the responsibility of the tutor for training and assessment of the apprentices. The training of tutors has become central to increasing and assuring the quality of initial and continuing vocational training and in promoting the recognition of diplomas and certificates across the borders. Participation in tutor training is mandatory for each enterprise involved in the training of one or more apprentices. Each tutor has to undergo three-day training, organised by the competent professional chamber. A trainer holding a master craftsperson diploma (Brevet de Maîtrise) or equivalent is exempted from this mandatory training. The training Tuteur en Entreprise (Tutor in company) comprises a legal section, a pedagogic section and a section on assessment. It gives tutors useful tools to set up a training path, manage the relationship with the apprentice, identify the mission of the tutor and be able to help apprentices integrate in the working world and the enterprise ([46]This section is based on: INFPC (2019). Vocational education and training in Europe: Luxembourg. Cedefop ReferNet VET in Europe reports 2018.http://libserver.cedefop.europa.eu/vetelib/2019/Vocational_Education_Training_Europe_Luxembourg_2018_Cedefop_ReferNet.pdf).

The Training Institute of National Education (IFEN) designs, implements and evaluates the professional insertion (internship) and the continuing professional development of teachers and psycho-social staff in education.

Continuing professional development has become increasingly important over the years and is now considered a professional duty in the Luxembourgish education system. A new regulation has entered into force, in which the minimum mandatory continuing training for secondary school teachers has been increased to 48 hours over three years. Within the SCHiLW framework (Schulinterne Lehrer/innen-Weiterbildung - School teachers’ continuing training), the IFEN supports secondary schools that are willing to set up training plans (plans de formation, not compulsory). These plans contribute to greater coherence between the school’s objectives and teachers’ training activities.

The continuing training offer is elaborated by the IFEN in collaboration with school staff, who are consulted annually, and upon their request. IFEN endeavours to meet individual needs that have been identified at various levels, as well as political decisions. Continuing professional development is therefore organised according to training objectives and the availability of the teachers being trained, such as seminars (one-off training courses), training days, conferences, sequential continuing training (introductory module followed by a practical phase which may or may not be accompanied by an exchange and intensification phase). In a period of rapid technological change, it is essential that VET teachers continuously update their vocational skills and knowledge, to ensure trainees leave the VET system with skills that can be put into practice immediately.

In order to contribute to the academic success of learners, training offered aims to develop, in priority, the following teachers’ professional skills:

  • priority 1: teaching and learning in a competence-based approach;
  • priority 2: teaching and learning language skills in a multilingual context;
  • priority 3: information and communication technologies;
  • priority 4: teamwork and communication;
  • priority 5: personal professional development;
  • priority 6: school development;
  • priority 7: school management;
  • priority 8: socio-educational work.

Each year new continuing training courses are proposed in order to answer to individual needs or needs identified at regional or national level.

VET standards are developed in cooperation between the education ministry and the professional chambers. Curricula are based on occupational standards and informed by skill needs in enterprises. The following institutions ensure VET provision in line with labour market needs:

  • Permanent Labour and Employment Committee (Comité Permanent du Travail et de l’Emploi): the ministries of education and labour, cooperate through this committee. It is responsible for reviewing the labour market situation regularly. Its working methods include analysis of job supply and skills demand;
  • Training Observatory: established in 2012 by the National Institute for the Development of Continuing Vocational Training (INFPC); it provides the government and social partners with detailed statistics and reliable qualitative analyses on training issues; these are useful insights for public policy and private strategies in the lifelong learning domain;
  • Employment Observatory: established by the labour ministry; analyses labour market data, publishes a labour market dashboard and organises annual conferences on relevant labour market issues and employment;
  • Competence Observatory: to help improve initial and continuing training offers, the University of Luxembourg competence centre (previously Luxembourg International University Institute - Institut Universitaire International Luxembourgeois, IUIL), in cooperation with companies, identifies and anticipates competence needs in sectors and occupations. Analyses cover the trade, law, health, food and catering sectors, management, socio-professional integration and green professions;
  • Business Federation of Luxembourg: since 1997 has conducted annual surveys ([47]This survey is conducted in collaboration with the Luxembourg Bankers' Association, the Luxembourg Confederation of Commerce, the Chamber of Commerce and the education ministry, with support from the European Union (EURES).) on skill needs, alternatively in the industrial and in the information technology and communication sectors. It explores skill needs of enterprises to achieve a good balance between vocational training supply and labour market demand. The survey is the basis for the Qualifications of tomorrow (Les qualifications de demain) publication. It offers forecasts of enterprise skill requirements for replacements and new job openings, and the associated qualification levels. The publication provides young people and their parents with insights into education paths and encourages public authorities, professional chambers and other VET actors to take account of enterprises’ training needs in CVET ([48]This section is based on: INFPC (2019). Vocational education and training in Europe: Luxembourg. Cedefop ReferNet VET in Europe reports 2018.http://libserver.cedefop.europa.eu/vetelib/2019/Vocational_Education_Training_Europe_Luxembourg_2018_Cedefop_ReferNet.pdf).

See also Cedefop’s skills forecast ([49]http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/data-visualisations/skills-forecast) and European Skills Index ([50]https://skillspanorama.cedefop.europa.eu/en/indicators/european-skills-index)

The development of the VET qualifications is based on the following elements:

  • occupational profile: lists the areas of activities as well as the activities and tasks of future occupations after two to three years of workplace experience;
  • training profile: based on the occupational profile by areas of competence: occupational and general competences;
  • training programme based on the training profile:

- defines the learning outcomes for each competence and regroups them by learning domain;

- organises the learning domains and outcomes in modules and credits;

- curriculum: determines the content of the different modules.

The main bodies responsible for designing qualifications are curriculum teams and national vocational commissions ([51]SCL (2011). Règlement grand-ducal du 30 juillet 2011 portant institution et organisation des équipes curriculaires, des commissions nationales de formation et des commissions nationales de l’enseignement général pour la formation professionnelle de l’enseignement secondaire technique. Mémorial A 173.
http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/rgd/2011/07/30/n3/jo
). A curriculum team is associated with a specific profession or group of professions; training centres and schools are equally represented. The education minister decides on the maximum number of representatives for each team. The curriculum team:

  • develops and revises programmes for the trades and professions it is responsible for;
  • ensures consistency between the objectives of school-based and work-based training;
  • provides guidelines and procedures for continuous assessment of learners at school and in the workplace, in cooperation with the respective committees. The guidelines and procedures feed into evaluation frameworks adopted by the education minister;
  • develops and evaluates the ’integrated project’ (projet integré) that replaces the former final exams. The project aims to check whether the learner has developed the complex competences needed to solve a real or simulated work situation.

National vocational commissions (commissions nationales de formation) exist for each division, trade and profession of general and technical secondary education; they propose course content, methods and evaluation criteria to the education minister. The commissions are made up of:

  • a teacher from each school where vocational or technician programmes are offered;
  • a representative of the national general education commissions, designated by the minister;
  • a representative of each professional chamber associated to the training;
  • representatives of the higher council of health professions and employer representatives in the case of health sector professions;
  • employer representatives of education and social institutions, in the case of social sector professions.

A Division for Curriculum Development ([52]SCL (2017). Loi du 14 mars 2017 portant modification de la loi modifiée du 7 octobre 1993 ayant pour objet: (1) la création d’un Service de Coordination de la Recherche et de l’Innovation pédagogiques et technologiques; (2) la création d’un Centre de Gestion Informatique de l’Éducation ; (3) l’institution d’un Conseil scientifique. Mémorial A 439.
http://memorial.lu/eli/etat/leg/loi/2017/03/14/a439/jo
) was created within the Department for Coordination of Educational and Technological Research and Innovation (SCRIPT) within the Ministry of Education, to simplify the implementation of the 2008 reform. It provides support to the national commissions of programmes in elementary and secondary education, as well as the curriculum teams and national vocational commissions of vocational training, assisting in their tasks, developing and adapting curricula. This division coordinates the work of national commissions, guarantees the implementation and supervises the coherence and consistency of curricula. The division works in close collaboration with various stakeholders to guarantee the scientific framework of curriculum development. It also works in collaboration with the recently installed National Programme Council.

The development and implementation of the European qualifications framework for lifelong learning (EQF) is seen as an opportunity to make explicit the existing education and training levels and the links between them. The key objective of the eight-level national qualifications framework (cadre luxembourgeois des qualifications, CLQ) is to increase the transparency of qualifications. The CLQ serves as a non-binding guiding framework for stakeholders: individuals, education and training providers, and the labour market.

The CLQ was referenced to the EQF and the qualifications framework in the European higher education area (QF-EHEA) in 2012. Beginning in 2014, a committee represented by the education ministry and the higher education ministry published a report which detailed the links between the CLQ and the EQF and to the QF-EHEA. Levels 6-8 include qualifications awarded by Luxembourg University only. VET qualifications have been assigned to EQF levels 2-5, with the higher technician and the master craftsperson certificate, for instance, at the latter.

The philosophy of the CLQ is to show that lifelong learning is not fragmented and that it should not be restricted to formal qualifications. The referencing report, however, only reflects formal education and training, which is changing and moving towards a learning outcomes approach. Once this change is complete, a new report reflecting an adjusted lifelong learning framework, including qualifications acquired through non-formal and informal learning, will be published ([53]Based on: INFPC (2019). Vocational education and training in Europe: Luxembourg. Cedefop ReferNet VET in Europe reports 2018.http://libserver.cedefop.europa.eu/vetelib/2019/Vocational_Education_Training_Europe_Luxembourg_2018_Cedefop_ReferNet.pdf).

A national approach to quality assurance has been devised, and evaluation and review procedures are in development stage. There is no real quality framework, but legislation and the current organisation take the quality component into account.

Quality standards for VET providers are part of legislation and are used for accreditation and funding. Guidelines and standards are used to promote a culture of continuous improvement. Over the past 10 years, the education and training system has been overhauled to provide the resources needed to cope with the challenges of a rapidly changing environment. Administrative structures have been changed to allow modern school management with a degree of autonomy. In 2004, the legislation promoted partnership-based school community approaches and school initiatives to improve the quality of education. For VET programmes the education ministry coordinates the implementation of the EQAVET recommendation ([54]See EQAVET recommendation at
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32009H0708(01)&from=EN [accessed 6.3.2017].
).

National indicators related to the 10 proposed by the recommendation are used and monitored nationally. While most are applied in IVET, their use for CVET, which is not monitored centrally, varies by sector or provider.

Secondary education - School development plan, PDS ([55]Plan de développement de l’établissement scolaire (PDS).)

The school development plan (PDS) was introduced by the law of 15 December 2016 ([56]SCL (2016). A-N° 263 du 21 décembre 2016.
http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/loi/2016/12/15/n1/jo
).

Schools should describe their school and extracurricular activities in the school development plan to outline their profile and analyse their general situation, as well as constantly to develop and innovate. This approach covers domains that may help their learners receive the best quality education. Each school should elaborate its own steps in a series of areas that are critical for success.

Seven domains are foreseen for secondary education:

  • organisation of pedagogical support. Each learner should have access to remedial measures that meet their needs and capabilities;
  • supervision of children with specific needs to provide tailor-made solutions for their needs and support their learning process;
  • partnerships with parents to improve their involvement in the schooling process and create a partnership culture between families and schools;
  • integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) to prepare learners for the challenges of the employment market influenced by ICT;
  • psycho-social support for learners who face problems at school, or have psychological or family problems, to prevent school dropouts/failure;
  • relevant guidance for learners to help them make the right choices, according to their profiles;
  • extracurricular activities to guarantee equal access for all learners to non-formal learning opportunities, in addition to mainstream classes.

For each of these domains, national objectives have been defined in a national reference framework. Secondary schools are free to choose the domains and objectives they need to focus on.

The school development plan also contains:

  • definition of at least one objective from the description and analysis mentioned above;
  • an action plan for each objective (persons in charge, resources needed, schedule, evaluation criteria);
  • an evaluation and continuous adaptation of the current PDS.

Following the law of December 2016 ([57]SCL (2016). A-N° 263 21 décembre.
http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/loi/2016/12/15/n1/jo
), as of the 2017/18 school year each secondary school should elaborate a PDS produced by a school development committee ([58]Cellule de développement scolaire (CDS).). The school development committee is coordinated by the school directorate and includes school staff appointed by the director for a three-year period that may be renewed. Its mission is to analyse and interpret the school’s data, to identify the school’s priority needs, to define school development strategies, to elaborate the school charter, the profile and the PDS, and to ensure internal and external communication, while establishing a triennial plan for the continuing training of its high-school staff.

The Division for the Development of Schools ([59]Division du développement des établissements scolaires.) from the Department for Coordination of Educational and Technological Research and Innovation (SCRIPT) was set up according to the law of 14 March 2017 ([60]SCL (2017). Loi du 14 mars 2017 portant modification de la loi modifiée du 7 octobre 1993 ayant pour objet: (1) la création d’un Service de Coordination de la Recherche et de l’Innovation pédagogiques et technologiques; (2) la création d’un Centre de Gestion Informatique de l’Éducation; (3) l’institution d’un Conseil scientifique. Mémorial A 439.
http://memorial.lu/eli/etat/leg/loi/2017/03/14/a439/jo
). Its mission is to accompany schools in their general approach to school development and, more specifically, to elaborate and implement the PDS, collaborating with various departments, educational structures, national and international partners, who may to optimise the quality of schools. The Division for the Development of Schools has provided several transversal tools, such as a website ([61]https://portal.education.lu/developpementscolaire/Accueil-Lyc%C3%A9es) dedicated to the development of schools, forms allowing schools to coordinate and follow up their PDS, and adaptable questionnaires to facilitate data collection about the perception of school actors.

The school development committee has been working on the PDS since September 2017; it was then adopted by the Education Ministry in September 2018.

A National Observatory of School Quality ([62]Observatoire national de la qualité scolaire.), created at the start of 2018, is responsible for evaluating and supervising the quality of the education system. It is an independent structure. The observatory systematically evaluates the quality of the school system and the implementation of education policies. It does not assess the individual work of teachers, but the organisation and operation of schools and the Ministry of Education. The observatory is composed of eight observers, from public or private sectors, who are totally independent. They visit schools and meet representatives for various school stakeholders, such as parents, learners and teachers, and have exchanges with Education Ministry departments. The Observatory produces an annual activity report and at least one thematic report on a priority area. Every three years, it produces a national report on the school system with its findings and recommendations.

These reports are transmitted to the Government and the Chamber of Deputies and made accessible to the public.

The Division for Data Analysis of The Department for Coordination of Educational and Technological Research and Innovation (SCRIPT) is commissioned to collect and analyse data on the quality of the education offer by analysing school reports or in the context of a project. The results of the surveys may be consulted during the elaboration of a PDS or before making decisions to improve the school’s organisation. This division organises national and international standardised tests. Standardised tests elaborated by the Luxembourg Centre for Educational Testing (University of Luxembourg) and common tests are used as instruments of formative or summative evaluation or the individual learner guidance process. International tests like the OECD’s PISA (Programme for international student assessment), the IEA’s ICILS (International computer and literacy study) generate results which help with the governance of the education system.

Tertiary education

Short-cycle programmes leading to higher technician certificates (BTS) ([63]Brevet de technicien supérieur.) are evaluated externally before being accredited by the higher education ministry for a period of five years. After this time, the accreditation has to be renewed through a new evaluation. This procedure should ensure that the programmes are relevant to the related professional sector ([64]SCL (2010). Règlement ministériel du 15 mars 2010 portant sur l’accréditation des programmes de formation menant au brevet de technicien supérieur. Mémorial A 65.
http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/rmin/2010/03/15/n1/jo
).

The university is largely free to design and implement its own quality assurance processes. At Luxembourg University, quality culture and regular quality control through internal and external evaluation of teaching, research and technical, administrative and logistics services are key elements. External audit of the University of Luxembourg has been conducted every four years since 2008 by an external evaluation committee. The independent Committee of External Evaluation is appointed by the Minister for Higher Education and Research.

The University of Luxembourg produces a key performance indicators report in the frame of a multiannual development contract between the Luxembourgish government and the university (2014-17) ([65]Contrat d’établissement pluriannuel entre l’Etat et l’Université du Luxembourg, 2014-17.); this includes publications per researcher, bachelor degrees awarded, master degrees awarded, and master recruitment rate.

Luxembourg has been a member of the European quality assurance register for higher education (EQAR) since 2008 ([66]Although there are no agencies registered in Luxembourg three foreign EQAR agencies operate in the country.).

Continuing VET

Even though there is no real quality framework, quality is a major concern and is covered in the legislation and in the organisation of CVET. Quality will be a major issue in the future of CVET.

The white paper on the national lifelong learning strategy ([67]Anefore (2012). Livre blanc - Stratégie nationale du lifelong learning [White book on the national lifelong learning strategy].
http://www.men.public.lu/catalogue-publications/adultes/informations-generales-offre-cours/livre-blanc-lifelong-learning/131025-s3l-livreblanc.pdf See also
www.S3l.lu
), defines six cross-cutting key principles and related measures and recommendations for implementation. These include developing the quality of lifelong learning and establishing a framework for the quality of adult education and training. This framework will be based on:

  • a quality label awarded to training providers that meet specified criteria in structure and content of the training offer;
  • accreditation of training offers. A working group on training provider accreditation was set up in 2014.

A quality label for municipal governments and non-profit associations can be awarded in CVET by the education minister for a five-year period ([68]SCL (2000). Règlement grand-ducal du 31 mars 2000 ayant pour objet: (1) de fixer les modalités des contrats conventionnant des cours pour adultes et les conditions d’obtention d’un label de qualité et d’une subvention; (2) de créer une Commission Consultative à l’Education. Mémorial A 34, 846-848.
http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2000/0034/a034.pdf#page=2
). Courses must be of general interest in so-called areas of general education and social advancement. They must meet educational and financial quality criteria. Objectives and course content must be in line with the priorities for adult education.

Quality criteria and priorities are defined for periods of up to five years by the education ministry based on the advice of the Adult Education Advisory Committee ([69]Commission Consultative à l'Éducation des Adultes.). The committee consists of the persons in charge of the Adult Education Department, two representatives delegated by schools offering evening classes, a representative of the Department of Vocational Education and a private sector representative. The committee may also involve adult training experts in its work.

While some private providers commit to quality assurance approaches, a large part of adult education is not subject to systematic evaluation or quality assurance ([70]This section is based on: INFPC (2019). Vocational education and training in Europe: Luxembourg. Cedefop ReferNet VET in Europe reports 2018.http://libserver.cedefop.europa.eu/vetelib/2019/Vocational_Education_Training_Europe_Luxembourg_2018_Cedefop_ReferNet.pdf).

The 2008 legislation ([71]SCL (2008). Loi du 19 décembre 2008 portant réforme de la formation professionnelle. Mémorial A 220, 3273-3288.
http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2008/0220/a220.pdf#page=2
) reforming VET stipulates that everyone has the right to have his/her prior learning and occupational experience validated to obtain a professional qualification. Validation of prior learning is a procedure that recognises the value of learning at school (incomplete qualifications), non-formal and informal learning, and work experience.

Individuals who have at least three years (5 000 hours) of paid, unpaid or voluntary work (whether continuous or not) directly related to the requested qualification may request certification from the education ministry ([72]SCL (2010). Règlement grand-ducal du 11 janvier 2010 portant organisation de la validation des acquis de l’expérience pour la délivrance des brevets, diplômes et certificats prévue au chapitre V de la loi du 19 décembre 2008 portant réforme de la formation professionnelle. Mémorial A 6.
http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/rgd/2010/01/11/n1/jo
). A recent law ([73]SCL (2016). Loi du 24 août 2016 modifiant la loi modifiée du 19 décembre 2008 portant réforme de la formation professionnelle. Mémorial A 175.
http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/loi/2016/08/24/n1/jo
) modifying the 2008 legislation, specifies that during validation of prior learning the education ministry will offer support to candidates through either collective workshop or personalised interviews with a coach nominated by the minister. Validation is possible for technical school-based programmes, all VET diplomas and certificates as well as for the master craftsmanship. If all conditions are met, the process leads to a certificate or diploma, or to a part thereof. Experience must be directly related to the requested certification. At higher technician certificate level, an ad hoc evaluation committee is set up for each individual asking for recognition of prior learning.

At university level, validation of non-formal and informal learning allows experience to be recognised with a view to accessing various bachelor or master university studies. The request is considered by a board of examiners whose members are appointed by the chancellor, following recommendation of the dean of the relevant faculty.

Formal VET leads to seven European qualification levels (1 to 7). The 2008 legislation ([74]SCL (2008). Loi du 19 décembre 2008 portant réforme de la formation professionnelle. Mémorial A 220, 3273-3288.
http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2008/0220/a220.pdf#page=2
) reforming VET stipulates that everyone has the right to have his/her prior learning and occupational experience validated to obtain a professional qualification. Validation of prior learning is a procedure that recognises the value of learning at school (incomplete qualifications), non-formal and informal learning, and work experience.

For more information about arrangements for the validation of non-formal and informal learning please visit Cedefop’s European database ([75]http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/data-visualisations/european-database-on-validation-of-non-formal-and-informal-learning).

Individual training leave

The objective of individual training leave is to ease access to continuing training. Employees working in a company for at least six months, self-employed workers and individuals in a liberal profession (and having been affiliated to the social security system for at least two years) can benefit from 80 days of paid leave during their entire career, but not more than 20 days per two years. Employers can have salaries reimbursed by the government. Training must be provided by an institution issuing certificates recognised by the government. The employee is required to submit a request to the education ministry which then approves the leave – stating the number of days granted – or refuses it.

Language training leave

Language training leave allows employees, the self-employed and individuals in a liberal profession of all nationalities to learn Luxembourgish for social and professional integration. The courses take place during normal working hours. The maximum paid leave is 200 hours over a professional career. Each leave hour entitles employees to a compensatory allowance equal to their average hourly salary paid by the employer. The employer advances the allowance and is reimbursed 50% by the State. The request must be sent to the labour ministry by the employer prior to the start of the course; the leave can be deferred by the employer if it disrupts company operations.

Unpaid training leave and personal working time arrangement

The 2006 Grand Ducal regulation on the organisation of working time (organisation du temps de travail) ([76]SCL (2006). Règlement grand-ducal du 30 mars 2006 portant déclaration d’obligation générale d’un accord en matière de dialogue social interprofessionnel relatif à l’accès individuel à la formation professionnelle continue conclu entre les syndicats OGB-L et LCGB d’une part et l’Union des Entreprises Luxembourgeoises, d’une autre. Mémorial A 85.
http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/rgd/2006/03/30/n2/jo
) stipulates a general obligation to reach an agreement on access to CVET through inter-occupational social dialogue to be signed between the trade union federations and the Union of Enterprises. Organising working hours within a flexi-time arrangement and unpaid leave for vocational training purposes is part of this regulation.

Unpaid training leave releases a worker from duties to take part in professional training. The agreement applies to private sector employees who have been employed for at least two years, regardless of the type of employment contract. During the leave, the employment contract is suspended. The employer can refuse the unpaid leave, if the applicant is a high-level executive or if the company has fewer than 15 employees. The employer can also defer the unpaid leave for up to one year where the leave is no more than three months or for up to two years where the leave exceeds three months.

Employees working flexi-time may request amendment of their working time to support participation in training. The employer can refuse to grant such an amendment based on operational needs or impact on the efficient organisation of the business.

Tax exemptions

Every income tax payer may deduct expenses for professional development from taxable income. Such expenses must have a direct link with the business activity performed by the employee and allow improving professional knowledge. They must be paid by the participant and refund claimed through a tax declaration ([77]This section is based on: INFPC (2019). Vocational education and training in Europe: Luxembourg. Cedefop ReferNet VET in Europe reports 2018.http://libserver.cedefop.europa.eu/vetelib/2019/Vocational_Education_Training_Europe_Luxembourg_2018_Cedefop_ReferNet.pdf).

State shared funding for CVET

A company can receive State funding (operated by the education ministry) for investment in CVET. Private companies established in Luxembourg that undertake most of their activities inside the country are eligible. The training targets:

  • employees affiliated with the national social security system;
  • persons bound to the company by an employment contract (fixed-term or permanent);
  • subcontractors working for the applicant company;
  • owners of craft, trade, industry, agriculture or forestry companies.

Investment in training is capped according to the size of the company:

  • at 20% of total payroll for companies with 1 to 9 employees;
  • at 3% of total payroll for companies with 10 to 249 employees;
  • at 2% of total payroll for companies with more than 249 employees.

The share of funding is calculated based on the investment in CVET ([78]SCL (2018a). Loi du 13 mars 2018 portant création d’un Observatoire national de la qualité scolaire. Mémorial A 183.
http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/loi/2018/03/13/a183/jo
). Companies receive direct grants: 15-35% of investment (depending on employee profiles).

Support for learning Luxembourgish

Private sector companies legally established in the country can partly recover the costs associated with learning Luxembourgish. Eligible costs include training fees and the costs of study materials and are paid by the labour ministry.

Funding for additional apprenticeship places

The fund for employment provides financial support for the creation of apprenticeship places to encourage enterprises to hire apprentices. It partly reimburses the apprenticeship allowance (27% for vocational DAP programme ([79]Vocational aptitude diploma (diplôme d’aptitude professionnelle, DAP).) and 40% for the vocational CCP programme ([80]Vocational capacity certificate (certificat de capacité professionnelle, CCP).)) and covers the employer’s share of social security costs for the apprentice ([81]SCL (2012). Règlement grand-ducal du 31 octobre 2012 fixant les conditions et modalités des aides et primes de promotion de l’apprentissage. Mémorial A 239, 3153-3154.http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2012/0239/a239.pdf#page=5). Applications for financial support must be submitted by the enterprises and the apprentice to the public employment service before 1 July of the year following the year in which the learning ended.

Apprenticeship award for a training company

Since 2013, the award for the best training company has been presented each year during the apprenticeship graduation ceremony to the company that commits itself most to apprenticeships (creation of apprenticeship places, follow-up of apprentices) ([82]This section is based on: INFPC (2019). Vocational education and training in Europe: Luxembourg. Cedefop ReferNet VET in Europe reports 2018.http://libserver.cedefop.europa.eu/vetelib/2019/Vocational_Education_Training_Europe_Luxembourg_2018_Cedefop_ReferNet.pdf).

Most guidance services offered during secondary education, operate within the guidance house (maison de l’orientation, 2012). The initiative centralises administrations and counselling services that help people move into working life. It focuses on young people but anyone can find information and advice there. The guidance house includes:

  1. the vocational guidance service of the public employment service (Adem) which provides information on trades/professions and apprenticeship placement;
  2. the Psycho-Social and Educational Accompaniment Centre (CePAS) which helps learners in their school or career guidance and may provide psychological support;
  3. the National Youth Service (SNJ) which supports the acquisition of practical experience through the voluntary Youth Service;
  4. the Local Bureau for Youth (Antennes locales pour jeunes) which offers individual coaching to achieve school or professional projects;
  5. the school reception centre for newcomers for 12 to 17 year-old immigrant learners;
  6. the Centre of Documentation and Information on Higher Education (CEDIES).

This centralisation ensures better coordination of services and stakeholders, while improving visibility.

In 2017 the Guidance Forum (Forum orientation) was set up this is a national council in charge of establishing a national information and guidance strategy. It includes ministries, social partners, directors of secondary schools, parent and learner representatives. The guidance forum has adopted the following definition of guidance:

’Guidance refers to a series of activities that enable the citizen, at any time in his/her life:

  • to identify his/her abilities, skills and interests;
  • to make informed decisions as regards his/her studies and training choices as well as his/her professional activities.

The shared goal is to foster personal fulfilment and the development of society.’

Since 2017, every secondary school must develop its own general guidance approach. The approach has to be in accordance with the reference framework for school and professional guidance elaborated by the guidance house ([83]MENJE (2017a). Cadre de référence pour l’orientation scolaire et professionnelle [Reference framework for school and professional guidance]. Luxembourg: MENJE.
http://www.men.public.lu/fr/actualites/publications/secondaire/psychologieorientation/170124-cadre-reference/index.html
). In each secondary school, a guidance unit is responsible for the implementation of the guidance process set out in the school's development plan (PDS). It is composed of at least two members of teaching staff,

two educational or psychosocial staff and at least one guidance counsellor.

The Higher Education Documentation and Information Centre (Centre de Documentation et d’Information sur l’Enseignement Supérieur) is available to people who require general information about higher education.

The web portal Anelo ([84]https://www.anelo.lu/) is an information and exchange platform for all young people preparing for training, studies or work experience. It centralises information on:

  • trades and professions ([85]http://beruffer.anelo.lu);
  • the steps to follow during a job search;
  • ePortfolio tool that allows young people to gather important documents and certificates showing their strengths and skills;
  • how to gain practical experience in the world of work (jobs for students, volunteer services);
  • where to find information on guidance and support.

The Anelo Web portal and the various connected sites are now being managed by the Guidance House Coordination Department. They are also in charge of promoting the portal and training courses to help young people use the various tools on Anelo.

The Youth guarantee ([86]http://www.jugendgarantie.lu/) was launched in June 2014. It commits national authorities (National Employment Agency, Local Action for Youth, National Youth Service) to offer young people between 16 and 25 high-quality guidance to help them find a job, make it possible to return to school or an apprenticeship, or to offer work experience in projects on a voluntary basis. Each is offered support tailored to his/her background, personal situation and aspirations. Diversification of the school offer is the main priority for education policies in Luxembourg. A recent reform provides growing autonomy to schools to boost this diversification and to support individual school efforts to innovate.

Choosing the right school is becoming more challenging for learners; the MENJE has launched a platform www.mengschoul.lu to help young people and their parents. The platform is for learners going into secondary education, as well as for those going into higher secondary education and foreign learners joining the Luxembourgish school system. The platform is based on a standardised detailed portrait of each school. An interactive map allows users to filter secondary schools according to the innovative projects on offer; other filters allow users to select the school programmes. This tool helps parents and learners to compare VET schools and their specificities to make the best choice. [87]Based on: INFPC (2019). Vocational education and training in Europe: Luxembourg. Cedefop ReferNet VET in Europe reports 2018.http://libserver.cedefop.europa.eu/vetelib/2019/Vocational_Education_Training_Europe_Luxembourg_2018_Cedefop_ReferNet.pdf

Please see:

Vocational education and training system chart

Tertiary

Click on a programme type to see more info
Programme Types

EQF 5

Higher technician

programmes (BTS),

2 years

ISCED 554

Higher technician programme (brevet de technicien supérieur, BTS) leading to EQF level 5, ISCED 554
EQF level
5
ISCED-P 2011 level

554

Usual entry grade

15-17 ([152]Counting of grades starts from age four when children enter pre-school, which is the first grade.)

Usual completion grade

17 and later ([153]Counting of grades starts from age four when children enter pre-school, which is the first grade.)

Usual entry age

19-20

Usual completion age

21-22

Length of a programme (years)

2

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Information not available

Is it continuing VET?

Information not available

Is it offered free of charge?

N

Registration fees

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

120 credits

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

Information not available

Main providers

Public and private secondary schools, and technical secondary schools recognised by the State.

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Information not available

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

BTS programmes alternate; they provide both theoretical instruction including general education (like languages) and training in a work environment ([154]www.bts.lu).

Main target groups

Programmes are available for young people and also for adults.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

To be admitted to the programme, learners require either a general or a technical secondary school leaving diploma (diplôme de fin d'études secondaires classique, diplôme de fin d’études secondaires générales), or a technician diploma (diplôme de technicien – DT) complemented by optional modules.

Assessment of learning outcomes

The BTS programme is organised in modules spread over four semesters. Each module has between 5 and 20 ECTS credits and can be composed of different courses with at least one ECTS credit.

Attendance at courses, practical training courses and any other pedagogical activities organised as part of the training is compulsory.

Each course is subject to knowledge assessment that results in a grade. The score is either the result of a continuous assessment carried out during the six-month period, or of a final examination carried out exclusively during an examination session, or by these two assessment modes combined.

 

Diplomas/certificates provided

Graduates receive the higher technician certificate (brevet de technicien supérieur, BTS;

Examples of qualifications

Nurse, paediatric nurse, responsible for exploitation of automated installations, game artist, character designer

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Graduation from the higher technician programme does not provide progression possibilities to any other programme.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Validation of non-formal and informal learning (Validation des acquis de l'expérience – VAE) allows experience to be recognised with a view to obtaining all or part of a higher technician certificate (Brevet de Technicien Supérieur – BTS).

VAE is for everyone, regardless of age, level of study or professional status. The prerequisite is to have completed at least three years or 5 000 hours of paid, unpaid or voluntary work directly related to the requested certification, whether continuous or not.

In order to identify the diploma matching his/her experience, the applicant is advised to consult the list and obtain information from the schools and colleges in question. Some BTS qualifications are not yet accessible through VAE.

The validation application and registration application should be sent to the Head of the school/college in question in order to obtain the diploma. The validation application is accompanied by a portfolio which must set out, with reference to the diploma sought, the knowledge, aptitude and skills that the applicant has gained through experience.

Based on the proposal of the college director, the ministry appoints an ad hoc committee for each training programme.

This committee assesses the validation request and the portfolio and interviews the applicant. It may request a placement into a professional situation (whether real-life or simulated). While deliberating, it assesses the knowledge acquired through experience with regard to the curriculum of the desired diploma.

The ad hoc committee may take one or several of the following decisions:

  • exemption from producing one of the certificates set out by Article 10 (1) of the Law of 19 June 2009 (setting out the terms and conditions for higher education courses of study leading to a higher technician certificate (BTS));
  • registration, provided that an additional part of the curriculum is completed;
  • exemption from attending some of the training modules or classes comprising the modules;
  • exemption from compliance with some of the validation measures;
  • exemption from all of the modules, classes and examinations leading to the diploma being granted.
General education subjects

Information not available

Key competences

Information not available

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

EQF 6

Professional bachelor

programmes,

3 years

ISCED 655

Professional bachelor programmes leading to EQF level 6, ISCED 655
EQF level
6
ISCED-P 2011 level

655

Usual entry grade

16-17 ([155]Counting of grades starts from age four when children enter pre-school, which is the first grade.)

Usual completion grade

19-20 ([156]Counting of grades starts from age four when children enter pre-school, which is the first grade.)

Usual entry age

19-20

Usual completion age

21-22

Length of a programme (years)

3

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Information not available

Is it continuing VET?

Information not available

Is it offered free of charge?

Information not available

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

180 to 240 credits

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

- academic teaching

- applied courses

- internship abroad and/or case studies

Main providers

Information not available

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Information not available

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

- practical training at school

- in-company practice abroad

- case studies

Main target groups

Programmes are available for young people and also for adults.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Professional bachelor (bachelor professionnel) programmes are accessible to holders of a general or technical secondary leaving diploma or a technician diploma in the field of study.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Information not available

Diplomas/certificates provided

Graduates receive an application-oriented bachelor degree (professional bachelor, bachelor professionnel).

Examples of qualifications

Information not available

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Progression to professional or academic Master programme is possible.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

At university level, validation of non-formal and informal learning allows experience to be recognised with a view to accessing various bachelor or master university studies. The request is considered by a board of examiners whose members are appointed by the chancellor, following recommendation of the dean of the relevant faculty ([157]http://www.lifelong-learning.lu/Detail/Article/Diplomes/pour-les-diplomes-universitaires----bachelor-et-master/en and
http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/loi/2009/06/19/n1/jo
).

General education subjects

Information not available

Key competences

Information not available

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

EQF 7

Professional master

programme,

2 years

ISCED 757

Professional master programme leading to EQF level 7, ISCED 757
EQF level
7
ISCED-P 2011 level

757

Usual entry grade

19-20 ([158]Counting of grades starts from age four when children enter pre-school, which is the first grade.)

Usual completion grade

20-21 ([159]Counting of grades starts from age four when children enter pre-school, which is the first grade.)

Usual entry age

21

Usual completion age

23

Length of a programme (years)

2

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Information not available

Is it initial VET?

Information not available

Is it continuing VET?

Information not available

Is it offered free of charge?

Information not available

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

60 to 120 credits

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

Information not available

Main providers

Information not available

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Information not available

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

Information not available

Main target groups

Programmes are available for young people and also for adults.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Learners need to hold a (professional) bachelor degree to enter the professional master programme.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Information not available

Diplomas/certificates provided

Graduates receive an application-oriented master degree (professional master, Master professionnel).

Examples of qualifications

Information not available

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Graduates holding a professional master programme can progress to academic PhD programmes.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

At university level, validation of non-formal and informal learning allows experience to be recognised with a view to accessing various bachelor or master university studies. The request is considered by a board of examiners whose members are appointed by the chancellor, following recommendation of the dean of the relevant faculty ([160]http://www.lifelong-learning.lu/Detail/Article/Diplomes/pour-les-diplomes-universitaires----bachelor-et-master/en and
http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/loi/2009/06/19/n1/jo
).

General education subjects

Information not available

Key competences

Information not available

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Post-secondary

Click on a programme type to see more info
Programme Types

EQF 5

Master craftsperson

programmes

ISCED 453

Master craftsperson programmes leading to EQF 5 and ISCED 453 – Brevet de maîtrise.
EQF level
5
ISCED-P 2011 level

453

Usual entry grade

Applicants , who must be at least 18, must hold one of the following qualifications:

  • vocational aptitude diploma (Diplôme d'aptitude professionnelle - DAP) 
  • technician's diploma (Diplôme de Technicien - DT)
  • general secondary school leaving diploma (Diplôme de fin d'études secondaires classiques - DFESC)
  • technical secondary school leaving diploma (Diplôme de fin d'études secondaires générales - DFESG)
  • Any other post-secondary qualification (higher technician's certificate (Brevet de technicien supérieur - BTS), bachelor, master)
  • A foreign diploma or certificate recognised by the Ministry of Education, Children and Youth
Usual completion grade

Not applicable

Usual entry age

18+

Usual completion age

Not applicable

Length of a programme (years)

Information not available

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

N

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

The registration fee for preparatory courses is EUR 600 per year of registration.

The registration fee for exams is EUR 300 per exam session.

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Information not available

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

Courses are organised in the evenings on weekdays and weekends. They are held either at the training centre of the by the Chamber of Trades and Skilled Crafts, or in secondary schools, or in the National Centre for Continuing Vocational Training (CNFPC).

Main providers

Programmes are organised by the Chamber of Trades and Skilled Crafts

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Information not available

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

The courses in professional theory are specific to each trade. They consist, in principle, of three different modules.
The Chamber of Trades and Skilled Crafts proposes the module that the candidate must follow for the current year.
There is a list with the trades for which preparatory courses are offered. 
In some trades, complementary courses, compulsory and subject to fees, have to be followed.

Main target groups

Programmes are available for young people and also for adults.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

To access these programmes, learners are required to have successfully completed at least EQF level 3 in any trades or occupations. Learners should also have at least one year of work experience to be able to take the final exam.

Assessment of learning outcomes

The master craftsperson programmes is organised in modules and the candidates are free to adapt their training to their own pace. When registering, they choose the modules they would like to follow during the school year.
As the maximum duration to finalise the master craftsperson programmes is six years, the Chamber of Trades and Skilled Crafts proposes course planning that allows regular progression, while preserving a margin of safety

Diplomas/certificates provided

Graduates receive the master craftsperson qualification.

Examples of qualifications

Graduates can settle in the craft industry as self-employed and to train apprentices. The qualification confers the title of master craftsperson in the particular trade.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

The master craftsperson qualification does not give any access right for higher education; progression opportunities depend on the certificate gained at secondary level.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

The 2008 legislation ([149]SCL (2008a). Loi du 19 décembre 2008 portant réforme de la formation professionnelle. Mémorial A, 220, 3273–3288. http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2008/0220/a220.pdf#page=2
) reforming VET stipulates that everyone has the right to have his/her prior learning and occupational experience validated to obtain a professional qualification. Validation of prior learning (validation des acquis de l’expérience) is a procedure that recognises the value of learning at school (incomplete qualifications), non-formal and informal learning, and work experience. Individuals who have at least three years (5 000 hours) of paid, unpaid or voluntary work (whether continuous or not) directly related to the requested qualification may request certification from the education ministry ([150]SCL (2010b). Règlement grand-ducal du 11 janvier 2010 portant organisation de la validation des acquis de l’expérience pour la délivrance des brevets, diplômes et certificats prévue au chapitre V de la loi du 19 décembre 2008 portant réforme de la formation professionnelle. Mémorial A 6. http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/rgd/2010/01/11/n1/jo
). A recent law ([151]SCL (2016c). Loi du 24 août 2016 modifiant la loi modifiée du 19 décembre 2008 portant réforme de la formation professionnelle. Mémorial A 175. http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/loi/2016/08/24/n1/jo
) modifying the 2008 legislation, specifies that during the validation of prior learning the education ministry will offer support to candidates through either collective workshop or personalised interviews with a coach nominated by the Minister. Validation is possible for all VET diplomas and certificates as well as for the master craftsmanship. If all conditions are met, the process leads to a certificate or diploma or to a part thereof. Experience must be directly related to the requested certification.

General education subjects

Information not available

Key competences

The preparatory courses for the master craftsperson programmes are organised in the following fields:

  • business organisation and management, and applied pedagogy;
  • professional theory and practice.
Application of learning outcomes approach

information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Secondary

Click on a programme type to see more info
Programme Types

EQF 1

Lower secondary

technical programmes (pre-VET)(ESG),

3 years

ISCED 244

The lower cycle of technical secondary education (ISCED 244, EQF 1) is considered as pre-VET and lasts three years. It comprises the ’orientation programme’ and the ’preparatory programme’, designed for learners who struggle with the regular secondary education curriculum.
EQF level
1
ISCED-P 2011 level

244

Usual entry grade

9 ([90]Counting of grades starts from age four when children enter pre-school, which is the first grade.)

Usual completion grade

11 ([91]Counting of grades starts from age four when children enter pre-school, which is the first grade.)

Usual entry age

12

Usual completion age

14

Length of a programme (years)

3

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

School attendance is compulsory between 4 and 16 years.

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

Adults may attend the last year of the lower secondary education programme and then access the technical and technician programme as well as a vocational programme.

ECVET or other credits

Information not available

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

Orientation programmes’ (Les classes inférieures de la voie d’orientation)

In the ‘orientation programme’ classes (three years: 7G, 6G and 5G) of general education (languages, mathematics, human and social sciences, natural sciences) the learners’ knowledge is deepened. The language of instruction is German, except for mathematics and the French language course, which are taught in French. During the second year, language courses (French and German) as well as mathematics are taught on two levels: in a basic course or in an advanced class. The choice of enrolment in one of the two courses is made according to the level of competence of the learner and the orientation advice from the class council. In the last year (5G), English is also taught on two levels. The orientation programme includes workshops in secondary schools that allow the learner to discover several trades and occupations. This is complemented by placements and visits in companies.

The preparatory programme (Les classes inférieures de la voie de preparation) :

The lower grades of the preparatory programme (three years: 7P, 6P and 5P) are for learners who, in one or more disciplines, have not reached the core competence referred to at the end of cycle 4 of primary education. They prepare learners for later transition to the orientation programme or vocational training. German, French, mathematics, general culture, physical education and sports and practical learning in workshops are taught in modules spread over three years of teaching. These allow the learner to progress at his own pace and capitalise on a maximum of modules for the subsequent training envisaged.

These two lower secondary programmes are distinguished by their general orientation, the relative importance of the subjects taught and the teaching methods.

Candidates have the choice between daytime and evening courses.

Main providers

Secondary schools and national school for adults.

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Information not available

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

Programmes include workshops that allow learners to discover several trades and occupations. This is complemented by placements and visits in companies.

Main target groups

Programmes are available for young people and also for adults.

The mediator for school maintenance, inclusion and integration was set up in mid-2018 ([92]SCL (2018b). Loi du 18 juin 2018 portant: (1) Institution d’un service de médiation au maintien, à l’inclusion et à l’intégration scolaires; (2) modification de la loi modifiée du 6 février 2009 relative à l’obligation scolaire. Mémorial A 548.
http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/loi/2018/06/18/a548/jo
). The mediator's role is to deal with complaints about learners at risk of dropping out of school, the inclusion of learners with special educational needs, and the integration of children from immigrant backgrounds into the mainstream school system.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Young people must have successfully finished primary education.

Candidates should be 17 or more and have a school level allowing access to the last year of lower secondary education.

 

Assessment of learning outcomes

The different functions of assessment are given in detail:

  • formative evaluation: helping the learner to become aware of their strengths and weaknesses while documenting their learning process;
  • certification of the learner's individual knowledge and competences at the end of a learning period;
  • serve as a basis for the learner's guidance.

With a view to these objectives, the quarterly school reports (bulletins trimestriels) are complemented by a report supplement (complément au bulletin).

The quarterly report includes for each taught subject the average (out of 60) of classwork notes and other tests or assignments. The supplement to the report gives information on the progress of the learner in the different areas of competence of the taught subjects, giving an unencrypted assessment. This assessment by skills area offers a differentiated and nuanced view of the learners’ abilities.

At the end of each quarter (or semester), the parents (or the adult learner) receive a report (bulletin) detailing:

  • quarterly (or each semester) marks of the subjects taught;
  • the general quarterly (or each semester) mark;
  • remedial measures for unsatisfactory results.

The report at the end of the school year also includes further details:

  • each subject's annual mark;
  • the general annual mark:
  • promotion decision (positive or not) towards the higher class (at the third year of the lower cycle of technical secondary education).
Diplomas/certificates provided

Not applicable

Examples of qualifications

Not applicable

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

After successful completion of the lower cycle, learners can choose between technical, vocational and technician programmes.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

N

General education subjects

Y

Languages, humanities and social sciences, mathematics and natural sciences

Key competences

Mathematics, languages

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

Teaching by competences is applied in the lower classes of technical secondary.

Competences refer to the ability of a learner to implement an organised set of knowledge, skills, and attitudes to provide an adequate response to a problem.

Competences sets describe the knowledge and competences that learners must master in a sustainable way at the end of the two last years of lower cycle of technical secondary education.

For language and mathematics, these sets are divided into two levels: basic set and advanced set.

The set of competences differ from the teaching programme, which describe the contents treated in each domain (maths, French, history…).

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Lower technical secondary education in 2016/17 represented 46.9% ([93]2016/17.) of total learners in technical education (lower, medium and upper level) ([94]MENJE (2018a). Les chiffres clés de l’Éducation nationale : statistiques et indicateurs 2016-2017 [Key figures of national education: statistics and indicators 2016-17]. Luxembourg: MENJE.
http://www.men.public.lu/fr/actualites/publications/themes-transversaux/statistiques-analyses/chiffres-cles/2016-2017/index.html
).

The total number of learners in lower technical secondary education has remained stable since 2011/12; at that time 12 915 learners attended lower technical secondary education and 12 760 in 2016/17.

EQF 1

Integration classes

ISCED 244

Integration classes (classe d'insertion) of the lower cycle of technical secondary education, EQF1, ISCED 244
EQF level
1
ISCED-P 2011 level

244

Usual entry grade

9 ([95]Counting of grades starts from age four when children enter pre-school, which is the first grade.)

Usual completion grade

11 ([96]Counting of grades starts from age four when children enter pre-school, which is the first grade.)

Usual entry age

12

Usual completion age

14

Length of a programme (years)

3

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

School attendance is compulsory between 4 and 16 years.

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

Adults may attend the last year of the lower secondary education programme and then access the technical and technician programme as well as a vocational programme.

ECVET or other credits

Information not available

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

Information not available

Main providers

Information not available

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Information not available

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

Information not available

Main target groups

Programmes are available for young people and also for adults. For the latter, the completion corresponds to a completion of lower technical secondary education.

Integration classes (classe d'insertion) of the lower cycle of technical secondary education have been created for learners who have a good academic record in their country of origin, but do not have a sufficient command of the languages used for tuition. Based on language skills gaps, learners receive intensive support in learning French or German.

The mediator for school maintenance, inclusion and integration was set up mid-2018 ([97]SCL (2018b). Loi du 18 juin 2018 portant: (1) institution d’un service de médiation au maintien, à l’inclusion et à l’intégration scolaires; (2) modification de la loi modifiée du 6 février 2009 relative à l’obligation scolaire. Mémorial A 548.
http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/loi/2018/06/18/a548/jo
). The mediator's role is to deal with complaints about learners at risk of dropping out of school, the inclusion of learners with special educational needs and the integration of children from immigrant backgrounds into the mainstream school system.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Information not available

Assessment of learning outcomes

Information not available

Diplomas/certificates provided

Information not available

Examples of qualifications

Not applicable

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Those who complete the integration classes can continue their studies in one of the following programmes: - vocational programme (CCP), ISCED 354, EQF 4;

- vocational programme (DAP) ISCED 354, EQF 4;

- technician programme (DT) ISCED 354, EQF 4;

- technical programme ISCED 354, EQF 4.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Information not available

General education subjects

Information not available

Key competences

Information not available

Application of learning outcomes approach

Teaching by competences is applied in the lower classes of technical secondary.

Competences refer to the ability of a learner to implement an organised set of knowledge, skills, and attitudes to provide an adequate response to a problem.

Competences sets describe the knowledge and competences that learners must master in a sustainable way at the end of the last two years of lower technical secondary education.

For language and mathematics, these sets are divided into two levels: basic set and advanced set.

The set of competences differ from the teaching programme, which describe the contents treated in each domain (maths, French, history…).

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

EQF 4

Technical

school-based programmes (ESG),

4 or 5 years,

WBL % varies

ISCED 354

Technical school-based programmes (Diplôme d’enseignement secondaire général) leading to EQF level 4, ISCED 354
EQF level
4
ISCED-P 2011 level

354

Usual entry grade

12 ([98]Counting of grades starts from age four when children enter pre-school, which is the first grade.)

Usual completion grade

15 ([99]Counting of grades starts from age four when children enter pre-school, which is the first grade.)

Usual entry age

15

Usual completion age

18 or 19

Length of a programme (years)

4-5

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

School attendance is compulsory between 4 and 16 years.

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

N

This programme is not considered as IVET at national level.

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Information not available

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

The curriculum includes general and technical education; the latter includes practical and theoretical classes. The share of the technical part depends on the grade and on the chosen field and varies from approximately 25 to 65%.

Main providers

Secondary schools

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Share of work-based learning ([100]Nationally referred to as technical learning.) depends on the grade and on the chosen field and varies from approximately 25 to 65%.

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school
  • in-company practice for some programmes
Main target groups

Programmes are available for young people and some of them also for adults.

The mediator for school maintenance, inclusion and integration was set up mid-2018 ([101]SCL (2018b). Loi du 18 juin 2018 portant: (1) institution d’un service de médiation au maintien, à l’inclusion et à l’intégration scolaires: (2) modification de la loi modifiée du 6 février 2009 relative à l’obligation scolaire. Mémorial A 548.
http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/loi/2018/06/18/a548/jo
). The mediator's role is to deal with complaints about learners at risk of dropping out of school, the inclusion of learners with special educational needs and the integration of children from immigrant backgrounds into the ‘main-stream’ school system.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Information not available

Assessment of learning outcomes

Learner assessment is mainly based on summative evaluations, i.e. periodical tests on contents which have been taught recently. Depending on the subjects, one, two or three tests per term may be organised.

The quarterly report includes for each taught subject the average (out of 60) of classwork notes and other tests or assignments.

At the end of each quarter (or semester), the parents (or the adult learner) receive a report (bulletin) mentioning among others:

  • quarterly (or each semester) marks of the subjects taught;
  • general quarterly (or each semester) mark;
  • remedial measures in case of unsatisfactory results.

The report at the end of the school year also includes further details:

  • each subject's annual mark;
  • general annual mark;
  • promotion decision (positive or not) towards the higher class.
Diplomas/certificates provided

Learners who succeed in technical programmes are awarded a technical secondary school leaving diploma (diplôme de fin d’études secondaires générales). This diploma confers the same rights as that from general secondary education; depending on the strand and section, graduates can enter the labour market or pursue higher education.

Examples of qualifications

Work in the administrative field in private companies or public institutions.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Depending on the strands followed (referred to nationally as ‘divisions’), graduates have the following progression opportunities:

a) administrative and commercial: graduates can pursue higher education in economics, law and accounting. They may work in administration in private companies or public institutions);

b) healthcare and social professions: graduates can pursue higher education in these professions. Graduates in nursing education can continue their education as midwife or medical technical assistant in radiology. Graduates in educator training can continue their studies as a state-certified educator for a period of one year;

c) general technical: graduates can pursue higher education in their specialties: engineering, natural science, architecture, design and sustainable development, computer science, environmental sciences);

d) division of arts: graduates can pursue higher education in the same domain;

e) division of tourism and hospitality: graduates can pursue higher education while preparing for the profession of manager in hospitality.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

The 2008 legislation ([102]SC (2008a). Loi du 19 décembre 2008 portant réforme de la formation professionnelle. Mémorial A, 220, 3273-3288.
http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2008/0220/a220.pdf#page=2
) reforming VET stipulates that everyone has the right to have his/her prior learning and occupational experience validated to obtain a professional qualification. Validation of prior learning (validation des acquis de l’expérience) is a procedure that recognises the value of learning at school (incomplete qualifications), non-formal and informal learning, and work experience. Individuals who have at least three years (5 000 hours) of paid, unpaid or voluntary work (whether continuous or not) directly related to the requested qualification may request certification from the education ministry ([103]SCL (2010b). Règlement grand-ducal du 11 janvier 2010 portant organisation de la validation des acquis de l’expérience pour la délivrance des brevets, diplômes et certificats prévue au chapitre V de la loi du 19 décembre 2008 portant réforme de la formation professionnelle. Mémorial A 6.
http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/rgd/2010/01/11/n1/jo
). A recent law ([104]SCL (2016c). Loi du 24 août 2016 modifiant la loi modifiée du 19 décembre 2008 portant réforme de la formation professionnelle. Mémorial A 175.
http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/loi/2016/08/24/n1/jo
) modifying the 2008 legislation, specifies that during validation of prior learning the education ministry will offer support to candidates through either collective workshop or personalised interviews with a coach nominated by the Minister. Validation is possible for technical school-based programmes, all VET diplomas and certificates as well as for master craftsmanship. If all conditions are met, the process leads to a certificate or diploma or to a part thereof. Experience must be directly related to the requested certification. At higher technician certificate level, an ad hoc evaluation committee is set up for each individual asking for recognition of prior learning ([105]SCL (2016b). Loi du 23 juillet 2016 modifiant la loi modifiée du 19 juin 2009 portant organisation de l’enseignement supérieur, fixant les modalités du cycle d’études d’enseignement supérieur aboutissant à la délivrance du brevet de technicien supérieur. Mémorial A 143.
http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2016/0143/a143.pdf#page=2
).

General education subjects

Y

The curriculum includes general and vocational (nationally referred to as technical) education; the latter includes practical and theoretical classes. The share of the technical part depends on the grade and on the chosen field and varies from approximately 25 to 65%.

Key competences

Information not available

Application of learning outcomes approach

information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Technical programmes (medium and upper level) represents 48.7% ([106]2016/17.) of all medium and upper secondary technical education ([107]MENJE (2018a). Les chiffres clés de l’Éducation nationale: statistiques et indicateurs 2016-2017 [Key figures of national education: statistics and indicators 2016-17]. Luxembourg: MENJE.
http://www.men.public.lu/fr/actualites/publications/themes-transversaux/statistiques-analyses/chiffres-cles/2016-2017/index.html
).

The total number of learners in technical secondary education (medium and upper levels) has increased since 2011/12. At that time 5 677 learners attended technical secondary education programme, with the number increasing to 7 043 in 2016/17.

EQF 4

Technician programmes (DT),

4 years,

WBL % varies

ISCED 354

Technician programmes (le diplôme de technicien), leading to EQF level 4, ISCED 354
EQF level
4
ISCED-P 2011 level

354

Usual entry grade

12 ([108]Counting of grades starts from age four when children enter pre-school, which is the first grade.)

Usual completion grade

15 ([109]Counting of grades starts from age four when children enter pre-school, which is the first grade.)

Usual entry age

15

Usual completion age

18

Length of a programme (years)

4

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

School attendance is compulsory between 4 and 16 years.

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

  
ECVET or other credits

Information not available

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

This technician programme is mainly offered as a full-time track (filière de plein exercice), where all training occurs in an education institution and includes a minimum job placement of 12 weeks. The offer of programmes in the concomitant track (learning in school and in an enterprise takes place in parallel throughout the year - filière concomitante) or mixed track (theoretical and practical training in school in the first years and last year with the concomitant track - filière mixte) has been extended since 2015/16.

Main providers
  • Secondary schools
  • Companies/training centres
Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Information not available

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

• practical training at school

• in-company practice

Main target groups

Programmes are available for young people and some of them also for adults.

The mediator for school maintenance, inclusion and integration was set up in mid-2018 ([110]SCL (2018b). Loi du 18 juin 2018 portant: (1) institution d’un service de médiation au maintien, à l’inclusion et à l’intégration scolaires; (2) modification de la loi modifiée du 6 février 2009 relative à l’obligation scolaire. Mémorial A 548.
http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/loi/2018/06/18/a548/jo
). The mediator's role is to deal with complaints about learners at risk of dropping out of school, the inclusion of learners with special educational needs and the integration of children from immigrant backgrounds into the mainstream school system.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Orientation towards vocational programmes takes place at the end of third year of lower technical education upon decision of the class council based on the assessment reports of the whole academic year.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Since the entry into force of the 2008 reform, the technician (and also vocational) programmes have been organised into modules. For each module, an assessment framework has been set up. It distinguishes compulsory and optional skills and specifies indicators and minimum standards. At the end of the module, learners take an exam to assess the acquisition of required skills for the module and receive an assessment report (bulletin), which indicates whether the module has been passed (unsuccessful, successful, very successful).

Technician and vocational programmes also foresee integrated projects in the middle (only for vocational programmes leading to the vocational aptitude diploma and the technician programme) and at the end ([111]SCL (2016e). Règlement grand-ducal du 31 août 2016 portant sur l’évaluation et la promotion des élèves de la formation professionnelle. Mémorial A 187.
http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/rgd/2016/08/31/n1/jo
). These integrated projects aim to monitor whether the learner has developed the complex skills needed to solve a real or simulated work situation. An integrated project can be spread over a maximum duration of three days (24 hours) for programmes leading to vocational aptitude diploma and technician programmes. This project allows learners to demonstrate the acquisition of required skills in a professional situation. The intermediary and the final integrated projects are a compulsory module for these programmes.

An interim assessment sheet is drawn up at the end of

1. the second academic year of normal four-year training;

2. the first academic year of normal training of three years.

The assessment is based on the learner's results in the compulsory modules as planned in the curriculum from the start. Neither the placement in companies nor the intermediate project is taken into account.

A final assessment is made at the end of the programmes taking into account compulsory modules followed since the interim assessment. Neither the final integrated project nor the intermediate project is taken into account.

Assessments are successful if the following conditions are met:

For a DT (other training durations):

  • 85% success in compulsory modules ([112]Compulsory modules comprise fundamental and complementary modules.);
  • 85% success in compulsory vocational modules;
  • success of all fundamental modules.

For a DT (other training duration of training: one year). For other training periods:

  • 90% success in the compulsory modules of the last two years of training;
  • 90% success of compulsory vocational modules;
  • success of all fundamental modules.
Diplomas/certificates provided

The technician diploma certifies that the holder is competent to perform the trade/profession in question. It differs from the programme leading to the vocational aptitude diploma (DAP) ([113]Diplôme d’aptitude professionnelle (DAP).) by in-depth and diversified competences as well as in-depth general education.

Examples of qualifications

Information not available

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Technician programme graduates may progress to the third year of the general upper secondary programme or follow a one-year optional preparatory module allowing them to enter tertiary education.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

The 2008 legislation ([114]SCL (2008a). Loi du 19 décembre 2008 portant réforme de la formation professionnelle. Mémorial A, 220, 3273-3288.
http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2008/0220/a220.pdf#page=2
) reforming VET stipulates that everyone has the right to have his/her prior learning and occupational experience validated to obtain a professional qualification. Validation of prior learning is a procedure that recognises the value of learning at school (incomplete qualifications), non-formal and informal learning, and work experience. Individuals who have at least three years (5 000 hours) of paid, unpaid or voluntary work (whether continuous or not) directly related to the requested qualification may request certification from the education ministry ([115]SCL (2010b). Règlement grand-ducal du 11 janvier 2010 portant organisation de la validation des acquis de l’expérience pour la délivrance des brevets, diplômes et certificats prévue au chapitre V de la loi du 19 décembre 2008 portant réforme de la formation professionnelle. Mémorial A 6.
http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/rgd/2010/01/11/n1/jo
). A recent law ([116]SCL (2016c). Loi du 24 août 2016 modifiant la loi modifiée du 19 décembre 2008 portant réforme de la formation professionnelle. Mémorial A 175.
http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/loi/2016/08/24/n1/jo
) modifying the 2008 legislation, specifies that during the validation of prior learning the education ministry will offer support to candidates through either collective workshop or personalised interviews with a coach nominated by the minister. Validation is possible for all VET diplomas and certificates as well as for the master craftsmanship. If all conditions are met, the process leads to a certificate or diploma or to a part thereof. Experience must be directly related to the requested certification.

General education subjects

Y

In comparison to the vocational DAP programme, the technician programme offers more in-depth general education

Key competences

Information not available

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

The major VET reform of 2008 ([117]SCL (2008a). Loi du 19 décembre 2008 portant réforme de la formation professionnelle. Mémorial A 220, 3273-3288.
http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2008/0220/a220.pdf#page=2
) was implemented between 2010/11 and 2013/14. Among the key principles of the reform is also that teaching by subject is replaced with teaching by units and modules. Each module focuses on concrete professional situations; the learning outcomes to be acquired (competences and knowledge) are defined for each module.

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

In 2016/17 the number of learners following technician programmes (medium and upper level) was 24.2% ([118]2016/17) of all learners following medium and upper secondary technical education ([119]MENJE (2018a). Les chiffres clés de l’Éducation nationale : statistiques et indicateurs 2016-2017 [Key figures of national education: statistics and indicators 2016-17]. Luxembourg: MENJE.
http://www.men.public.lu/fr/actualites/publications/themes-transversaux/statistiques-analyses/chiffres-cles/2016-2017/index.html
).The total number of learners in technician programmes (medium and upper level) has slightly increased since 2011/12. At that time 3 378 learners attended technical secondary education programmes, with the number increasing to 3 504 in 2016/17.

EQF 3

Vocational programmes (DAP),

3 years,

WBL % varies

ISCED 353

Vocational programmes leading to a vocational aptitude diploma (diplôme d’aptitude professionnelle, DAP) leading to EQF level 3, ISCED 353.
EQF level
3
ISCED-P 2011 level

353

Usual entry grade

12 ([120]Counting of grades starts from age four when children enter pre-school, which is the first grade.)

Usual completion grade

14 ([121]Counting of grades starts from age four when children enter pre-school, which is the first grade.)

Usual entry age

15

Usual completion age

17

Length of a programme (years)

3

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

School attendance is compulsory between 4 and 16 years.

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

Adults (those 18 years old and above), having left school more than one year before and willing to learn a trade or to change their career, can follow an ‘adult apprenticeship’ leading to the vocational aptitude diploma DAP ([122]Vocational capacity certificate (certificat de capacité professionnelle, CCP).). This is available both to job holders and seekers registered at the public employment service. Upon proof of certain work experience, a dedicated committee may guide the adult learner to a suitable grade. The committee includes representatives of the education ministry, Vocational Training Service, labour ministry, guidance service of the employment service, Chamber of Commerce, Chamber of Trades and Skilled Crafts, Chamber of Agriculture, and Chamber of Employees.

Theory training takes place in a technical secondary school or at the national continuing vocational training centre. The practical part is apprenticeship in an enterprise. Adult apprentices receive allowances equal to the minimum wage for unskilled workers (EUR 1 922.96, 1 January 2016) as defined in a 2010 regulation ([123]SCL (2010c). Règlement grand-ducal du 17 décembre 2010 portant organisation de l’apprentissage pour adultes. Mémorial A 245, 4075-4085.
http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2010/0240/a240.pdf#page=4
).

The 2008 reform introduced a modular system for apprenticeship, which guarantees the validity of any module acquired during initial training for a certain period, aiding access to lifelong learning.

Vocational programmes for adults: evening classes

Within vocational programmes, employed adults can attend the first year a vocational aptitude diploma (DAP) as administrative and commercial agent. The theoretical part is provided through evening classes in a technical secondary school or in the national continuing vocational training centre. The practical part is acquired through full-time employment in a company. After the first year DAP evening class, adults can continue the second and third year DAP classes under an adult apprenticeship contract.

Vocational programmes for adults: on-the-job training

The nursing assistant vocational aptitude diploma can be obtained through on-the-job training. This training is suitable for those with some work experience in the care sector, who have not had the opportunity to undertake IVET. The three-year training course leads to a nursing assistant DAP. Applicants must fulfil admission criteria such as professional experience of minimum 2 500 hours in the care sector, an employment contract (minimum 50% part-time) and the agreement of their employer.

ECVET or other credits

Information not available

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • school-based learning;
  • work practice (practical training at school and in-company practice);
  • apprenticeships.

DAP Vocational programmes can be followed in one of three different tracks:

a) the concomitant track (filière concomitante), where learning in school and in an enterprise takes place in parallel throughout the apprenticeship. Depending on the profession, the two parts can be organised as day-release (such as two days per week in school and three days in an enterprise) or block-release (for example, nine weeks at school and nine weeks in enterprise); the allocated time may also vary depending on the profession;

b) the mixed track (filière mixte) which is suitable for some professions. This programme offers theoretical and practical training in school in the first year. After successful completion of the school-based part, training is continued in line with the concomitant track;

c) the full-time track (filière de plein exercice), where all training occurs in an educational institution, with 12 weeks of practical training or more within an apprenticeship or internship contract.

The shares of general education, VET theory and practice in vocational programme curricula vary by trade. Vocational learning ratios (practical training in companies and in vocational training school) for each trade/profession are defined by the education ministry on the advice of professional chambers.

Main providers

Technical secondary schools

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Varies

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

• practical training at school

• in-company practice

Main target groups

Programmes are available for young people and also for adults.

The mediator for school maintenance, inclusion and integration was set up mid-2018 ([124]SCL (2018b). Loi du 18 juin 2018 portant: (1) institution d’un service de médiation au maintien, à l’inclusion et à l’intégration scolaire; (2) modification de la loi modifiée du 6 février 2009 relative à l’obligation scolaire. Mémorial A 548.
http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/loi/2018/06/18/a548/jo
). The mediator's role is to deal with complaints about learners at risk of dropping out of school, the inclusion of learners with special educational needs and the integration of children from immigrant backgrounds into the mainstream school system.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Guidance towards vocational programmes takes place at the end of the last year of lower technical education upon decision of the class council based on the assessment reports of the whole academic year.

Except for admission criteria, there are no differences between apprenticeships for adults and young people. Those aged 18 and above, having left school more than one year before and willing to learn a trade or to change their career, can follow an ‘adult apprenticeship’ leading to DAP.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Since the entry into force of the 2008 reform, the technician (also vocational and technical) programmes have been organised into modules. For each module, an assessment framework has been set up. It distinguishes compulsory and optional skills and specifies indicators and minimum standards. At the end of the module, learners take an exam to assess the acquisition of required skills for the module and receive an assessment report (bulletin), which indicates whether the module has been passed (unsuccessful, successful, very successful).

Vocational and technician programmes also foresee integrated projects in the middle (only for vocational programme leading to the vocational aptitude diploma and the technician programme) and at the end ([125]SCL (2016e). Règlement grand-ducal du 31 août 2016 portant sur l’évaluation et la promotion des élèves de la formation professionnelle. Mémorial A 187.
http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/rgd/2016/08/31/n1/jo
). These integrated projects aim to monitor whether the learner has developed the complex skills needed to solve a real or simulated work situation. An integrated project can be spread over a maximum duration of three days (24 hours) for programmes leading to vocational aptitude diploma and technician programmes. This project allows learners to demonstrate the acquisition of required skills in a professional situation. The intermediary and the final integrated projects are a compulsory module for these programmes.

An interim assessment sheet is drawn up at the end of

1. the second academic year of normal four-year training;

2. the first academic year of normal training of three years.

The assessment is based on the learner's results in the compulsory modules as planned in the curriculum from the start. Neither the placement in companies nor the intermediate project is taken into account.

A final assessment is made at the end of the programmes taking into account compulsory modules followed since the interim assessment. Neither the final integrated project nor the intermediate project is taken into account.

Assessments are successful if the following conditions are met:

For a DAP (other training durations):

  • 85% success in compulsory modules ([126]Compulsory modules comprise fundamental and complementary modules.);
  • 85% success in compulsory vocational modules;
  • success in all fundamental modules.

For DAP (other training duration of training: one year). For other training periods:

  • 90% success in the compulsory modules of the last two years of training;
  • 90% success in compulsory vocational modules;
  • success in all fundamental modules.
Diplomas/certificates provided

Graduates receive the vocational aptitude diploma (diplôme d’aptitude professionnelle, DAP). This diploma certifies that the holder has the skills to perform the trade/profession in question as a skilled worker on the labour market. DAP graduates may also progress to the third year of a technician programme in the same field of study, the third year of the technical programme, or enter a master craftsperson programme. Subject to completing supplementary preparatory modules they can also pursue higher technical studies (études techniques supérieures, ISCED 550 or 650).

Examples of qualifications

Hairdresser, assistant nurse, administrative and commercial agent, butcher, bricklayer, architectural drafter, aircraft mechanic.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

DAP graduates may progress to the third year of a technician programme in the same field of study, the third year of the technical programme, or enter a master craftsperson programme. Subject to completing supplementary preparatory modules they can also pursue higher technical studies (études techniques supérieures, ISCED 550 or 650).

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

The 2008 legislation ([127]SCL (2008a). Loi du 19 décembre 2008 portant réforme de la formation professionnelle. Mémorial A 220, 3273-3288.
http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2008/0220/a220.pdf#page=2
) reforming VET stipulates that everyone has the right to have his/her prior learning and occupational experience validated to obtain a professional qualification. Validation of prior learning (validation des acquis de l’expérience) is a procedure that recognises the value of learning at school (incomplete qualifications), non-formal and informal learning, and work experience. Individuals who have at least three years (5 000 hours) of paid, unpaid or voluntary work (whether continuous or not) directly related to the requested qualification may request certification from the education ministry ([128]SCL (2010b). Règlement grand-ducal du 11 janvier 2010 portant organisation de la validation des acquis de l’expérience pour la délivrance des brevets, diplômes et certificats prévue au chapitre V de la loi du 19 décembre 2008 portant réforme de la formation professionnelle. Mémorial A 6.
http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/rgd/2010/01/11/n1/jo
). A recent law ([129]SCL (2016c). Loi du 24 août 2016 modifiant la loi modifiée du 19 décembre 2008 portant réforme de la formation professionnelle. Mémorial A 175.
http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/loi/2016/08/24/n1/jo
) modifying the 2008 legislation, specifies that during the validation of prior learning the education ministry will offer support to candidates through either collective workshop or personalised interviews with a coach nominated by the Minister. Validation is possible for all VET diplomas and certificates as well as for the master craftsmanship. If all conditions are met, the process leads to a certificate or diploma or to a part thereof. Experience must be directly related to the requested certification.

General education subjects

Y

The general education for the DAP programme includes a module on citizenship education as well as French or German. In comparison to the curricular of the CCP programme, credit units and modules are more detailed and extensive.

Key competences

Y

The general education for the DAP programme includes a module on citizenship education as well as French or German.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

The major VET reform of 2008 ([130]SCL (2008a). Loi du 19 décembre 2008 portant réforme de la formation professionnelle. Mémorial A 220, 3273-3288.
http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2008/0220/a220.pdf#page=2
) was implemented between 2010/11 and 2013/14. Among the key principles of the reform is that teaching by subject is replaced with teaching by units and modules. Each module focuses on concrete professional situations; the learning outcomes to be acquired (competences and knowledge) are defined for each module.

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Vocational programmes (medium and upper level) DAP and CCP are 27.1% ([131]2016/17.) of medium and upper secondary technical education ([132]MENJE (2018a). Les chiffres clés de l’Éducation nationale: statistiques et indicateurs 2016-2017 [Key figures of national education: statistics and indicators 2016-17]. Luxembourg: MENJE.
http://www.men.public.lu/fr/actualites/publications/themes-transversaux/statistiques-analyses/chiffres-cles/2016-2017/index.html
).

The total number of learners in vocational programmes (medium and upper level) has decreased since 2011/12. At that time 4 360 learners attended technical secondary education programme, with the number decreasing to 3 914 in 2016/17.

EQF 2

Vocational programmes (CCP),

3 years,

WBL % varies

ISCED 353

Vocational programmes leading to a vocational capacity certificate (certificat de capacité professionnelle, CCP) leading to EQF level 2, ISCED 353
EQF level
2
ISCED-P 2011 level

353

Usual entry grade

12 ([133]Counting of grades starts from age 4 when children enter pre-school, which is the first grade.)

Usual completion grade

14 ([134]Counting of grades starts from age 4 when children enter pre-school, which is the first grade.)

Usual entry age

15

Usual completion age

17

Length of a programme (years)

3

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y School attendance is compulsory between 4 and 16 years.

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

Adults (18 years old and above) having left school more than one year before and willing to learn a trade or to change their career, can follow an ‘adult apprenticeship’ leading to CCP. This is available both to job holders and seekers registered at the public employment service. Upon proof of certain work experience, a dedicated committee may guide the adult learner to a suitable grade. The committee includes representatives of the education ministry, Vocational Training Service, labour ministry, guidance service of the employment service, Chamber of Commerce, Chamber of Trades and Skilled Crafts, Chamber of Agriculture, and Chamber of Employees.

Theory training takes place in a technical secondary school or at the national continuing vocational training centre. The practical part is apprenticeship in an enterprise. Adult apprentices receive allowances equal to the minimum wage for unskilled workers (EUR 1 922.96, 1 January 2016) as defined in a 2010 regulation ([135]SCL (2010c). Règlement grand-ducal du 17 décembre 2010 portant organisation de l’apprentissage pour adultes. Mémorial A 245, 4075-4085.
http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2010/0240/a240.pdf#page=4
).

The 2008 reform introduced a modular system for apprenticeship, which guarantees the validity of any module acquired during initial training for a certain period, aiding access to lifelong learning.

ECVET or other credits

Information not available

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • school-based learning;
  • work practice (practical training at school and in-company practice);
  • apprenticeships.

Vocational CCP programmes can be followed in the concomitant track (filière concomitante), where learning in school and in an enterprise takes place in parallel throughout the apprenticeship. Depending on the profession, the two parts can be organised as day-release (such as two days per week in school and three days in an enterprise) or block-release scheme (for example, nine weeks at school and nine weeks in an enterprise); the allocated time may also vary depending on the profession;

The shares of general education, VET theory and practice in vocational programme curricula vary by trade. Vocational learning ratios (practical training in companies and in vocational training school) for each trade/profession are defined by the education ministry on the advice of professional chambers.

Main providers
  • Technical secondary schools
  • Companies
Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Varies

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school
  • in-company practice
Main target groups

Programmes are available for young people and also for adults.

The mediator for school maintenance, inclusion and integration was set up mid-2018 ([136]SCL (2018b). Loi du 18 juin 2018 portant: (1) institution d’un service de médiation au maintien, à l’inclusion et à l’intégration scolaires; (2) modification de la loi modifiée du 6 février 2009 relative à l’obligation scolaire. Mémorial A 548.
http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/loi/2018/06/18/a548/jo
). The mediator's role is to deal with complaints about learners at risk of dropping out of school, the inclusion of learners with special educational needs and the integration of children from immigrant backgrounds into the mainstream school system.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Guidance towards vocational programmes takes place at the end of the third year of lower technical education upon decision of the Class Council based on the assessment reports of the whole academic year.

Except for admission criteria, there are no differences between apprenticeships for adults and young people. Those 18 years old and above, having left school more than one year before and willing to learn a trade or to change their career, can follow an ‘adult apprenticeship’ leading to CCP.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Since the entry into force of the 2008 reform, the technician (also vocational and technical) programmes have been organised into modules. For each module, an assessment framework has been set up. It distinguishes compulsory and optional skills and specifies indicators and minimum standards. At the end of the module, learners take an exam to assess the acquisition of required skills for the module and receive an assessment report (bulletin), which indicates whether the module has been passed (unsuccessful, successful, very successful).

CCP also foresee integrated projects at the end of the programme ([137]SCL (2016e). Règlement grand-ducal du 31 août 2016 portant sur l’évaluation et la promotion des élèves de la formation professionnelle. Mémorial A 187.
http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/rgd/2016/08/31/n1/jo
). These integrated projects aim to monitor whether the learner has developed the complex skills needed to solve a real or simulated work situation. An integrated project can be spread over a maximum duration of three days (24 hours) for programmes leading to vocational aptitude diploma and technician programmes. For programmes leading to a vocational capacity certificate, the integrated project is spread over a maximum duration of two days. This project allows learners to demonstrate the acquisition of required skills in a professional situation. The intermediary and the final integrated projects are a compulsory module for these programmes.

An interim assessment sheet is drawn up at the end of

  1. the second academic year of normal four-year training;
  2. the first academic year of normal training of three years.

The assessment is based on the learner's results in the compulsory modules as planned in the curriculum from the start. Neither the placement in companies nor the intermediate project is taken into account.

A final assessment is made at the end of the programmes taking into account compulsory modules followed since the interim assessment. Neither the final integrated project nor the intermediate project is taken into account.

Assessments are successful if the following conditions are met, for the CCP: 80% success in compulsory modules.

Diplomas/certificates provided

This apprenticeship programme prepares learners for the labour market and leads to the vocational capacity certificate (certificat de capacité professionnelle, CCP). This certificate attests that the holder has the social and basic practical skills for a trade/profession as a semi-skilled worker. After two years of working experience in this trade/profession, the holder is considered a skilled worker.

Examples of qualifications

Automotive mechanic assistant, florist assistant, gardener assistant, plasterer, sales assistant, hairdresser (at a lower level than if acquired over the DAP programme).

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

This programme prepares learners for the labour market and leads to the vocational capacity certificate (certificat de capacité professionnelle, CCP). It is designed for learners with learning difficulties who cannot access studies leading to a vocational aptitude diploma (diplôme d’aptitude professionnelle, DAP) or a technician diploma (diplôme de technician, DT). This certificate attests that the holder has the social and basic practical skills for a trade/profession as a semi-skilled worker. After two years of working experience in this trade/profession, the holder is considered a skilled worker. Learners graduating from CCP can progress to the second year of the DAP programme in the same field. By decision of the class council, the learner can even be admitted to the last year of the DAP programme in the same field ([138]SCL (2016e). Règlement grand-ducal du 31 août 2016 portant sur l’évaluation et la promotion des élèves de la formation professionnelle. Mémorial A 187.
http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/rgd/2016/08/31/n1/jo
).

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

The 2008 legislation ([139]SCL (2008a). Loi du 19 décembre 2008 portant réforme de la formation professionnelle. Mémorial A 220, 3273-3288.
http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2008/0220/a220.pdf#page=2
) reforming VET stipulates that everyone has the right to have his/her prior learning and occupational experience validated to obtain a professional qualification. Validation of prior learning (validation des acquis de l’expérience) is a procedure that recognises the value of learning at school (incomplete qualifications), non-formal and informal learning, and work experience. Individuals who have at least three years (5 000 hours) of paid, unpaid or voluntary work (whether continuous or not) directly related to the requested qualification may request certification from the education ministry ([140]SCL (2010b). Règlement grand-ducal du 11 janvier 2010 portant organisation de la validation des acquis de l’expérience pour la délivrance des brevets, diplômes et certificats prévue au chapitre V de la loi du 19 décembre 2008 portant réforme de la formation professionnelle. Mémorial A 6.
http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/rgd/2010/01/11/n1/jo
). A recent law ([141]SCL (2016c). Loi du 24 août 2016 modifiant la loi modifiée du 19 décembre 2008 portant réforme de la formation professionnelle. Mémorial A 175.
http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/loi/2016/08/24/n1/jo
) modifying the 2008 legislation, specifies that during the validation of prior learning the education ministry will offer support to candidates through either collective workshop or personalised interviews with a coach nominated by the Minister. Validation is possible for all VET diplomas and certificates as well as for the master craftsmanship. If all conditions are met, the process leads to a certificate or diploma or to a part thereof. Experience must be directly related to the requested certification. At higher technician certificate level, an ad hoc evaluation committee is set up for each individual asking for recognition of prior learning ([142]SCL (2016b). Loi du 23 juillet 2016 modifiant la loi modifiée du 19 juin 2009 portant organisation de l’enseignement supérieur, fixant les modalités du cycle d’études d’enseignement supérieur aboutissant à la délivrance du brevet de technicien supérieur. Mémorial A 143.
http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2016/0143/a143.pdf#page=2
).

General education subjects

Y

Key competences

Y

The general education part includes a module on citizenship education.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

The major VET reform of 2008 ([143]SCL (2008a). Loi du 19 décembre 2008 portant réforme de la formation professionnelle. Mémorial A 220, 3273-3288.
http://www.legilux.public.lu/leg/a/archives/2008/0220/a220.pdf#page=2
) was implemented between 2010/11 and 2013/14. Among the key principles of the reform is that teaching by subject is replaced with teaching by units and modules. Each module focuses on concrete professional situations; the learning outcomes to be acquired (competences and knowledge) are defined for each module.

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Learners following one of the vocational programmes DAP and CCP (medium and upper level) are 27.1% ([144]2016/17.) of all medium and upper secondary technical education learners ([145]MENJE (2018a). Les chiffres clés de l’Éducation nationale: statistiques et indicateurs 2016-2017 [Key figures of national education: statistics and indicators 2016-17]. Luxembourg: MENJE.
http://www.men.public.lu/fr/actualites/publications/themes-transversaux/statistiques-analyses/chiffres-cles/2016-2017/index.html
).

The total number of learners in vocational programmes (medium and upper level) has decreased since 2011/12. At that time 4 360 learners attended technical secondary education programme, with the number decreasing to 3 914 in 2016/17.

VET available to adults (formal and non-formal)

Click on a programme type to see more info
Programme Types

Optional preparatory module

Optional preparatory module - Modules préparatoires aux études techniques supérieures
EQF level
Not applicable
ISCED-P 2011 level

Not applicable

Usual entry grade

14 or 15 ([146]Counting of grades starts from age four when children enter pre-school, which is the first grade.)

Usual completion grade

15 or 16 ([147]Counting of grades starts from age four when children enter pre-school, which is the first grade.)

Usual entry age

18 or 19

Usual completion age

Not applicable

Length of a programme (years)

Not applicable

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Information not available

Is it initial VET?

Information not available

Is it continuing VET?

Information not available

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Information not available

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

- school-based learning (English, German, French and Maths)

Main providers

Information not available

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Information not available

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

Information not available

Main target groups

Programmes are available for young people and also for adults.

The mediator for school maintenance, inclusion and integration was set up mid-2018 ([148]SCL (2018b). Loi du 18 juin 2018 portant: (1) institution d’un service de médiation au maintien, à l’inclusion et à l’intégration scolaires; (2) modification de la loi modifiée du 6 février 2009 relative à l’obligation scolaire. Mémorial A 548.
http://legilux.public.lu/eli/etat/leg/loi/2018/06/18/a548/jo
). The mediator's role is to deal with complaints about learners at risk of dropping out of school, the inclusion of learners with special educational needs and the integration of children from immigrant backgrounds into the mainstream school system.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Learners must have graduated from a technician programme or hold a vocational aptitude diploma (DAP) to enter these optional preparatory modules.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Information not available

Diplomas/certificates provided

In order to certify access to higher technical studies in the corresponding specialty, learners must have passed all the preparatory modules in a language (German, French or English) and all the preparatory modules in mathematics as described in the timetable of the curricula concerned.

Examples of qualifications

Not applicable

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Successful completion of the optional preparatory modules provides the graduates access to tertiary programmes.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Information not available

General education subjects

Information not available

Key competences

Information not available

Application of learning outcomes approach

Information not available

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available.