Brexit Disclaimer
This website as well as the publications and online tools accessible via this website may contain UK data and analysis based on research conducted before the United Kingdom’s exit from the European Union on 31 January 2020. EU averages or other statistical parameters including the UK reflect the situation in the European Union before 31 January 2020 and should not be considered as representative of the situation in the EU thereafter. Any data or information pertaining to the UK will be gradually phased out from Cedefop’s website, publications and online tools, as ongoing research projects with the United Kingdom’s participation are concluded. Data coming from UK were collected, processed and published before its withdrawal from the EU. Therefore, EU averages contain UK related data up to 2019.

General themes

Main aspects of VET system in Lithuania in 2018:

  • in 2017/18, participation in VET at all levels of education slightly decreased due to negative natural population growth and emigration;
  • participation in lower secondary VET is low, most IVET learners follow upper-secondary and post-secondary programmes;
  • early leaving from education and training is among the lowest in the EU (5.4%) and decreasing, and still higher from VET (12% in 2017) ([1]Kvalifikacijų ir profesinio mokymo plėtros centras (2019). Vocational education and training in Europe: Lithuania, p.28. Cedefop ReferNet VET in Europe reports 2018.
    http://libserver.cedefop.europa.eu/vetelib/2019/Vocational_Education_Training_Europe_Lithuania_2018_Cedefop_ReferNet.pdf,
    );
  • participation in lifelong learning and increasing access to VET for adults is a challenge.

Distinctive features ([2]Adapted from Cedefop (2018a). Spotlight on vocational education and training in Lithuania. Luxembourg: Publications Office.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/8121_en.pdf
):

Initial VET (IVET) is centralised and highly regulated by the State. Continuing VET (CVET) is delivered by IVET and other training providers, public or private organisations.

Provision of IVET at all levels is free of charge; CVET programmes are offered for a fee, except for the unemployed and those at risk of unemployment whose training is supported from European structural funds (ESF) projects. CVET for the unemployed is funded by a voucher system, which allows them to choose their training provider. The provision of training is based on contracts between the local public employment service, the unemployed and, if applicable, the enterprise. In this last instance, the employer undertakes to employ the person for at least six months after the training.

Most IVET learners participate in post-secondary programmes (ISCED 4, 443.7% in 2017) and upper-secondary (ISCED 3, 43.9%) The popularity of ISCED level 4 programmes has substantially increased in recent years, especially among adults who enter VET with a VET or higher education qualification. The number of adults in formal IVET programmes is increasing. The average age of IVET learners in 2016 was 24.6 years; compared to 2012 this has increased by three years. In 2012 learners aged 14 to 22 comprised 78% of learners; in 2016 the share decreased to 61%.

From 2002, VET curricula in Lithuania have been competence-based, with clearly defined learning outcomes. The content of VET qualifications is defined by sectoral qualifications standards (replacing the previous VET standards). These standards describe the main qualifications in specific sectors of the economy at different national qualifications framework levels. VET programmes are being gradually redesigned into modular programmes consisting of mandatory and optional units.

Data adapted from Cedefop (2018) Spotlight on VET Lithuania 2017 ([3]http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/8121_en.pdf).

The Cedefop forecasts for Lithuania up to 2025 predict a loss of one fifth of the total labour force and approximately a third of labour force with medium-level qualifications. This is prompting a review of human resources development policy to guarantee labour force productivity and economic competitiveness.

The challenge remains to encourage participation in VET. 53% of students in upper secondary education (2017/18) were enrolled in vocationally oriented programmes ([4]http://www.mukis.lt/lt/profesinio_orientavimo_paslaugos_mokyklose/stebesenos_ataskaitos.html). 10.5% of upper secondary education graduates move to VET, and 63% of upper secondary education graduates move to higher education directly after graduation (2017/18).

Participation in life-long learning remains low (6.6% in 2018) and is lower than in most other EU countries. The national goal is to increase it to 12% by 2022. Ministries of Education and Science, Social Security and Labour and Economy will offer various adult training opportunities for key competences development, with training of the unemployed and employees jointly funded by ESF. VET and lifelong learning promotion campaigns will be organised and career guidance services further developed.

Participation in apprenticeship is low and efforts are being made to motivate VET institutions and companies to cooperate in enhancing WBL and apprenticeship. Support will be given to apprenticeship pilot projects, assistance for enterprises, strengthening of sectoral practical training centres and expanding access to learners from other VET institutions. Implementation of an apprenticeship system is under development.

An action plan for the development of lifelong learning for 2017-20 addresses these aspects. In the document, VET and lifelong learning actions are grouped under three objectives:

  • update of VET curricula and VET methods focusing on competitive 21st century competences;
  • development of VET institution sustainable networking and increase in social inclusion;
  • development of efficient conditions and incentives for lifelong learning.

A new law on VET was adopted in December 2017. Envisaged changes relate to strengthening work-based learning and apprenticeship, enhancing the role of sectoral professional committees, reforming arrangements for publicly funded IVET, and introducing a regular external VET quality evaluation system ([5]Adapted from Cedefop (2018a). Spotlight on vocational education and training in Lithuania. Luxembourg: Publications Office.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/8121_en.pdf
).

The modularisation of VET programmes is expanding and should allow for more flexible and diverse forms of learning. VET programmes are being reformed and will be based on sectoral qualifications standards currently being developed in specific sectors of the economy ([6]Cedefop (2019). European inventory on NQF, 2018: Lithuania. Cedefop country specific report.
https://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/country-reports/lithuania-european-inventory-nqf-2018
).

Reforming VET management, financing schemes and quality assurance mechanisms are part of policy priorities and developments to raise the prestige of VET and its attractiveness among all VET stakeholders.

 

 

Population in 2018: 2 808 901 ([7]NB: Data for population as of 1 January. Eurostat table tps00001 [extracted 16.5.2019].).

Population decreased by 5.5% since 2013, due to negative natural growth and migration ([8]NB: Data for population as of 1 January. Eurostat table tps00001 [extracted on 16.5.2019].).

Population is ageing.

It is expected that the old-age dependency ratio will increase from 28 in 2015 to 64 in 2060.

 

Population forecast by age group and old-age-dependency ratio ([9]Old-age-dependency ratio is defined as the ratio between the number of persons aged 65 and more over the number of working-age persons (15-64). The value is expressed per 100 persons of working age (15-64).)

Source: Eurostat, proj_15ndbims [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

Since 2017, emigration increased by 13.8% ([10]Statistics Lithuania; population in 2018:
https://osp.stat.gov.lt/en/gyventojai1
) especially in the age span 15 to 44 (76% of all emigrants). Emigration is higher than immigration, which also increased.

The shrinking population calls for more effective use of the potential of the workforce, especially of elderly people involvement in economic activity. Ageing will remain an important concern for the future, as it is likely that the employed population will have to bear a heavier burden to support retirees.

The country is multicultural and has a bilingual community: In June 2017, Lithuanians represented 84.2% of the whole population, Poles 6.6%, Russians 5.8%, Byelorussians 1.2% and other nationalities 1.1%. Most VET institutions teach in Lithuanian, though there are schools where they use both Lithuanian and Russian.

Most companies are micro and small-sized.

Economic sectors with the largest employment (%) in 2017:

Since 2013, the employment in the industry has seen a steady growth. This has been the result of the recovery in exports market and increased tangible investments. The construction and service sectors decreased. To reflect recent trends in economic activity, VET institutions set themselves to the challenge of developing programs, taking into account the needs of workers and their employment in individual sectors of the economy.

The labour market is considered flexible.

Total unemployment ([12]Percentage of active population, 25 to 74 years old.) (2018): 5.8% (6% in EU28). It increased by 0.8 percentage points since 2008 ([13]Eurostat table tps00203 [etracted 16.5.2019].).

 

Unemployment rate (aged 15-24 and 25-64) by education attainment level in 2008-18

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011; breaks in time series, low reliability.
ISCED 0-2 = less than primary, primary and lower secondary education. ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education. ISCED 5-8 = tertiary education.
Source: Eurostat, lfsa_urgaed [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

Unemployment correlates with level of qualifications and age. During the crisis, it rose sharply, especially for those with low and medium-level qualifications, and hasn’t reached the pre-crisis levels. In 2018, the unemployment rate of the low qualified is almost 2.5 times higher than of people (including the majority of VET graduates) with medium level qualifications.

Employment rate of 20 to 34-year-old VET graduates increased from 74% in 2014 to 83.6% in 2018 ([14]Eurostat table edat_lfse_24 [extracted 16.5.2019].).

 

Employment rate of VET graduates (20 to 34 years old, ISCED levels 3 and 4)

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011; breaks in time series.
ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education.
Source: Eurostat, edat_lfse_24 [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

Between 2014 and 2018, the employment rate of 20-34 year-old VET graduates increased by 9.6 percentage points; at the same period the respective increase in employment of all 20-34 year-old graduates was 5.8 percentage points ([15]Eurostat table edat_lfse_24 [extracted 16.5.2019].).

Lithuania has the lowest rate of people without or with low qualifications in the EU (5.2% against 21.8% in the EU-28 in 2018). At the same time higher education is valued. Lithuania has the 9th highest share of the population aged 25-64 with high level qualifications in the EU (41.7% against 32.2% in the EU-28). Half of the population (53.1%) in the same age group has medium (ISCED 3 and 4) level qualifications ([16]Eurostat, lfsa_pgaed [extracted 16.5.2019].)

 

Population (aged 25 to 64) by highest education level attained in 2018

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011; low reliability for ‘no response’ for Czechia, Iceland, Latvia and Poland.
ISCED 0-2 = less than primary, primary and lower secondary education.
ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education.
ISCED 5-8 = tertiary education.
Source: Eurostat, lfsa_pgaed [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

Share of learners in VET by level in 2017

lower secondary

upper secondary

post-secondary

2.4%

27.4%

100%

Source: Eurostat, educ_uoe_enrs01, educ_uoe_enrs04 and educ_uoe_enrs07 [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

Share of initial VET learners from total learners at upper-secondary level (ISCED level 3), 2017

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011.
Source: Eurostat, educ_uoe_enrs04 [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

Traditionally, there are more males in VET – 56% then females – 44% ([17]National statistics 2018; see:
http://svisold.emokykla.lt/lt/index/wpage_view/42#
).

Most popular 2018 education area among males was engineering. In the engineering sector, the most popular fields are:

  • motor vehicles;
  • aircraft;
  • mechanics (and metal works in the education subsector).

The share of early leavers from education and training has decreased from 8.7% in 2009 to 4.6% in 2018. It is below the national target for 2020 of not more than 9% and the EU-28 average of 10.6%.

In 2017, early leaving from education and training was among the lowest in the EU (5.4%) and decreasing, but still higher from VET ([18]Kvalifikacijų ir profesinio mokymo plėtros centras (2019). Vocational education and training in Europe: Lithuania, p. 28. Cedefop ReferNet VET in Europe reports 2018.
http://libserver.cedefop.europa.eu/vetelib/2019/Vocational_Education_Training_Europe_Lithuania_2018_Cedefop_ReferNet.pdf,
). 12% of students in IVET programmes (ISCED levels 2 to 4) discontinued their training (mostly due to life abroad, early entry into the labour market of lack of motivation to continue their studies).

 

Early leavers from education and training in 2009-18

NB: Share of the population aged 18 to 24 with at most lower secondary education and not in further education or training.
Source: Eurostat, edat_lfse_14 [extracted 16.5.2019] and European Commission: https://ec.europa.eu/info/2018-european-semester-national-reform-programmes-and-stability-convergence-programmes_en [accessed 14.11.2018].

 

Under the action plan for the development of lifelong learning for 2017-20, activities partly ESF-funded are in place to increase the efficiency of the network of initial and continuing VET providers to attract more learners in VET.

In 2017, new professional empowerment programmes were launched. They provide information and guidance services to students on available education and training programmes and career choices to help them make informed decisions about their future.

Lifelong learning offers training opportunities for adults, including early leavers from education.

 

Participation in lifelong learning in 2014-18

NB: Share of adult population aged 25 to 64 participating in education and training.
Source: Eurostat, trng_lfse_01 [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

Participation in lifelong learning is lower than in the majority of other EU countries (6.6%) and below the EU 2020 benchmark (15%).

According to national statistics, a large share of the population aged 25-64 has completed general education programmes (28% in 2017). Increasing access to lifelong learning and VET for adults is still challenging.

To reach the national target of 73% employment rate by 2020, the employment programme for 2014-20 ([19]Government resolution, 2014:
https://www.e-tar.lt/portal/lt/legalAct/ebe20890a52c11e3aeb49a67165e3ad3/fiSHCENHEe
) goal is to support job creation mostly by linking (formal) VET qualifications to the needs of the labour market. Quality guidance and counselling services accessible to all (young people and adults), strengthening validation of prior learning and better and diversified formal VET qualifications aligned with sectoral needs are priority areas.

There are no data available for the distribution of VET learners by age.

In 2017/18, participation in VET at all levels of education slightly decreased due to negative natural population growth and migration.

In 2018, VET institutions admitted 45% (compared with 47% in 2017) of the total of those who have completed or left basic education (dropouts) and who wish to continue training or studies ([20]Statistics refer to both, initial VET and continuing VET institutions offering formal VET programmes.). Universities accounted for 29% of overall admissions (28% in 2017) and colleges – for 26% (25% in 2017)

The Lithuanian education and training system comprises:

  • general education at primary (ISCED 0-1), lower (ISCED 2) and upper secondary (ISCED 4) levels;
  • initial VET at lower (ISCED 2), upper (ISCED 3) and post-secondary (ISCED 4) levels;
  • tertiary level academic/university education (ISCED 6-8) and college-based higher VET programmes (ISCED 6);
  • continuing VET programmes providing formal qualifications at EQF levels 2-4 (ISCED 2-4) and other non-formal training courses.

Learners have the obligation to education and training until age 16. Basic education, attested by a lower secondary school leaving certificate, is necessary to access upper secondary programmes.

Compulsory (basic) education is completion of lower secondary education (ISCED level 2) and receiving a basic school certificate at EQF level 2. After completing basic education, learners can choose upper secondary general education or VET programmes at ISCED level 3 (leading to an EQF level 3 vocational qualification) or to an EQF level 4 vocational qualification and an upper secondary leaving certificate, also known as matura, which allows higher education access.

Access to VET programmes is possible for learners aged 14 or older. Those who fail to graduate from lower secondary education may enter VET programmes or youth schools at ISCED level 2 (respectively 254, 252) leading to EQF level 2 qualifications. At ISCED level 254, graduates receive also the basic school certificate and may move on to upper secondary programmes, either in the general or vocational streams.

Graduates of upper secondary programmes leading to a matura certificate (either vocational ISCED 354 or general education-oriented ISCED 344) may enter either post-secondary vocational training (ISCED 454) leading to EQF level 4 (EQF level 5 programmes are also being piloted); or higher VET programmes to acquire a professional bachelor (ISCED 655/EQF 6) or higher education (ISCED level 6 or 7) programmes leading to EQF level 6 or 7 respectively ([21]Adapted from Cedefop (2013). Vocational education and training in Lithuania: short description. Luxembourg: Publications Office.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/publications/4128
).

As stipulated in the Law on Vocational Education and Training (1997, amended in 2007 and 2017), the VET system covers IVET ([22]IVET in the national context is used to refer to lower, upper and post-secondary education levels, Higher VET programmes (ISCED 655) are considered part of higher education.), CVET and vocational guidance ([23]Cedefop (2013). Vocational education and training in Lithuania: short description. Luxembourg: Publications Office.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/publications/4128
).

 

Formal IVET and CVET programmes

Most IVET in Lithuania is school-based. The main aim of training is to prepare learners for work. In lower and upper secondary, VET programmes (ISCED 252 and 352) prepare learners for a VET qualification and access the labour market. In parallel, there are VET (ISCED 254 and 354) programmes that, in addition to the VET diploma, deliver a general education certificate allowing progression to the upper level studies. Access to post-secondary (ISCED 454) and college-based higher VET (ISCED 655) progression is possible for learners with the matura (end of upper secondary) certificate.

Formal CVET programmes are provided by labour market training centres offering in-company training (apprenticeships) to learners over 18 to refresh existing knowledge or acquire new skills leading to qualifications at EQF levels 2-4. Formal CVET is designed for people with different education attainment levels, from primary to post-secondary; in some cases, a vocational qualification or work experience is a prerequisite to access these programmes.

Learning forms in formal VET programmes (offered in both IVET and CVET) include:

  • school-based group learning, where a teacher-led group (class, joint class, VET group, subgroup, temporary group, special medical physical fitness group or other) is set up for a certain period. It can be implemented part time or remotely; and
  • individual learning, where, for a certain period, a student gets individual tuition, or s/he individually and periodically attends a group and/or individual teacher consultations. It can be implemented individually, independently or remotely;
  • apprenticeships in formal IVET programmes are available in a small scale, as this pathway is not established as a clear VET pathway. In apprenticeship-type delivery, the programme in total (theoretical and practical parts) should not exceed more than 48 hours per week in total (Labour code law effective as of July 2017;
  • in IVET work-based learning ([24]In the national context is referred to as 'practical training' either at a VET institution or an enterprise.) comprises 44% to 60% of the total time allocated to teaching vocational subjects, of which 8 to 15 weeks is organised in a company or school-based workshop simulating working conditions;
  • in formal CVET, practical training covers 60-80% of the programme. Training for jobseekers is provided on the basis of contracts concluded between local employment offices, the unemployed and, if applicable, the enterprise.

After the end of a VET programme, learners must take an exam after which a VET diploma is awarded.

Qualification exams are detached from the training process and are carried out by accredited institutions (different types of accredited assessment centres exist: including those established by social partners, enterprises and employers’ associations)

Non-formal VET programmes exist alongside with formal VET, for the unemployed and the (self-) employed. According to legislation the requirements for non-formal VET programmes and their implementation may be set by the organisation that requests training under these programmes or finances any such training. The objectives of the programme, admission criteria and duration are different and mostly depend on the target group. Decisions on tuition fees are made by providers. Non-formal adult education may be offered by any education provider, freelance teachers, and agencies, as well as companies or organisations that do not have education as their main activity but are authorised to provide education.

Non-formal VET is widely applied in continuing VET and is designed for the acquisition of a vocational qualification or individual competences. It is carried out in various forms: learning at the workplace, attending non-formal training courses, distance learning, etc. In most cases, the following three forms are used:

  • non-formal courses for the (self-) employed initiated by the employer. It is organised in various settings, using forms and programmes chosen by the employer. Some companies apply internationally-recognised sectoral qualifications and programmes;
  • state-funded training programmes for employees (such as civil servants and employees in certain economic sectors, for instance, healthcare, agriculture, etc.);
  • training courses for the unemployed and people notified of dismissal, this type of training is funded through a voucher system introduced in 2012 to finance training in formal and non-formal education programmes.

The Law on VET (2017) provides a legal basis for apprenticeship. It clarifies the provisions for apprenticeship organisation based on an apprenticeship labour contract (between the employer and the VET student) and a VET (learning) contract between the apprentice and the VET provider.

The Law on VET also states that sectoral professional committees should participate in planning the in-take of apprentices. However, apprenticeship has still not gained its position as a clear VET pathway and receives little attention from VET providers and companies.

The new Labour Code and accompanying legislation entering into force on 1 July 2017 introduces two types of apprenticeship contracts: with and without learning agreements.

For apprenticeships that are part of formal VET, the regulation stipulates employers’ responsibility to ensure that apprentices acquire the learning outcomes defined in the VET programme. The law specifies also the main conditions for apprenticeship delivery: work and learning time should not exceed 48 hours per week in total; apprentices’ salaries should not be less than a minimum wage; and learning time spent in the VET institutions would not be paid by the employer and should not exceed one third of the contract duration.

Learn more about apprenticeships in the national context from the European database on apprenticeship schemes by Cedefop: http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/data-visualisations/apprenticeship-schemes/scheme-fiches

The Ministry of Education and Science is the main body responsible for shaping and implementing vocational education and training (VET) policy. The Ministry of Economy and Innovation ([25]http://eimin.lrv.lt/en/) participates in human resources development and VET policy. Other ministries and government bodies are involved in VET policy in the remit of their responsibilities (planning VET funding, managing enrolments in CVET upskilling programmes, etc.).

Following the new VET Law ([26]Republic of Lithuania, Law No XIII-888 amending Republic of Lithuania Law on Vocational Training No VIII-450 of 14 December 2017:
https://e-seimas.lrs.lt/portal/legalAct/lt/TAD/b0b6cda0eb0a11e7a5cea258c39305f6
), in force since February 2018, the Research and Higher Education Monitoring and Analysis Centre (MOSTA) ensures the monitoring framework for VET and higher education, research and innovation. It plans human resources and forecasts new qualification requirements in line with national policies and the needs of the economy ([27]Adapted from Cedefop (2018a). Spotlight on vocational education and training in Lithuania. Luxembourg: Publications Office.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/8121_en.pdf
).

The main tasks of the education ministry on VET delivery include:

  • human resources planning, continuing professional development of VET school teachers and tutors and vocational guidance for VET learners;
  • managing the list of accredited/licenced VET providers and accredited competence assessment bodies;
  • implementing formal initial VET/continuing VET programmes; guarantee quality of formal qualifications based on qualification standards; and monitor the national register of qualifications ([28]The register lists all formal VET qualifications (diplomas and certificates) and vocational qualifications programmes leading to such qualifications (Studijų, mokymo programų ir kvalifikacijų registras):
    https://www.aikos.smm.lt/en/StudyProgramm/SitePages/Study%20and%20Learning%20Programmes.aspx?ss=3f66a1ab-bcb9-4009-bdda-3e02a6fc2b63
    );
  • draw up investment programmes for IVET and other retraining programmes; run the funding system of VET schools (per capita financing) and approve student enrolment in state-funding VET programmes ([29]except for programmes of corrections officers VET and internal service VET institutions);

The Qualifications and VET Development Centre (KPMPC) organises development of qualifications standards and training programmes. It organises assessment and recognition of competences acquired in formal, non formal and informal learning thought competences assessment centres ([30]http://www.kpmpc.lt/kpmpc/profesinis-mokymas-3/kompetenciju-vertinimo-instituciju-akreditavimas/). It supervises and coordinates the work of sectoral professional committees.

The new VET law strengthened the role of sectoral professional committees (SPCs) ([31]Assuming the role of the previous central professional committee.), advisory bodies that ensure cooperation on VET delivery between all VET stakeholders in a particular sector. They are actively involved in shaping and assess new (modules of) vocational training programmes, create and approve sectoral qualifications standards (used to design new VET content), make proposals to the education ministry on qualifications that can be acquired through apprenticeships, new qualifications to be added in the national register of qualifications ([32]The register lists all formal VET qualifications (diplomas and certificates) and vocational qualifications programmes leading to such qualifications (Studijų, mokymo programų ir kvalifikacijų registras):
https://www.aikos.smm.lt/en/StudyProgramm/SitePages/Study%20and%20Learning%20Programmes.aspx?ss=3f66a1ab-bcb9-4009-bdda-3e02a6fc2b63).
) and validation arrangements.

Reforming VET management, financing schemes and quality assurance mechanisms is part of policy priorities and developments in progress to raise the prestige of VET and its attractiveness among all VET stakeholders (learners, VET teachers and trainers, companies).

Funding for IVET institutions by source (000) EUR

 

2014

2015

2016

2017

State budget

75.1

94.7

101.8

103.0

Private sources (physical and legal entities)

7.1

10.6

13.1

13.4

International organisations

17.8

9.9

4.5

4.7

Source: Statistics Lithuania, 2018.

Funding for formal IVET is allocated from the State budget. Training costs are calculated per student (per capita financing of vocational schools). The methodology determines the level of direct funding needed for training per learner enrolled in a formal training programme for one VET academic hour. The unit costs (the so-called ‘student basket’) include allocations for staff salaries and social insurance, in-service training of teachers and funding for the acquisition of various training resources, including practical training. The latter category is calculated using a coefficient that varies depending on the programme area.

Funding is allocated to the VET provider based on the actual number of learners multiplied by the number of hours for implementing the programme and costs of a training hour. Unit costs for learners with special needs are defined separately.

The share of funding from international organisations depends on the availability of European funds.

In addition, VET providers may receive funding from the State budget (annual investment programme) for infrastructure, updating training facilities, etc. Such developments could also be supported from other funds, including EU structural funds. VET providers may receive income from physical and legal entities for services provided (such as training courses, rent of premises). This income is used for education and training purposes.

Vocational guidance is integral part of the national VET system, as stipulated by legislation. It is funded from the ‘student basket’ (see above) and other national and local budgets, sponsors, etc. An ESF-funded project 2010-15 was used to fund guidance programmes and tools for 1 600 career guidance staff and 163 000 beneficiaries (VET learners).

Non-formal CVET for the self-employed and employees is funded by the enterprise or learner. According to national legislation in certain cases training can be sponsored by the State ([33]A company that needs to train a large number of employees to new technologies may apply to the Employment service or the Ministry of Social Security and Labour for funding such training actions for their staff to acquire the necessary technical skills.).

EU and enterprise funds are used to finance training of employees in the private sector. The ministry of economy and innovation is managing ESF funds. Measures include workplace-based training to upskill company employees and managers (ESF funds 2007-13); and two new projects being implemented in the period 2017-23 (ESF funds 2014-20): the competence voucher programme to train 42 000 private sector employees and the HR invest LT project to train employees of foreign companies based in Lithuania. Companies contributions vary from 30% (small-sized) or 40% (medium-sized companies) to 50% (large companies) of the total training cost.

Non-formal CVET for the unemployed is mainly covered from ESF support through the ‘training voucher’ scheme managed by local public employment services. A training voucher issued by the PES to an unemployed may be used, within the limits of its value, to fund an agreed training action, the beneficiary of the voucher may select a provider from those listed in the dedicated PES online website. CVET training of the unemployed is provided on the basis of two types of training contracts:

  • a bipartite VET contract between the unemployed person and the local PES: the unemployed person selects from a list of available VET programmes established based on labour market forecasts and employers surveys. After the completion of the training programme, the unemployed person undertakes to work in the position offered by the local PES for at least six months or start own business; or
  • a tripartite VET and employment contract (between the unemployed person, local PES and employer): a training programme and its provider are agreed with the employer. After the end of the training programme, the employer undertakes to employ the unemployed person for at least six months. If the actual costs of training exceed the limits established by the government, the difference is covered by the learner or the employer. The same procedure is applied to training persons notified of dismissal.

In 2014-20 up to EUR 84.6 million ESF funding are to be allocated in Lithuania for lifelong learning and VET: EUR 44.6 million for increasing the relevance and attractiveness of vocational and adult training to the labour market needs; and EUR 40 million for providing opportunities and incentives for life-long learning and ensuring efficient support.

The funding system for general education schools and VET institutions depends on the number of students which leads to competition between these two networks in attracting and keeping learners. The new Law on VET (2017) ([34]Republic of Lithuania, Law No XIII-888 amending Republic of Lithuania Law on Vocational Training No VIII-450 of 14 December 2017:
https://e-seimas.lrs.lt/portal/legalAct/lt/TAD/b0b6cda0eb0a11e7a5cea258c39305f6
) set the requirements for a new funding model for the entire VET system, implementing provisions are being developed. The new funding for VET combined with new VET programmes tailored on the basis of skills forecasts is expected to raise the attractiveness of VET.

Teaching personnel in IVET institutions

School year

Teaching personnel, total (*)

Of which, vocational teachers

Total

%

2015/16

3 507

2 011

57.3

2016/17

3 481

1 958

56.2

2017/18

3 263

1 822

55.8

(*) At the beginning of the school year.

Source: Statistics Lithuania database, 2018.

In IVET institutions there are two main types of teachers (see table above):

  • general education subject teachers;
  • vocational teachers. On average, vocational teachers represent more than half of all teaching personnel in IVET institutions.

In formal CVET programmes, theoretical or practical vocational content is provided by IVET teachers.

Apprenticeships in formal IVET/CVET are marginal and requirements for in-company tutors are not clearly defined in respective legislation.

VET institutions that focus on training the (un)employed, such as labour market training centres, may introduce in-company trainers (nationally referred to as apprenticeship tutors or practical training instructors). Private training providers offering training leading to formal VET qualifications need a licence from the Education ministry.

General requirements for all VET teachers are set by the 2011 Law on Education ([35]VET school teachers must either: (a) have attained a tertiary education level and a teacher qualification; or (b) have attained a tertiary education level (or a post-secondary education level prior to 2009, or a specialised secondary education level prior to 1995) and would then have to complete a 120-hour pedagogical-psychological course in basics of pedagogy, pedagogical psychology and didactics) during the first year of their placement as a VET teacher; or (c) have completed a VET programme, attained an upper secondary education level, acquired a vocational qualification, achieved a three-year work experience in a relevant field, and completed a pedagogical-psychological course.). VET teacher training follows a consecutive model whereby a vocational qualification is studied first, followed by studies on pedagogy.

VET teachers without a pedagogical qualification, irrespective of their educational attainment level, are offered a 120-hour course on pedagogy and psychology. These courses are organised by accredited institutions and companies.

Additionally, universities provide programmes for the pedagogical education of vocational teachers ([36]ISCED level 4 basic courses on pedagogy and psychology, ISCED level 6 programmes for subject teachers (mathematics, physics, languages, etc.).).

Since September 2018, a new teachers’ remuneration system has been put in place with a view to introducing more favourable payment conditions for (VET) teachers. Salaries are calculated not only for actual lessons but for all the time spent working. This will give teachers greater stability and security. The job consists of three components: contact hours (lessons, after-school activities, counselling, supervising students’ final projects), non-contact hours (preparation for lessons, assessment of achievements) and non-contact hours for the school community ([37]https://e-seimas.lrs.lt/portal/legalAct/lt/TAD/7f76a3f244d311e8b20ee1645...) (work with parents, guiding student pedagogical practical training and other efforts relevant to the school community).

Continuing professional development training courses for VET teachers in schools include topics such as creativity, distance learning methods, digitalisation of curricula, VET for special needs learners, as well as on training resources, mentorship, teaching methodologies and differentiation of learning.

In 2017, 764 vocational teachers and VET institutions’ managers attended training courses on such topics as empowerment of sectoral practical training centres, evaluation of learning outcomes, VET didactics, application of research in VET practice and other topics.

In October 2016, a national level project ([38]http://www.kpmpc.lt/kpmpc/projektai/vykdomi-projektai/projektas-profesij...) Development of the system for the development of vocational and adult teachers' qualifications was launched. It is coordinated by the Qualifications and VET Development Centre ([39]http://www.kpmpc.lt/kpmpc/profesinis-mokymas-3/kompetenciju-vertinimo-instituciju-akreditavimas/), under the responsibility of the education ministry ([40]Cedefop (2018b). Developments in vocational education and training policy in 2015-18: Lithuania. Cedefop monitoring and analysis of VET policies [unpublished].).

A joint EU-funded Baltic project is testing a joint training project for VET subject teachers in schools and in-company trainers. A pilot training programme run in 2017 with 56 VET schools and apprenticeships tutors trained.

More information is available in the Cedefop ReferNet thematic perspective on teachers and trainers ([41]http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/country-reports/teachers-and-trainers).

Since 2016, a monitoring system has been developed mapping occupational qualifications of skilled workers. It provides skills forecasts on future employment trends using a set of indicators approved by the education ministry (such as graduates tracking; number of people in employment and further education). These are used to inform education and lifelong learning policies and plan funding of public schools (VET schools and vocational guidance are state funded based on a per capita financing system, the so-called ‘student basket’).

Following the new VET law (in force since Feb 2018), the Research and Higher Education Monitoring and Analysis Centre (MOSTA) coordinates the monitoring framework for VET and higher education, research and innovation. Its first report (September 2018) presents trends in human resources development and a detailed analysis of skill needs per region; it also examines integration of skilled workforce into the labour market at the beginning of their career, and correspondence of HE and VET qualifications to the labour market needs ([42]https://www.mosta.lt/images/tyrimai/nauji_pav/HR-status-2018-ENG.pdf).

Medium-term forecasts are also being developed as part of a two-year ESF-funded project (2017-19) to monitor trends in employment and better matching of occupations and training programmes listed in the national register of qualifications ([43]The register lists all formal VET qualifications (diplomas and certificates) and vocational qualifications programmes leading to such qualifications (Studijų, mokymo programų ir kvalifikacijų registras):
https://www.aikos.smm.lt/en/StudyProgramm/SitePages/Study%20and%20Learning%20Programmes.aspx?ss=3f66a1ab-bcb9-4009-bdda-3e02a6fc2b63).
).

A methodical framework for the development of sectoral qualifications standards and VET curricula in line with the Lithuanian and European Qualifications Frameworks is under development ([44]The project runs under the on-going ESF-funded project for 2016-20 Development of the Lithuanian Qualifications System (first stage).): in total, 24 qualifications standards will be created defining the major qualifications offered at different levels and sectors.

See also Cedefop’s skills forecast ([45]http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/data-visualisations/skills-forecast) and European Skills Index ([46]https://skillspanorama.cedefop.europa.eu/en/indicators/european-skills-index).

From 2002, VET curricula in Lithuania have been competence-based, with clearly defined learning outcomes.

VET programmes are being gradually redesigned into modular programmes consisting of mandatory and optional units ([47]Cedefop (2018a). Spotlight on vocational education and training in Lithuania. Luxembourg: Publications Office.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/8121_en.pdf
).

Sectoral qualifications standards

To improve the Lithuanian qualification development system, qualifications standards were given a legal basis by legislation in 2007. They are developed for a particular economic sector and are use to describe the most important qualifications in the specific sector at different national qualifications (LTQF) levels. For each qualification the qualifications standard describes competences that are grouped into qualification units ([48]Sectoral qualification standards are available at:
https://www.e-tar.lt/portal/lt/legalAct/871e12205c0b11e79198ffdb108a3753 (in Lithuanian)
).

Since 2018, the education ministry (in charge of national qualification system policy) has delegated development of sectoral qualifications standards to the Qualifications and VET development centre ([49]The new VET law (2017) foresees that from 2019 on, qualifications standards shall be approved by director of Qualifications and VET Development Centre after sectoral professional committees have endorsed them.) through its 18 sectoral professional committees (SPCs), which have been set up to ensure effective social dialogue. SPCs operate in specific sectors of the economy (where skill mismatch ito ensure matching of skills demand and supply). When relevant, other ministries and governmental institutions participate in developing qualifications standards.

Till 2018, ten sectoral qualifications standards were designed ([50]Within the project Formation of qualifications and development of modular VET system implemented in 2010-15.) and 14 new standards in different sectors will be designed till the end of 2020 ([51]Trade; polygraph, mass media and advertisement; manufacture of computer, electronic, optical and electrical equipment and products; manufacture of chemicals and chemical products; manufacture of machinery and equipment and motor vehicles; financial, insurance and real estate activities and others.).

Sectoral qualifications standards are also used to assess the learning outcomes of a vocational qualification. Identifying qualifications standards in all sectors and at all qualification levels is necessary to improve permeability between different education levels ([52]From EQF level 2 VET qualifications up to EQF level 8 in higher education.) and flexibility in skill acquisition.

The MoES has delegated development of sectoral qualifications standards to the Qualifications and VET development centre ([53]The new VET law (2017) foresees that from 2019 on, qualifications standards shall be approved by director of Qualifications and VET Development Centre after sectoral professional committees have endorsed them.) through its 18 sectoral professional committees (SPCs) set up to ensure effective social dialogue. Sectoral professional committees are responsible for designing qualifications standards in specific sectors of the economy.

VET curricula design

Since 2010, the Qualifications and VET development centre (KPMPC) is responsible for designing or updating national modular VET programmes. Before a new programme is issued, sectoral professional committees are also consulted on sectoral qualifications standards used for developing the programme curricula (see above).

VET providers and enterprises can also initiate and design modular training programmes, but in this case the quality of the VET programme has to be evaluated by the Qualifications and VET development centre.

In 2018, 89 modular programmes are registered in the national register of qualifications ([54]The register lists all formal VET qualifications (diplomas and certificates) and vocational qualifications programmes leading to such qualifications (Studijų, mokymo programų ir kvalifikacijų registras):
https://www.aikos.smm.lt/en/StudyProgramm/SitePages/Study%20and%20Learning%20Programmes.aspx?ss=3f66a1ab-bcb9-4009-bdda-3e02a6fc2b63).
), of which 58 were implemented in the school year 2017/18 (47 in 2016/17), in the same year, 38% of VET learners were enrolled in such programmes (compared with 11% in 2016/17). New sectoral qualifications standards and modular programmes are being developed ([55]Under the ESF funded project for 2016-20: Development of the Lithuanian qualifications system (1st stage).); by 2020, 70 new programmes will be developed.

The national quality assurance approach for VET is set out in the VET quality assurance (QA) system concept (2008). The approach includes licensing and supervision of training providers, mandatory self-assessment by all VET providers, external evaluation of the quality of training programmes, support to VET providers (related training and counselling), and a national regulation on developing standards for learning outcomes. The 2017 Law on VET ([56]Republic of Lithuania, Law No XIII-888 amending Republic of Lithuania Law on Vocational Training No VIII-450 of 14 December 2017:
https://e-seimas.lrs.lt/portal/legalAct/lt/TAD/b0b6cda0eb0a11e7a5cea258c39305f6
) set the rules for quality assurance in line with the European Quality Assurance in Vocational Education and Training (EQAVET).

Internal quality management systems

The same QA arrangements apply for IVET providers as well as for CVET providers offering formal CVET programmes which are under the responsibility of the education ministry (MoES):

  • new national monitoring indicators were created in 2017 and are used to conduct annual forecasts ([57]As a result of an ESF-funded project launched in 2017 to improve skills forecasting in the labour market by linking the occupational groups under the Lithuanian classification of occupations with training programmes, and other related activities.);
  • most VET schools have introduced an ISO evaluation system adapted to education;
  • since 2018, a new system of supervisor and school assessment is under development (system of leadership promotion).

No specific requirements are in place for non-formal VET providers ([58]Cedefop (2018b). Developments in vocational education and training policy in 2015-17: Lithuania, p. 13. Cedefop monitoring and analysis of VET policies.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/country-reports/vetpolicy-developments-lithuania-2017 ,
).

VET providers are free to choose their quality management model and to define periodicity and criteria for self-assessment.

The PDCA (plan-do-check-adjust) method is embedded into VET provision and is regarded as the backbone of VET quality assurance.

External evaluation and accreditation of VET providers

VET programmes have to follow qualifications standards. Training programmes are designed by the Qualifications and VET development centre (centrally) or by any other VET provider. In the latter case, the quality of the VET programmes must be checked by the Qualifications and VET development centre. If the VET programme receives a positive evaluation it is included in national register of qualifications ([59]The register lists all formal VET qualifications (diplomas and certificates) and vocational qualifications programmes leading to such qualifications: Studijų, mokymo programų ir kvalifikacijų registras:
https://www.aikos.smm.lt/en/StudyProgramm/SitePages/Study%20and%20Learning%20Programmes.aspx?ss=3f66a1ab-bcb9-4009-bdda-3e02a6fc2b63
). A licence to carry out a registered VET programme is issued to a VET provider if it has sufficient resources to implement the VET programme, and vocational teachers or candidates for vocational teachers meet the requirements prescribed in VET programmes and the Law of Education;

Monitoring framework for VET and HE (state level)

Following the 2017 VET Law, the Research and Higher Education Monitoring and Analysis Centre (MOSTA) ensures the monitoring framework for VET and higher education, research and innovation. It plans human resources and forecasts new qualification requirements in line with national policies and the needs of the economy.

A unified electronic system for admissions to HE and VET institutions is place (2017). It is run by LAMA BPO, the ‘Lithuanian higher institutions association for organizing Joint Admission’- LAMA BPO ([60]http://www.lamabpo.lt/). The association involves 19 universities, 21 colleges (providing higher VET programmes) and over 70 VET institutions.

Design and approval of sectoral qualifications standards -which are the basis of VET programmes - and assessment of learner achievements are under the sole responsibility of the Qualifications and VET Development Centre (KPMPC).

As of 2019 sectoral qualifications standards will be approved by the director of KPMPC ([61]Previously, sectoral qualifications stadards where approved by the Minister for Education and Science and the Minister for Economy.) after sectoral professional committees have endorsed them.

Several EQAVET indicators are used, including those on the destination of VET learners, the share of employed learners on completion of their training, and the mechanisms to identify training needs in the labour market ([62]Cedefop (2018b). Developments in vocational education and training policy in 2015-17: Lithuania, p.14. Cedefop monitoring and analysis of VET policies.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/country-reports/developments-vocational-education-and-training-policy-2015-17-lithuania
).

Relevant divisions of the MoES supervise the teaching process and activities, and audit activities, while the State audit office performs random checks of VET institutions, during which the rationale of their activities is also analysed.

An independent system for validation of prior learning is being developed through a four-year ESF-funded project ([63]ESF 2018-22 project on the improvement of the system of assessment and recognition of competencies and qualifications otherwise acquired by individuals.) launched in 2018. It aims to improve the system of assessment and recognition of non-formal and informal learning and create monitoring and information tools for the assessment and recognition of prior learning.

Reforming the network of IVET and CVET providers

Funding for state schools (general or vocational ones) is calculated based on the number of students which leads to competition between the two types of school in attracting and keeping learners. Since 2015, a network of 42 sectoral practical training centres (SPTCs) was established in selected VET institutions to offer quality practical training in simulated environments using state-of-the-art technologies and equipment. The aim is to provide learners with skills valued in the (local) economy. These centres are open to VET and HE students, employees in enterprises, vocational teachers, etc. ([64]http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/news-and-press/news/lithuania-42-modern-practical-training-centres-established). Recent study commissioned by the education ministry suggest that selected SPTCs should become ‘competence centres’ with extended responsibilities, including piloting new training methods and VET programmes; and supporting the continuing professional development of VET teachers and training.

Individuals, with at least one-year work experience and older than 18, can apply to VET institutions for recognition of their competences. The skills and knowledge of an applicant are defined on the basis of sectoral qualifications standards and relevant VET programmes. The applicant and the school then agree on a timetable of courses as necessary and a final qualification exam. Individuals who pass the exam organised by an accredited competence assessment institution are awarded a VET diploma.

When pursuing VET studies at a higher level, prior learning (or VET programme) is recognised as part of their training programme, affecting the duration of the programme.

Since 2018, the Qualifications and VET development centre is coordinating a four-year ESF-funded project ([65]https://www.kpmpc.lt/kpmpc/en/ivairiais-budais-igytu-kompetenciju-ir-kvalifikaciju-vertinimo-ir-pripazinimo-sistemos-tobulinimas/) for the development of the national system for assessing and recognising competences and professional qualifications. Within this project, several sectoral practical training centres (SPTCs) ([66]A total of 42 sectoral practical training centres (SPTCs) were established in selected VET institutions to offer quality practical training in simulated environments using state-of-the-art technologies and equipment. The aim is to provide learners with skills valued in the (local) economy. These centres are open to VET and HE students, employees in enterprises, vocational teachers, etc.) have been selected to become competences assessment centres for the assessment of individually acquired competencies. Employers and employers’ representatives will be involved in the project. The legal framework is subject to parallel changes to ensure that in the future competences assessment will be performed only through these SPTCs/competence centres, which will eventually replace the 31 accredited institutions (independent private companies or associated business organisations operating as assessment centres, in charge of the final assessment of VET learners). The project aim is to support the unemployed (including newly arrived migrants) to gain qualifications though validation of prior learning and recognition of professional qualifications. The project activities include the creation of reference material for validation of prior learning (such as a bank of competence assessment tasks), methodologies and methodological tools (with model tasks) for the assessment of competencies. It will enhance institutional capacity to assess competencies and/or qualifications otherwise acquired by individuals; and create monitoring and information tools for the assessment and recognition of the acquired competencies.

For more information about arrangements for the validation of non-formal and informal learning please visit Cedefop’s European database ([67]http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/data-visualisations/european-database-on-validation-of-non-formal-and-informal-learning).

Bringing GE and VET closer together

Raising the attractiveness of VET is a policy priority. In the upper secondary general education path (11th and 12th grades) learners may choose from optional technological modules in textile and clothing; applied art, crafts and design; tourism and nutrition technologies; construction and wood processing; business, management and retail trade; mechanics and repair. Also, some general upper secondary curricula include VET programmes modules. When learners continue their studies in VET, the above-mentioned fields and VET modules are recognised as part of their VET programmes.

Since 2010, a technology subject can be part (on an optional base) of the matura exams at the end of upper secondary general education. It is possible for learners in either general or vocational streams to replace one general education subject with the technology subject.

Measures to improve mobility between VET and higher education

VET graduates who have finished upper secondary education programmes and who choose to continue in higher education have a few advantages over students coming from general education. Selection criteria and procedures for ranking graduates who apply for higher education studies are defined annually in a specific regulation. This regulation awards an additional enrolment point for graduates from VET in the same field of studies who performed exceptionally, or who have at least one year of work experience in this field. This additional point increases their chances of being admitted to a state-funded study place in colleges (professional bachelor programmes) and universities (from 2018).

In addition, to enter higher education institution at least three matura exams have to be taken. For example, from 2016, Lithuanian language and mathematics exams are compulsory for those willing to receive state funding for their studies. For upper secondary VET graduates who want to enrol in technological higher education programmes (ISCED 655), the final qualification exam may be recognised as a third matura exam.

Many Initial VET institutions have agreements regarding continuation of VET graduates studies in higher education institutions. They also cooperate with higher education institutions (colleges, universities) in drafting programmes that ensure continuity of VET programmes at tertiary level.

Incentives for youth

VET to acquire a first qualification is free of charge. Initial VET learners may receive a student grant (EUR 10-29) and other material support. Based on data from Statistics Lithuania, around 51% of IVET learners received such a student grant in 2017. Socially disadvantaged learners who do not receive the grant are provided free meals and other material support.

Learners who do not live near the learning institution are provided with hostel accommodation. Based on data from the Centre for Information Technologies in Education, around 99% of those who need hostel accommodation receive it (Statistics Lithuania, 2017).

Training leave for employees

The Labour Code (Parliament, 2016) sets out training leave conditions for employees participating in a VET programme, to prepare and take exams and tests, for consultations, etc. All employees who join a continuing VET course in formal continuing VET programmes at a VET provider are entitled educational leave while retaining their average salary. Since 2015, according to the Labour Code, employees may be granted training leave for up to five working days per year to participate in non-formal adult education.

To support participation in continuing VET tax incentives, grant schemes, paid and unpaid training leave and payback clauses are applied.

Tax incentives for individuals for both formal and non-formal VET were introduced in 2008. Persons paying income tax may claim training expenditure in their annual tax return. Up to 25% of training expenditure can be deducted. When a studying resident of Lithuania is not an income tax payer or has no possibility to exercise the right to deduct expenditure for VET or studies from their own income, such expenses may be deducted from their parents’ or other family members’ income.

Tax incentives for legal entities have been in place since 2005. The Law on Corporate Income Tax (Parliament, 2002) allows deductions for continuing training courses of employees that are linked to their present occupation.

Financial incentives To finance continuing VET, enterprises and organisations may use the grant schemes available from EU structural funds.

Payback clauses for individuals and future employers were both introduced in 2005. The provisions of the Labour Code allow employers to claim compensation from an employee for the costs of training over the past year if they quit their job before a previously agreed time.

Guidance services and providers

As defined by the Vocational Guidance Act ([68]MoES and Ministry of Social Security and Labour (2012). Vocational Guidance Act. Valstybės žinios [Official Gazette], 2012, No 82-4284.
https://www.e-tar.lt/portal/lt/legalAct/TAR.1F89593BBB2C
) the main educational institutions that provide guidance services (career education, information and counselling) to their learners are general education schools and VET institutions.

Municipalities are responsible for organising and coordinating guidance services within their territory.

Nation-wide guidance and counselling is coordinated by the Lithuanian Students’ Non-Formal Education Centre. The centre is responsible for methodological assistance and advice to schools and educational support agencies and is involved in training career guidance staff. It ensures accessibility to modern guidance and counselling tools, and takes part in nationwide monitoring of guidance services for learners.

The Lithuanian Students’ Non-Formal Education Centre, together with the Centre for Information Technologies in Education, are responsible for providing quality information on learning opportunities and career planning on the main national web portal on learning opportunities, AIKOS ([69]Atvira informavimo, konsultavimo ir orientavimo sistema:
http://www.aikos/smm.lt
). This is an open information, guidance and counselling system, which addresses students, employees and guidance and counselling personnel. It informs on education and training programmes, providers, qualifications, occupations, admission rules, education and employment statistics. Other education institutions (pedagogical and psychological services, education support agencies, etc.) are involved in providing guidance services to the extent this is related to their functions and actual guidance needs of learners.

The Education Exchange Support Foundation manages the Euroguidance project and disseminates information on good practice examples in Lithuania and other European countries, new methods, creates various guidance and counselling tools and organises training seminars for guidance practitioners.

Local PES also provide vocational information and counselling services for jobseekers in addition to employment mediation. Youth labour centres of PES organise info-days on career issues, job fairs, Youth Guarantee promotion events and help students and graduates with finding a job or traineeship.

Organisation and funding

General education and VET institutions appoint a coordinator who manages guidance-related activities of career guidance staff, class or group tutors, teachers/vocational teachers, social pedagogues, psychologists, and other support staff.

In 2014, a career education programme was approved by the Minister for education and science for implementation in general education and VET institutions starting from September, 2014 ([70]MoES (2014). Lietuvos Respublikos švietimo ir mokslo ministro 2014 m. sausio 15 d. įsakymas Nr. V-72 ‘Dėl ugdymo karjerai programos patvirtinimo’ [Legal act regarding the programme for career education]. Teisės aktų registras [Register of legal acts], 29.4.2014, No 2014-04888.
https://www.e-tar.lt/portal/lt/legalAct/99c37290cf9011e3a8ded1a0f5aff0a9
). The programme aims to help learners develop career management skills. It can be integrated into primary, general lower and upper secondary and VET curricula and can take the form of optional subjects or extracurricular activities.

Vocational guidance is funded from the ‘student basket’ (see Section 9. VET financing mechanisms) and other national and local budgets, sponsors, etc. In 2010-15 an ESF project was carried out by the Students’ Non-Formal Education Centre during which more than 1600 career guidance staff was employed in GE and VET institutions and trained. Funding was also provided for the development of guidance programmes and tools. By this project more than 163 000 learners received guidance and counselling services.

Learners can acquire career-related information on learning and job opportunities through information systems and various other activities such as study visits, excursions, meetings with representatives of educational institutions, employers and other people and other events. Vocational activation (profesinis veiklinimas), during which visits to enterprises and lectures are organised, is regarded as one of the most important aspects. Learners are encouraged to experience and learn about different types of work, employment areas, specific characteristics of occupations and career paths. Vocational counselling services help learners to identify and discuss individual needs and preferences, and advise them on issues related to career planning, choice of training or studies, employment and job search.

Please see also:

Vocational education and training system chart

Tertiary

Click on a programme type to see more info
Programme Types

EQF 6

Higher education

college studies,

3 years

ISCED 655

Professional bachelor - EQF level 6, ISCED 655 (Profesinio bakalauro studijos). Professional bachelor degree studies (tertiary non-academic education).
EQF level
6
ISCED-P 2011 level

655

Usual entry grade

13

Usual completion grade

16

Usual entry age

19+

Usual completion age

21

Length of a programme (years)

3 - (3 ½)

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Higher VET is formally a part of higher education and includes three to three and half year college study programmes (ISCED 655).

(in the national context, IVET programmes are considered only those delivered in lower-, upper-secondary and post-secondary levels).

Is it continuing VET?

N

Information not available

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

According to the Law on VET a state-funded qualification can be done twice by a person (from EQF level 2 till level 8). If it is first or second qualification - it’s free of charge.

Is it available for adults?

Y

Learners aged 19+ may enter these programmes.

ECVET or other credits

3 years’ programme – 180 credits. One national credit corresponds to one ECTS credit.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • full-time or
  • part-time
  • classroom-based learning
  • in-company learning

In terms of credits allocation:

  • compulsory subjects (141 credits),
  • specialisation subjects (15 credits),
  • general subjects of college studies (15 credits), and
  • optional subjects (9 credits).
Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

Work-based learning (in colleges or companies) covers at least one third of the study programme; from which (30 ECTS credits points) the practical placement in companies might last up to six months.

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training in colleges (labs, workshops)
  • practical training placements / apprenticeships
Main target groups

ISCED 655 programmes are accessible to learners over 18 (including those with special educational needs related to hearing impairment) having completed upper secondary education ([122]Basic education, attested by a lower secondary school leaving certificate, is necessary to access upper secondary programmes.).

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

HE VET is available to those having completed upper secondary education (awarded the matura certificate, or completed individualised or adapted secondary education programmes, for those who have special educational needs).

Assessment of learning outcomes

After the end of the programme, learners must take an exam after which a professional bachelor's diploma is awarded. The higher education institution organizes its own examinations according to the study outcomes set out in the study description.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Learners receive a Professional bachelor degree studies (Professional bachelor diploma - Profesinio bakalauro diplomas) at EQF level 6.

The diploma is recognised by the HE institutions and labour authorities.

Examples of qualifications

Software engineering (professional bachelor in informatics); tourism management (professional bachelor in business); management of cultural activity (professional bachelor in business).

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Graduates from post-secondary ISCED 454 programmes may:

  • enter the labour market; or
  • enter higher VET non-academic programmes delivered in colleges (a type of higher education institutions (EQF 6/ISCED 655); or
  • enter higher education academic programmes (EQF 6/ISCED 645, EQF 7/ISCED 746).
Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

A higher education institution may include the results of student partial studies, formal, non-formal and informal learning in the scope of the study program.

General education subjects

N

Key competences

Y

  • communication in the mother tongue (Lithuanian)
  • foreign languages
  • social/civic competences
  • entrepreneurship
Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

All HE VET programmes are based on learning outcomes.

The national qualification system (LTQF) is based on learning outcomes / level descriptors defined according to two parameters: focusing on activity characteristics (complexity, autonomy and variability) and on types of competences (functional, cognitive and general) ([123]Source: Cedefop (2017) European inventory on NQF, 2016: Lithuania. Cedefop country specific report.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/lithuania_-_european_inventory_on_nqf_2016.pdf
).

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Post-secondary

Click on a programme type to see more info
Programme Types

EQF 4

Post-secondary VET,

WBL>60%,

1-2 years

ISCED 454

Initial VET programmes leading to EQF level 4, ISCED 454 (Profesinio mokymo programos turint vidurinį išsilavinimą). Post-secondary non-tertiary vocational education
EQF level
4
ISCED-P 2011 level

454

Usual entry grade

13

Usual completion grade

14 or 15

Usual entry age

19+

Usual completion age

20 or 21

Length of a programme (years)

1-2

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

Information not available

both IVET and CVET

Is it offered free of charge?

Yes and no

VET programmes to acquire a first qualification are provided free of charge ([115]According to the Law on VET a state-funded qualification can be done twice by a person (from EQF level 2 till level 8).)

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

30 to 110 credits depending on the programme complexity The scope of a formal VET programme was set by ministerial order in November 2018 ([114]Order of the Minister of Education and Science of 22 November 2018, No V-925, on approval of the description of the procedure for preparation and registration of vocational training programs.).

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • School-based group learning, where a teacher-led group (class, joint class, VET group, subgroup, temporary group, special medical physical fitness group or other) is set up for a certain period. It can be implemented part time or remotely; and
  • individual learning, where, for a certain period, a student gets individual tuition, or s/he individually and periodically attends a group and/or individual teacher consultations. It can be implemented individually, independently or remotely.
Main providers

The Law on VET stipulates that a VET provider may be any VET institution, a freelance teacher or any other provider (general education school, enterprise, organisation whose main activity is other than VET) authorised to develop and implement VET programmes. VET providers may accept learners and provide formal VET programmes after receiving a licence from the education ministry. VET providers may have licences for both IVET and CVET.

In 2017 formal IVET programmes were carried out by 70 state VET institutions and three private ones. 226 institutions, whose main activity is other than VET, specialise just in CVET.

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

>60%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school (labs, school workshops)
  • on-the-job practice / apprenticeships

Work-based learning in the national context is referred to as 'practical training' either at a VET institution or an enterprise. Practical training in ISCED 454 VET programmes comprises 60% of the total time allocated to teaching vocational subjects, of which 8 to 15 weeks is organised in a company or school-based workshop simulating working conditions.

Main target groups

ISCED 454 programmes are accessible to learners over 18.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Post-secondary VET is available to those having completed upper secondary education (awarded the matura certificate) or completed individualised or adapted secondary education programmes (for those who have special educational needs).

Assessment of learning outcomes

VET programmes are based on learning outcomes.

After the end of a training programme, learners must take an exam after which a VET diploma is awarded.

Qualification exams are detached from the training process and are carried out by accredited institutions (different types of accredited assessment centres exist, including those established by social partners, enterprises and employers’ associations).

Diplomas/certificates provided

VET learners receive a vocational qualification (VET diploma - Profesinio mokymo diplomas at EQF level 4. ([116]In 2016 a new type of VET programmes (ISCED 454) leading to EQF level 5 qualifications was introduced and implemented as a pilot. In 2018 there are three programmes in the Study, training programmes and qualifications register (Studijų, mokymo programų ir kvalifikacijų registras.
https://www.aikos.smm.lt/en/StudyProgramm/SitePages/Study%20and%20Learning%20Programmes.aspx?ss=3f66a1ab-bcb9-4009-bdda-3e02a6fc2b63). Implementation of EQF level 5 programmes is still under discussions.
)

The VET diploma is recognised by the education and training and labour authorities.

Examples of qualifications

Electronic equipment adjuster; landscaper; scaffold builder; installer of pipelines ([117]https://www.kpmpc.lt/kpmpc/kvalifikaciju-formavimas/standartai-2/profesiniai-standartai/\)

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Graduates from post-secondary ISCED 454 programmes may

  • enter the labour market; or
  • enter higher VET non-academic programmes delivered in colleges (a type of higher education institutions (EQF 6/ISCED 655); or
  • enter higher education academic programmes (EQF 6/ISCED 645, EQF 7/ISCED 746).
Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

Qualification exams are detached from the training process and are carried out by accredited institutions. Applicants participating to the exam to acquire a formal VET qualification, may have their prior learning ([118]Non-formal vocational programmes, informal learning (work experience, self-study) or learning from other education programmes.) assessed and certified (credits) based on the VET standards set for the given qualification ([119]See also Section 8. VET governance and 14. Validation of prior learning.).

General education subjects

N

Key competences

N

There is an ongoing ESF-funded programme to develop key competences curricula in all VET programmes by end of 2019, new sectoral qualification standards/modular programmes on key competences are to be developed by 2020.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

All IVET programmes are based on learning outcomes.

The national qualification system (LTQF) is based on learning outcomes / level descriptors defined according to two parameters: focusing on activity characteristics (complexity, autonomy and variability) and on types of competences (functional, cognitive and general) ([120]Source: Cedefop (2017). European inventory on NQF, 2016: Lithuania. Cedefop country specific report.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/lithuania_-_european_inventory_on_nqf_2016.pdf
).

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

43.9% ([121]2017/18)

VET learners in post- secondary VET compared with the total number of learners enrolled in IVET programmes (lower, upper and post- secondary VET programmes).

Secondary

Click on a programme type to see more info
Programme Types

EQF 2

Mainly school-based

programmes,

WBL>60%,

2-3 years

ISCED 252

Initial VET programmes leading to EQF level 2, ISCED 252 (Profesinio mokymo programos nesiekiantiems pagrindinio ugdymo). Lower secondary VET programmes open to learners over 14; training is mandatory until the age of 16.
EQF level
2
ISCED-P 2011 level

252

Usual entry grade

8

Usual completion grade

10-11 (after 2 or 3 years of studies)

Usual entry age

14

Usual completion age

17

Length of a programme (years)

2 to 3 years

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

VET programmes to acquire a first qualification are provided free of charge

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

60 credits/year.

The scope of a formal VET programme was set by ministerial order in November 2018 ([73]Order of the Minister of Education and Science of 22 November 2018, No V-925, on approval of the description of the procedure for preparation and registration of vocational training programs.); it may not be more than 110 credits.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • School-based group learning, where a teacher-led group (class, joint class, VET group, subgroup, temporary group, special medical physical fitness group or other) is set up for a certain period. It can be implemented part time or remotely; and
  • individual learning, where, for a certain period, a student gets individual tuition, or s/he individually and periodically attends a group and/or individual teacher consultations. It can be implemented individually, independently or remotely.
Main providers

The Law on VET stipulates that a VET provider may be any VET institution, a freelance teacher or any other provider (general education school, enterprise, organisation whose main activity is other than VET) authorised to develop and implement VET programmes. VET providers may accept learners and provide formal VET programmes after receiving a licence from the education ministry. VET providers may have licences for both IVET and CVET.

In 2017 formal IVET programmes were carried out by 70 state VET institutions and three private ones. 226 institutions, whose main activity is other than VET, specialise just in CVET.

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

>60%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school (labs, school workshops)
  • on-the-job practice / apprenticeships

Work-based learning in the national context is referred to as 'practical training' either at a VET institution or an enterprise. Practical training in ISCED 252 programmes comprises 60% of the total time allocated to teaching vocational subjects, of which 8 to 15 weeks is organised in a company or school-based workshop simulating working conditions

Main target groups

School-age learners and adults.

ISCED 252 VET programmes are designed to attract early leavers from education and training back into education or training to acquire a basic VET qualification.

Lower secondary two- or three- programmes (ISCED 252) do not lead to a basic education ([74]Basic education, attested by a lower secondary school leaving certificate, is necessary to access upper secondary programmes.) certificate. The main target group are adults and young people.

The two-year training programme is intended for those who have not acquired and do not seek to acquire basic education.

The three-year training programme is intended to provide a vocational qualification certificate for those with special education needs related to intellectual disabilities who have completed an individualised basic education programme, a social skills programme, an adapted basic education programme or an adapted secondary education programme.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

There are no minimum entry requirements, but learners must be at least 14 to enrol. ISCED 252 VET programmes are intended for learners without a basic education ([75]Basic education, attested by a lower secondary school leaving certificate, is necessary to access upper secondary programmes.) certificate, either young people over 14 or adults.

Assessment of learning outcomes

After the end of a VET training programme, learners must take an exam after which a VET diploma is awarded. Qualification exams are detached from the training process and are carried out by accredited institutions (different types of accredited assessment centres exist, including those established by social partners, enterprises and employers’ associations).

Diplomas/certificates provided

ISCED 252 programmes are accessible to learners without a basic education ([76]Basic education, attested by a lower secondary school leaving certificate, is necessary to access upper secondary programmes.) certificate.

VET learners receive a VET diploma at EQF level 2 (Profesinio mokymo diplomas) in a two- or three-year programme ([77]The three-year programmes is is targeted at learners with special needs.) giving access to the labour market.

Formal qualifications are recognised by the education and training and labour authorities.

Examples of qualifications

Room cleaner, bread and cake maker, cook ([78]https://www.e-tar.lt/portal/en/legalAct/871e12205c0b11e79198ffdb108a3753).

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

ISCED 252 programmes do not deliver a basic education certificate. Learners acquire a basic VET diploma giving access to the labour market.

Destination of graduates

information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

Qualification exams are detached from the training process and are carried out by accredited institutions. Applicants participating to the exam to acquire a formal VET qualification, may have their prior learning ([79]Non-formal vocational programmes, informal learning (work experience, self-study) or learning from other education programmes.) assessed and certified (credits) based on the VET standards set for the given qualification ([80]See also Section 8. VET governance and 14. Validation of prior learning).

General education subjects

N

Key competences

N

There is an ongoing ESF-funded programme to develop key competences curricula in all VET programmes by end of 2019, new sectoral qualification standards/modular programmes on key competences are to be developed by 2020.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

All IVET programmes are based on learning outcomes.

The national qualification system (LTQF) is based on learning outcomes / level descriptors defined according to two parameters: focusing on activity characteristics (complexity, autonomy and variability) and on types of competences (functional, cognitive and general) ([81]Source: Cedefop (2017). European inventory on NQF, 2016: Lithuania. Cedefop country specific report.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/lithuania_-_european_inventory_on_nqf_2016.pdf
).

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

12.1% ([82]2017/18) of VET learners are enrolled in lower secondary VET (ISCED 252 and 254 programmes) compared to the total number of learners enrolled in IVET programmes (lower, upper and post- secondary VET programmes).

No separate statistics are available for EQF level 2/ISCED 252 programmes.

EQF 2

Mainly school-based

programmes,

WBL >44%,

2-3 years

ISCED 254

Initial VET programmes leading to EQF level 2, ISCED 254 (Profesinio mokymo programos kartu su pagrindinio ugdymo programomis)
EQF level
2
ISCED-P 2011 level

254

Usual entry grade

8

Usual completion grade

10-11 (after 2 or 3 years of studies)

Usual entry age

14

Usual completion age

17

Length of a programme (years)

2 to 3 years ([83]Two years for young people over 14 with primary education only; three years for people with special education needs; one year, for adults with basic education (lower secondary school leaving certificate).)

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

Y

Education is compulsory till 16 years of age

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

VET programmes to acquire a first qualification are provided free of charge.

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

60 credits /year

The scope of a formal VET programme was set by ministerial order in November 2018 ([84]Order of the Minister of Education and Science of 22 November 2018, No V-925, on approval of the description of the procedure for preparation and registration of vocational training programs.); it may not be more than 110 credits.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • School-based group learning, where a teacher-led group (class, joint class, VET group, subgroup, temporary group, special medical physical fitness group or other) is set up for a certain period. It can be implemented part time or remotely; and
  • individual learning, where, for a certain period, a student gets individual tuition, or s/he individually and periodically attends a group and/or individual teacher consultations. It can be implemented individually, independently or remotely.
Main providers

The Law on VET stipulates that a VET provider may be any VET institution, a freelance teacher or any other provider (general education school, enterprise, organisation whose main activity is other than VET) authorised to develop and implement VET programmes. VET providers may accept learners and provide formal VET programmes after receiving a licence from the education ministry. VET providers may have licences for both IVET and CVET.

In 2017 formal IVET programmes were carried out by 70 state VET institutions and three private ones. 226 institutions, whose main activity is other than VET, specialise just in CVET.

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

>44%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school (labs, school workshops)
  • on-the-job practice / apprenticeships

Work-based learning in the national context is referred to as 'practical training' either at a VET institution or an enterprise. Practical training in ISCED 254 VET programmes comprises 44% of the total time allocated to teaching vocational subjects, of which 8 to 15 weeks is organised in a company or school-based workshop simulating working conditions.

Main target groups

The main target group are school-age learners and adults.

VET ISCED 254 programmes are designed to attract early leavers from education and training ([85]Young people over 14 with primary education complete the programme in two years; adults with basic education complete the programme in one year.) back into education or training to acquire a basic VET qualification and a basic education ([86]Basic education, attested by a lower secondary school leaving certificate, is necessary to access upper secondary programmes.) certificate in two years.

The three-year training programme is intended for learners with special educational needs.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

There are no minimum entry requirements but learners must be at least 14 years old to enrol.

ISCED 254 VET programmes are intended for learners without a basic education ([87]Basic education, attested by a lower secondary school leaving certificate, is necessary to access upper secondary programmes.) certificate, either young people over 14 or adults ([88]Adults with a basic education may also enrol and complete the programme in one year, then they take the exam to obtain the VET qualification; see also Section 24. Assessment.).

Assessment of learning outcomes

VET programmes are based on learning outcomes.

After the end of a training programme, learners must take an exam after which a VET diploma is awarded. Learners also received a basic education certificate ([89]Basic education, attested by a lower secondary school leaving certificate, is necessary to access upper secondary programmes.) upon the completion of the two- (or three-) year programme.

Qualification exams are detached from the training process and are carried out by accredited institutions (different types of accredited assessment centres exist, including those established by social partners, enterprises and employers’ associations).

The VET qualification obtained allows holders to perform a job or work function ([90]For example truck driver (job) qualification allowing the holder to work at high altitude or to carry heavy loads (work function).).

Diplomas/certificates provided

In ISCED 254 VET programmes learners receive a basic vocational qualification (VET diploma - Profesinio mokymo diplomas) giving access to the labour market and a basic education ([91]Basic education, attested by a lower secondary school leaving certificate, is necessary to access upper secondary programmes.) certificate allowing them to pursuit upper secondary studies.

The VET diploma is recognised by the education and training and labour authorities.

Examples of qualifications

Waiter; bricklayer; plumber ([92]Sectoral qualification standards:
https://www.kpmpc.lt/kpmpc/kvalifikaciju-formavimas/standartai-2/profesiniai-standartai/
).

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Graduates from ISCED 254 programmes may:

  • enter the labour market; or
  • continue their studies at EQF level 3 general education or VET programmes (prior VET knowledge may be recognised affecting the duration of the programme).
Destination of graduates
  • Share of those entering the labour market – information not available
  • Share of those moving on to further studies – information not availalbe
Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

Qualification exams are detached from the training process and are carried out by accredited institutions. Applicants participating to the exam to acquire a formal VET qualification, may have their prior learning ([93]Non-formal vocational programmes, informal learning (work experience, self-study) or learning from other education programmes.) assessed and certified (credits) based on the VET standards set for the given qualification ([94]See also Section 8. VET governance and 14. Validation of prior learning.).

General education subjects

Y

Programmes learners receive a basic vocational qualification (VET diploma - Profesinio mokymo diplomas) and a basic education certificate.

Key competences

N

There is an ongoing ESF-funded programme to develop key competences curricula in all VET programmes by end of 2019, new sectoral qualification standards/modular programmes on key competences are to be developed by 2020.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

All IVET programmes are based on learning outcomes.

The national qualification system (LTQF) is based on learning outcomes / level descriptors defined according to two parameters: focusing on activity characteristics (complexity, autonomy and variability) and on types of competences (functional, cognitive and general) ([95]Source: Cedefop (2017). European inventory on NQF, 2016: Lithuania. Cedefop country specific report.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/lithuania_-_european_inventory_on_nqf_2016.pdf
).

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

12.1% ([96]2017/18) of VET learners are enrolled in lower secondary VET (ISCED 252 and 254 programmes) compared to the total number of learners enrolled in IVET programmes (lower, upper and post- secondary VET programmes).

No separate statistics are available for EQF level 2/ISCED 254 programmes.

EQF 3

Mainly school-based

programmes,

WBL>60%,

2-3 years

ISCED 352

Initial VET programmes leading to EQF level 3, ISCED 352 (Profesinio mokymo programos, neįgyjant vidurinio išsilavinimo)
EQF level
3
ISCED-P 2011 level

352

Usual entry grade

11

Usual completion grade

12-13 (after 2 or 3 years of studies)

Usual entry age

18

Usual completion age

19 (20 for those with special education needs)

Length of a programme (years)

2 to 3 years

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

VET programmes to acquire a first qualification are provided free of charge.

Is it available for adults?

Y

Learners enter at age 18

ECVET or other credits

30 to 110 credits depending on the complexity of the programme. The scope of a formal VET programme was set by ministerial order in November 2018 ([97]Order of the Minister of Education and Science of 22 November 2018, No V-925, on approval of the description of the procedure for preparation and registration of vocational training programs.).

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • School-based group learning, where a teacher-led group (class, joint class, VET group, subgroup, temporary group, special medical physical fitness group or other) is set up for a certain period. It can be implemented part time or remotely; and
  • individual learning, where, for a certain period, a student gets individual tuition, or s/he individually and periodically attends a group and/or individual teacher consultations. It can be implemented individually, independently or remotely.
Main providers

The Law on VET stipulates that a VET provider may be any VET institution, a freelance teacher or any other provider (general education school, enterprise, organisation whose main activity is other than VET) authorised to develop and implement VET programmes. VET providers may accept learners and provide formal VET programmes after receiving a licence from the education ministry. VET providers may have licences for both IVET and CVET.

In 2017 formal IVET programmes were carried out by 70 state VET institutions and three private ones. 226 institutions, whose main activity is other than VET, specialise just in CVET.

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

>60%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school (labs, school workshops)
  • on-the-job practice / apprenticeships

Work-based learning in the national context is referred to as 'practical training' either at a VET institution or an enterprise. Practical training in ISCED 352 VET programmes comprises 60% of the total time allocated to teaching vocational subjects, of which 8 to 15 weeks is organised in a company or school-based workshop simulating working conditions.

Main target groups

Upper secondary two- or three-year school-based VET programmes (ISCED 352) are accessible to learners having completed basic education ([98]Basic education, attested by a lower secondary school leaving certificate, is necessary to access upper secondary programmes.). They do not lead to an upper secondary general education matura certificate ([99]The matura certificate attests completion of upper secondary education and gives access to tertiary level programmes.).

The two-year training programme is accessible to both, young people (including those with special educational needs related to hearing impairment) or adults.

The three-year training programme is intended for those with special educational needs who have completed individualised basic education programme, social skills programme, adapted basic education programme or adapted upper secondary education programme.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Only holders of a basic education ([100]Basic education, attested by a lower secondary school leaving certificate, is necessary to access upper secondary programmes.) certificate may enter these programmes.

Assessment of learning outcomes

VET programmes are based on learning outcomes.

After the end of a training programme, learners must take an exam after which a VET diploma is awarded. Qualification exams are detached from the training process and are carried out by accredited institutions (different types of accredited assessment centres exist, including those established by social partners, enterprises and employers’ associations).

Diplomas/certificates provided

In ISCED 352 VET programmes learners receive a vocational qualification at EQF level 3 (VET diploma - Profesinio mokymo diplomas) giving access to the labour market.

The VET diploma is recognised by the education and training and labour authorities.

Examples of qualifications

Railroad builder; road worker; metal constructions assembler.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Graduates from ISCED 352 programmes may:

  • enter the labour market.
Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

Qualification exams are detached from the training process and are carried out by accredited institutions. Applicants participating to the exam to acquire a formal VET qualification, may have their prior learning ([101]Non-formal vocational programmes, informal learning (work experience, self-study) or learning from other education programmes.) assessed and certified (credits) based on the VET standards set for the given qualification ([102]See also Section 8. VET governance and 14. Validation of prior learning.).

General education subjects

N

Key competences

N

There is an ongoing ESF-funded programme to develop key competences curricula in all VET programmes by end of 2019, new sectoral qualification standards/modular programmes on key competences are to be developed by 2020.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

All IVET programmes are based on learning outcomes.

The national qualification system (LTQF) is based on learning outcomes / level descriptors defined according to two parameters: focusing on activity characteristics (complexity, autonomy and variability) and on types of competences (functional, cognitive and general) ([103]Source: Cedefop (2017). European inventory on NQF, 2016: Lithuania. Cedefop country specific report.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/lithuania_-_european_inventory_on_nqf_2016.pdf
).

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

43.7% ([104]2017/18)

of VET learners in upper secondary VET (ISCED 352 and 354 programmes) compared with the total number of learners enrolled in IVET programmes (lower, upper and post- secondary VET programmes).

No separate statistics are available for EQF level 3/ISCED 352 programmes.

EQF 4

Mainly school-based

programmes,

WBL>44%,

3 years

ISCED 354

Initial VET programmes leading to EQF level 4, ISCED 354 (Profesinio mokymo programos kartu su vidurinio ugdymo programomis).
EQF level
4
ISCED-P 2011 level

354

Usual entry grade

11

Usual completion grade

13

Usual entry age

18

Usual completion age

20

Length of a programme (years)

3

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

VET programmes to acquire a first qualification are provided free of charge ([106]According to the Law on VET a state-funded qualification can be done twice by a person (from EQF level 2 till level 8).).

Is it available for adults?

Y

Learners enter at 18.

ECVET or other credits

30 to 110 credits depending on the complexity of the programme.

The scope of a formal VET programme was set by ministerial order in November 2018 ([105]Order of the Minister of Education and Science of 22 November 2018, No V-925, on approval of the description of the procedure for preparation and registration of vocational training programs.).

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • School-based group learning, where a teacher-led group (class, joint class, VET group, subgroup, temporary group, special medical physical fitness group or other) is set up for a certain period. It can be implemented part time or remotely; and
  • individual learning, where, for a certain period, a student gets individual tuition, or s/he individually and periodically attends a group and/or individual teacher consultations. It can be implemented individually, independently or remotely.
Main providers

The Law on VET stipulates that a VET provider may be any VET institution, a freelance teacher or any other provider (general education school, enterprise, organisation whose main activity is other than VET) authorised to develop and implement VET programmes. VET providers may accept learners and provide formal VET programmes after receiving a licence from the education ministry. VET providers may have licences for both IVET and CVET.

In 2017 formal IVET programmes were carried out by 70 state VET institutions and three private ones. 226 institutions, whose main activity is other than VET, specialise just in CVET.

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

>44%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school (labs, school workshops)
  • on-the-job practice / apprenticeships

Work-based learning in the national context is referred to as 'practical training' either at a VET institution or an enterprise. Practical training in ISCED 354 VET programmes comprises 44% of the total time allocated to teaching vocational subjects, of which 8 to 15 weeks is organised in a company or school-based workshop simulating working conditions.

Main target groups

ISCED 354 programmes are accessible to learners over 18 (including those with special educational needs related to hearing impairment) having completed basic education ([107]Basic education, attested by a lower secondary school leaving certificate, is necessary to access upper secondary programmes.).

Upper secondary vocational education with secondary education.

For students who have a basic education, 2-3 years, after which the qualification or the right to perform a job or work function is awarded after the acquired competences have been assessed and secondary education is acquired after maturity examinations.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Only holders of a basic education ([108]Basic education, attested by a lower secondary school leaving certificate, is necessary to access upper secondary programmes.) certificate may enter these programmes.

Assessment of learning outcomes

VET programmes are based on learning outcomes.

After the end of a training programme, learners must take an exam after which a VET diploma is awarded. Qualification exams are detached from the training process and are carried out by accredited institutions (different types of accredited assessment centres exist, including those established by social partners, enterprises and employers’ associations).

Learners pass an exam to obtain also the general education matura certificate giving access to higher education.

Diplomas/certificates provided

VET learners receive a vocational qualification (VET diploma - Profesinio mokymo diplomas) and the matura (Brandos atestatas) general education certificate at EQF level 4 giving access to higher education.

The VET diploma is recognised by the education and training and labour authorities.

Examples of qualifications

Guest service worker; barmen; confectioner ([109]https://www.e-tar.lt/portal/en/legalAct/871e12205c0b11e79198ffdb108a3753).

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Graduates from ISCED 354 programmes may:

  • enter the labour market; or
  • enter post-secondary EQF 4 (ISCED 454) programmes (prior VET knowledge may be recognised affecting the duration of the programme);
  • enter higher VET non-academic programmes delivered in colleges (a type of higher education institutions (EQF 6/ISCED 655);
  • enter higher education academic programmes (EQF 6/ISCED 645, EQF 7/ISCED 746).
Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

Qualification exams are detached from the training process and are carried out by accredited institutions. Applicants participating to the exam to acquire a formal VET qualification, may have their prior learning ([110]Non-formal vocational programmes, informal learning (work experience, self-study) or learning from other education programmes.) assessed and certified (credits) based on the VET standards set for the given qualification ([111]See also Section 8. VET governance and 14. Validation of prior learning.).

General education subjects

Y

Key competences

N

There is an ongoing ESF-funded programme to develop key competences curricula in all VET programmes by end of 2019, new sectoral qualification standards/modular programmes on key competences are to be developed by 2020.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

All IVET programmes are based on learning outcomes.

The national qualification system (LTQF) is based on learning outcomes / level descriptors defined according to two parameters: focusing on activity characteristics (complexity, autonomy and variability) and on types of competences (functional, cognitive and general) ([112]Source: Cedefop (2017). European inventory on NQF, 2016: Lithuania. Cedefop country specific report.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/lithuania_-_european_inventory_on_nqf_2016.pdf
).

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

43.7% ([113]2017/18)

of VET learners in upper secondary VET (ISCED 352 and 354 programmes) compared with the total number of learners enrolled in IVET programmes (lower, upper and post- secondary VET programmes).

No separate statistics are available for EQF level 3/ISCED 354 programmes.

EQF 2-4

CVET

programmes

CVET programmes (Tęstinio profesinio mokymo programos)
EQF level
2-4
ISCED-P 2011 level

2 - 4

Usual entry grade

Information not available

Usual completion grade

Information not available

Usual entry age

18+

Usual completion age

Information not available

Length of a programme (years)

Up to one year

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

CVET training to acquire formal qualifications is part of the national VET system and delivers the formal VET qualifications at EQF levels 2-4 (ISCED 2-4).

Is it initial VET?

N

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

CVET programmes are offered for a fee, except for the unemployed and those at risk of unemployment whose training is supported from European structural funds (ESF) projects. CVET for the unemployed is funded by a voucher system, which allows them to choose their training provider.

Is it available for adults?

Y

Formal CVET courses are available to learners over 18.

ECVET or other credits

20 to 90 credits depending on the programme.

The scope of a formal VET programme was set by ministerial order in November 2018 ([125]Order of the Minister of Education and Science of 22 November 2018, No V-925, on approval of the description of the procedure for preparation and registration of vocational training programs.); it may not be more than 110 credits.

The volume of one year of formal vocational training is 60 learning credits. The scope of the formal vocational training program may not be less than 30 learning credits and more than 110 learning credits.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • School-based group learning, where a teacher-led group (class, joint class, VET group, subgroup, temporary group, special medical physical fitness group or other) is set up for a certain period. It can be implemented part time or remotely; and
  • individual learning, where, for a certain period, a student gets individual tuition, or s/he individually and periodically attends a group and/or individual teacher consultations. It can be implemented individually, independently or remotely.
Main providers

Main providers of formal CVET programmes are labour market training centres offering in-company training (apprenticeships). Formal CVET is designed for people with different education attainment levels, from primary to post-secondary; in some cases, a vocational qualification or work experience is a prerequisite to access these programmes.

The Law on VET stipulates that a VET provider may be any VET institution, a freelance teacher or any other provider (general education school, enterprise, organisation whose main activity is other than VET) authorised to develop and implement VET programmes. VET providers may accept learners and provide formal VET programmes after receiving a licence from the education ministry. VET providers may have licences for both IVET and CVET.

In 2017 formal IVET programmes were carried out by 70 state VET institutions and three private ones. 226 institutions, whose main activity is other than VET, specialise just in CVET.

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

60-80%

Formal CVET programmes (accessible to learners over 18) average duration up to one year leading to recognised vocational qualifications EQF levels 2-4. In CVET, practical training covers 60-80% of the programme.

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training in labour market training centres
  • on-the-job practice / in-company training (apprenticeships)
Main target groups
  • programmes for the unemployed
  • programmes for those notified of dismissal

Training for the unemployed and for those who have been notified of dismissal is organised via formal CVET programmes listed in the national register of qualifications ([126]The register lists all formal VET qualifications (diplomas and certificates) and vocational qualifications programmes leading to such qualifications (Studijų, mokymo programų ir kvalifikacijų registras):
https://www.aikos.smm.lt/en/StudyProgramm/SitePages/Study%20and%20Learning%20Programmes.aspx?ss=3f66a1ab-bcb9-4009-bdda-3e02a6fc2b63).
). The local public employment service ([127]PES: http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=105&langId=en) is responsible for training the unemployed. The unemployed and those notified of dismissal are referred to training providers, which they have chosen from the list published on the public employment service website.

Training programmes are organised taking into account the specific needs of employers. Most unemployed persons follow programmes agreed with employers, who are obliged to hire the unemployed persons for a period of at least six months after training. Where it is agreed with the employer, practical training is organised at the workplace.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Entry requirements are included in the program (the basic curriculum is linked to 3 LTQF level, and secondary education programmes to 4 LTQF level).

Assessment of learning outcomes

VET programmes are based on learning outcomes.

After the end of a training programme, learners must take an exam after which a VET diploma is awarded. Qualification exams are detached from the training process and are carried out by accredited institutions (different types of accredited assessment centres exist, including those established by social partners, enterprises and employers’ associations).

Diplomas/certificates provided

VET learners receive a vocational qualification (VET diploma - Profesinio mokymo diplomas).

The VET diploma is recognised by the education and training and labour authorities.

Examples of qualifications

Water treatment plant operator; Building insulator; Beer maker; Confectioner ([128]Vocational training program base:
https://www.kpmpc.lt/programos.html
).

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

After completing a formal CVET programme learners may enter the labour market.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

Qualification exams are detached from the training process and are carried out by accredited institutions. Applicants participating to the exam to acquire a formal VET qualification, may have their prior learning ([129]Non-formal vocational programmes, informal learning (work experience, self-study) or learning from other education programmes.) assessed and certified (credits) based on the VET standards set for the given qualification ([130]See also Section 8. VET governance and 14. Validation of prior learning).

General education subjects

N

Key competences

N

There is an ongoing ESF-funded programme to develop key competences curricula in all VET programmes by end of 2019; new sectoral qualification standards/modular programmes on key competences are to be developed by 2020.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

All VET programmes are based on learning outcomes.

The national qualification system (LTQF) is based on learning outcomes / level descriptors defined according to two parameters: focusing on activity characteristics (complexity, autonomy and variability) and on types of competences (functional, cognitive and general) ([131]Source: Cedefop (2017). European inventory on NQF, 2016: Lithuania. Cedefop country specific report.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/lithuania_-_european_inventory_on_nqf_2016.pdf
).

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

VET available to adults (formal and non-formal)

Programme Types
Not available

General themes

VET in Denmark comprises the following main features:

  • a mainstream system providing qualifications at all levels, from compulsory schooling to doctoral degrees;
  • a parallel adult education and continuing training (CVT) system.

Adult education and continuing training are designed to meet the needs of adult learners, for example through part-time courses. The two systems offer equivalent qualifications at various levels, enabling horizontal permeability.

Distinctive features ([1]Cedefop (2016). Spotlight on VET in Denmark. Luxembourg: Publications Office.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/8101_en.pdf
):

The Danish VET system is characterised by a high level of stakeholder involvement. Social partners, vocational colleges, teachers and learners are all involved in developing VET based on consensus and shared responsibility. Stakeholders play a key role in advising the Ministry of Education on overall VET policy and determining the structure and general framework for training programmes within their field, cooperating in national trade committees. At local level, stakeholders cooperate in developing curricula to respond to local labour market needs.

Denmark has the highest participation in adult education and continuing training in the EU. High participation rates reflect the national strategy to focus on knowledge-intensive specialist sectors and lifelong learning, the large public sector and a tradition of strong ties between education institutions and social partners.

An integrated lifelong learning strategy was introduced in 2007 and supported by the implementation of a national qualifications framework. This improved horizontal and vertical permeability within education and training. It also improved guidance services and provided better opportunities for recognition of non-formal learning and qualifications through standardised procedures for validation of prior learning.

Public financing is central to the VET system, with colleges receiving performance-based block grants. Apprenticeships and employee further training are subsidised according to a solidarity principle, coordinated in the AUB system (Arbejdsgivernes Uddannelses Bidrag). Within this system, all enterprises, regardless of their involvement in VET, contribute a fixed amount per employee to a central fund. Enterprises are then partially reimbursed for providing training placements and for employee participation in continuing training.

Education and training are considered a key area. As demand for skilled labour continues to increase, IVET is expected to accommodate an increasingly heterogeneous learner population. Two reforms have had significant influence on VET development. The VET reform (2014) established VET learners’ minimum entrance requirements. Requirements for VET teachers were strengthened in 2010, since when all VET teachers must have a pedagogic diploma (60 ECTS) at EQF level 6. Both initiatives are expected to increase VET quality. Social assistance reform (2014) makes it mandatory for unemployed people under 30, receiving social benefits, to participate in education and training. This will increase the number of weaker learners entering VET.

The 2014 VET reform has four main objectives for improving VET quality:

  • more learners must enter VET directly from compulsory schooling: from 18% in 2015 to 30% by 2025;
  • completion rates in VET must be improved: from 52% in 2012 to 67% in 2025;
  • VET must challenge all learners so they reach their full potential;
  • employer and learner satisfaction with VET must gradually be increased by 2020.

A lack of suitable training placements in enterprises is frequently cited as a primary reason for learner dropout. Several policy initiatives seek to address the problem, but the global financial crisis has further widened the gap between training place supply and demand. Implementation of 50 practical training centres (2013) and the planned 1 000 new placements in Vækstplan 2014 (growth plan, 2014) are expected to alleviate this problem.

Unemployment, and particularly long-term unemployment, among young people with little or no work experience poses challenges for adult education and continuing training. Substantial upskilling and reskilling is necessary to avoid a considerable part of the workforce becoming permanently excluded from the labour market. The 2014 growth plan includes funding for the unskilled to become skilled workers through targeted adult VET programmes.

Data from VET in Denmark Spotlight 2016 ([2]Cedefop (2016). Spotlight on vocational education and training in Denmark. Luxembourg: Publications Office.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/8101_en.pdf
).

Population in 2018: 5 781 190 ([3]NB: Data for population as of 1 January; break in series. Eurostat table tps00001 [extracted 16.5.2019].)

It increased since 2013 by 3.2% due to positive natural growth and a higher immigration than emigration rate ([4]NB: Data for population as of 1 January; break in series. Eurostat table tps00001 [extracted 16.5.2019].). The fertility rate of 1.75 in 2017 is well above the EU average.

As in many EU countries, the Danish population is ageing.

The old-age dependency ratio is expected to increase from 29 in 2015 to 45 in 2060 ([5]Old-age-dependency ratio is defined as the ratio between the number of persons aged 65 and more over the number of working-age persons (15-64). The value is expressed per 100 persons of working age (15-64).).

 

Population forecast by age group and old-age-dependency ratio

Source: Eurostat, proj_15ndbims [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

An increasing proportion of the total population is made up of foreign immigrants and their descendants. In January 2018, this group accounted for 13.4% of the Danish population.

Providing education and training opportunities to those with a non-Danish ethnic background in order to ensure their integration into the labour market is a policy focus. At the beginning of 2016 the government launched a new VET training programme for immigrants ([6]IGU).

Denmark is increasingly becoming a multicultural society. Currently, 13.4 % of the population has an immigrant background.

Consequently, there are a growing number of VET-related programmes for immigrants.

Most companies are micro- and small-sized.

Employment by sector/main economic sectors in 2016:

  • trade and transport;
  • other business services;
  • public administration, education and health;
  • agriculture, forestry and fishing.

Exports comprise mainly agricultural products, food, medicine and green tech.

 

Source: Statistics Denmark [extracted 6.11.2017].

 

The Danish labour market is highly regulated. Only low skilled jobs are available without a diploma.

Total unemployment ([7]Percentage of active population, 25 to 74 years old.) (2018): 4.2% (6.0% in EU-28); it increased by 1.6 percentage points since 2008 ([8]Eurostat table une_rt_a [extracted 20.5.2019].).

 

Unemployment rate (aged 15-24 and 25-64) by education attainment level in 2008-18

NB: data based on ISCED 2011; breaks in time series; low reliability for ISCED 5-8, age 15-24.
ISCED 0-2 = less than primary, primary and lower secondary education. ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education. ISCED 5-8 = tertiary education.
Source: Eurostat, lfsa_urgaed [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

Unemployment rates of people aged 15-24 are higher than among people aged 25-64 for all education levels, with low qualified (or not qualified) people scoring the highest unemployment rates.

Among 25-64 year olds, economic crises had hit more low-qualified and high-qualified people than those with medium-level qualifications, including most VET graduates (ISCED levels 3 and 4).

Employment rate of 20 to 34-year-old VET graduates remained stable from 2014 (86.1%) to 2018 (88.6%) ([9]Eurostat table edat_lfse_24 [extracted 16.5.2019].), which was above the EU-28 average.

 

Employment rate of VET graduates (20 to 34 years old, ISCED levels 3 and 4)

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011; breaks in time series.
ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education.
Source: Eurostat, edat_lfse_24 [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

The employment rate of all ISCED level graduates has increased to 81.2% (+2.3 percentage points) in 2014-18. In the same period, the employment rates of 20 to 34-year-old VET graduates increased by 2.5 percentage points ([10]NB: Break in series. Eurostat table edat_lfse_24 [extracted 16.5.2019].).

The share of the Danish population aged 25 to 64 with higher education (ISCED 5-8) is 38.3%, which is above the EU-28 average of 32.2%. The share of people holding medium-level qualifications (ISCED 3-4) is also high (40.4%).

 

Population (aged 25 to 64) by highest education level attained in 2018

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011. Low reliability for ‘No response’ in Czechia, Iceland, Latvia, and Poland.
ISCED 0-2 = less than primary, primary and lower secondary education.
ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education.
ISCED 5-8 = tertiary education.
Source: Eurostat, lfsa_pgaed [extracted 16.5.2019]

 

Share of learners in VET by level in 2017

lower secondary

upper secondary

post-secondary

Not applicable

38.9%

Not applicable

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011. Source: Eurostat, educ_uoe_enrs01, educ_uoe_enrs04 and educ_uoe_enrs07 [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

Share of initial VET learners from total learners at upper secondary level (ISCED level 3), 2017

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011.
Source: Eurostat, educ_uoe_enrs04 [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

With a 38.9% share of IVET learners in the total population of upper secondary learners in 2016, Denmark is below the EU-28 average of 47.2%.

In general, there are more male than female learners in VET: 68% and 32% in 2017.

However, the distribution is uneven in various branches. In commercial training and social and healthcare training, for example, there are more female apprentices, while the opposite applies to technical training ([11]http://www.statistikbanken.dk/statbank5a/default.asp?w=1366).

The share of early leavers from education and training has decreased significantly from 11.3% in 2009 to 10.2% in 2018. It is above the national objective for 2020 of not more than 10%, and below the EU-28 average of 10.6%.

 

Early leavers from education and training in 2009-18

NB: Share of the population aged 18 to 24 with at most lower secondary education and not in further education or training; break in series.
Source: Eurostat, edat_lfse_14 [extracted on 16.05.2019] and European Commission, https://ec.europa.eu/info/2018-european-semester-national-reform-programmes-and-stability-convergence-programmes_en [accessed 14.11.2018].

 

In 2012, the completion rate in VET was only 52%. The proposal for a reform of the Danish VET system was ratified by Parliament in 2014, with one of its objectives being to improve completion rates to at least 60% by 2020 and at least 67% by 2025.

Lifelong learning offers training opportunities for adults, including early leavers from education.

 

Participation in lifelong learning in 2014-18

NB: Share of adult population aged 25 to 64 participating in education and training; break in series. Source: Eurostat, trng_lfse_01 [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

Denmark has the highest participation in adult education and continuing training in the EU, regardless of levels of educational attainment. In 2017, the share of participation in education and training among the population aged 25-64 was 26.8% compared with EU-28 average of 10.9%. These figures refer to all forms of education and training activity, both formal and non-formal.

The high participation rate reflects several specific characteristics, such as the national strategy to focus on knowledge-intensive specialist sectors and lifelong learning, a large public sector and a tradition of strong ties between education institutions and social partners. Adult vocational training programmes (Arbejdsmarkedsuddannelser, AMU), offering short vocational training programmes to skilled and unskilled workers, as well as to the unemployed, have a significant role to play in this regard.

Learners in mainstream education, October 2017

The main age group in VET is 18-20, but there is a significant group of VET-learners aged 30-40.

 

Source. Statistics Denmark [accessed 8.4.2019].

 

The education and training system comprises:

  • primary and lower secondary education (basic schooling); (ISCED levels 1-2);
  • upper secondary education; (ISCED level 3);
  • post-secondary education (ISCED levels 4-5);
  • higher education;(ISCED levels 6-8).

Children participate in mainstream education from the age of six and progress through the system during their youth into adulthood. Adult education and continuing training (CVT) mirrors the qualifications provided within the mainstream system but is designed specifically for adults. It also provides opportunities to acquire supplementary qualifications. As such, the two parallel systems combined provide a framework for lifelong learning.

Basic schooling is compulsory from the ages of 6 to 16, that is, from pre-school class to ninth grade. In 2017 ([12]https://www.uvm.dk/statistik/grundskolen/elever/soegning-til-ungdomsuddannelserne), 46.2% of the youth cohort decided to continue to the optional 10th grade rather than enter an upper secondary programme directly. The 10th grade is an option for young people to acquire academic competence and clarity about their choices before entering youth education (either general or vocational upper secondary education). 2015 VET reform combines the 10th grade and VET programmes into a programme called EUD10.

Primary and lower secondary education is generally integrated into, and located within, the comprehensive Danish Folkeskole ([13]Municipal primary and lower secondary school, literally ‘folk’ or ‘people’s school’.), although other types of institution, such as private independent schools, also exist. Of the youth cohort, 80.0% attended the comprehensive Danish Folkeskole in the school year 2016/17. There is a tendency to move towards private compulsory schooling. In the same school year (2016/17), 15.9% attended a private school. Of the rest of the youth cohort, 4.1% attended special programmes. Primary and lower secondary education is completed by taking an examination providing access to upper secondary (youth) education.

Within the adult education and continuing training system, there are two programmes at EQF level 2. Preparatory adult education (FVU) provides courses in basic literacy and mathematics, as well as courses for those with learning difficulties or with Danish as their second language. General adult education (AVU) is provided to adults who, for whatever reason, did not complete lower secondary education or need supplementary education in particular subjects. Qualifications at this level are equivalent to the ninth or 10th grade leaving examination.

Upper secondary education consists of both general upper secondary education and vocational upper secondary education and training (erhvervsuddannelse, EUD). General upper secondary education programmes usually last three years and prepare learners for higher education at tertiary level. Five different qualifications result from five corresponding programmes:

  • upper secondary leaving qualification (studentereksamen, STX) (EQF 4);
  • higher preparatory examination ([14]The higher preparatory examination will in the future be profiled as a pathway for students with a non- academic profile and can be completed without a formal examination.) (højere forberedelseseksamen, HF) (EQF 4);
  • higher commercial examination (højere handelseksamen, HHX) (EQF 4);
  • higher technical examination (højere teknisk eksamen, HTX) (EQF 4);
  • combined vocational (journeyman’s test) and general upper secondary leaving qualification (EUX) (EQF 5).

The adult education (age 25 and above) and continuing training system includes three types of programme at upper secondary level:

  • higher preparatory single subjects (enkeltfag, HF) (EQF 4);
  • basic (vocational) adult education (Erhvervsuddannelse for voksne, EUV) (EQF 3-5), which is equivalent to EUD;
  • and adult vocational training programmes (Arbejdsmarkedsuddannelser, AMU) (EQF 2-5).

In broad terms, higher education comprises:

  • professionally oriented short- and medium-cycle programmes where the short-cycle programmes lead to an academy profession degree and are offered at academies of professional higher education, while the medium-cycle programmes lead to a professional bachelor degree and are offered by university colleges;
  • research-based long-cycle programmes offered at universities where most learners continue to a master degree programme after completing a bachelor degree. The former can then provide access to doctoral programmes.

There are corresponding programmes within the adult education and continuing training system: short-cycle further (vocational) adult education (VVU), medium-cycle diploma programmes, and long-cycle master programmes. As part-time courses, these programmes allow participants to combine education with a working career, as well as improving the integration of the individual’s professional and life experience.

The Danish VET system is divided into IVET and CVT.

The IVET system is for learners aged up to 25 and the CVT for learners aged 25 and above.

Danish education and training features a mainstream system providing qualifications at all levels, from compulsory schooling to doctoral degrees, and a parallel adult education and continuing vocational training (CVT) system. CVT is designed to meet the needs of adult learners, for example through part-time courses. The two systems offer equivalent qualifications at various levels, enabling horizontal permeability.

VET programmes are organised according to the dual principle, alternating between periods of college-based and work-based learning (apprenticeship training) in enterprises. The college-based learning will typically comprise practice based learning in workshops.

When learners complete a VET programme they can enter the labour market as skilled workers, or can apply for CVT in the form of professional academy programmes (Erhvervsakademier).

Learn more about apprenticeships in the national context from the European database on apprenticeship schemes by Cedefop: http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/data-visualisations/apprenticeship-schemes/scheme-fiches

The Danish VET system can best be characterized as a unified VET system based on the dual principle.

Although VET programmes are offered in several variations in Denmark, building on different legal frameworks, there is no doubt that the main pathway through VET is the dual-based apprenticeship programme, founded and developed from the beginning of VET education and training in Denmark.

More than 95% of participants in Danish VET are involved in this kind of VET programme, leaving only a small percentage for “alternative” VET pathways, such as the ‘new master apprenticeship programme’ (ny mesterlære), in which the dual system is normally put in parentheses, or the few college-based VET programmes without work-based learning in a company.

VET programmes organised according to the dual principle, alternate between periods of college- based and work-based learning (apprenticeship training) in enterprises. A typical initial VET programme (EUD) lasts three-and-a-half years with a 2:1 split between workplace and college- based training, although there is considerable variation among programmes. Individual study plans are compiled for all students. VET colleges and social partners share the responsibility for developing curricula to ensure responsiveness to local labour market needs. Qualifications at this level provide access to relevant fields in academy profession (KVU) programmes and professional bachelor programmes at tertiary level.

Adopted from the Spotlight on VET – 2018 compilation ([15]Cedefop (2019). Spotlight on VET – 2018 compilation: vocational education and training systems in Europe. Luxembourg: Publications Office.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/publications/4168
)

Parliament sets out the overall framework for VET, which is administered by the Ministry of Education. The Ministry has overall parliamentary, financial and legal responsibility for VET, laying down the overall objectives for programmes and providing the legislative framework within which stakeholders, social partners, colleges and enterprises are able to adapt curricula and methodologies to the needs of both learners and the labour market.

Social partners play an institutionalised role at all levels of VET, from the national advisory council on vocational upper secondary education and training (Rådet for de grundlæggende Erhvervsrettede Uddannelser), which advises the Ministry of Education on principal matters concerning VET, to playing an advisory role at the local level through local training committees comprising representatives of the social partners who advise colleges on local adaptations of VET. Their most important role is to ensure that VET provision is in line with the needs of the labour market.

 

Stakeholder involvement in Denmark

Source: www.uvm.dk

 

The national advisory council consists of 31 representatives from the social partners. In its advisory capacity, the council monitors developments in society and highlights trends relevant to VET. The council makes recommendations to the Ministry regarding the establishment of new VET programmes and the adaptation, amalgamation or discontinuation of others.

National trade committees (faglige udvalg) are the backbone of the VET system. Approximately 50 trade committees are responsible for 106 main programmes. The committees normally have between 10 and 14 members and are formed by labour market organisations (with parity of membership between employer and employee organisations). They are financed by participating organisations.

Among their core responsibilities, national trade committees:

  • perform a central role in the creation and renewal of VET courses by closely monitoring developments in their particular trade. They also have a dominant position in formulating learning objectives and final examination standards based around the key competences that are deemed to be required in the labour market;
  • conduct relevant analyses, development projects, etc., and maintain close contact with relevant stakeholders;
  • decide the regulatory framework for individual courses within boundaries set by the legislative framework. They decide which trade is to provide the core of the training, the duration of the programme and the ratio between college-based teaching and practical work in an enterprise;
  • approve enterprises as qualified training establishments and rule on conflicts which may develop between apprentices and the enterprise providing practical training;
  • function as gatekeepers to the trade, as they are responsible for issuing journeyman’s certificates in terms of content, assessment and the actual holding of examinations.

Local training committees are affiliated to each vocational college and ensure close contact with the local community, thus improving responsiveness to particular local labour market needs. They consist of representatives of local employers and employees appointed by national trade committees, as well as representatives of staff, management and learners appointed by colleges. Training committees work closely alongside colleges in determining the specific curriculum of colleges, including which optional subjects are available. They assist and advise national trade committees in approving local enterprises as qualified training establishments and in mediating conflicts between apprentices and enterprises. Finally, training committees help to ensure that enough suitable local training placements are available.

117 VET colleges offer basic vocationally oriented education programmes. 97 of these are technical colleges, commercial colleges, agricultural colleges or combination colleges. In addition, 20 colleges offer social and healthcare training programmes. A number of the colleges offer their programmes through local branches at locations other than the main college. As self-governing institutions, vocational colleges are led by a governing board with overall responsibility for the administrative and financial running of the college and educational activities in accordance with the framework administered by the education ministry. The board consists of teachers, learners and administrative staff representatives, as well as social partner representatives. The board takes decisions regarding which programmes are offered at the college and their capacity, imposes local regulations and guidelines, guarantees responsible administration of the college’s financial resources, including approval of budgets and accounts and hires and fires the operational management (director, principal, dean or similar). The operational management, meanwhile, is responsible for implementing the overall objectives and strategies set out by the governing board.

A publicly financed system of basic, secondary and further education and training that recognises relevant non-formal and informal competences and practical work experience is a fundamental characteristic of the system.

Mainstream (‘youth’) VET is based on alternative models where training takes place in turn at college and in an enterprise. The state finances training at colleges, while enterprises finance on-the-job training; apprentices receive an apprentice’s salary while in the company, as laid down in the collective agreements.

In 2018, the state spent a total of DKK 7 173 3 million (EUR 963 million) on VET basic courses and main programmes (see table below). A considerable proportion of these funds was distributed to colleges in accordance with the ‘taximeter’ principle, whereby funding is linked to some quantifiable measure of activity, for example, the number of full-time equivalent learners, with a set amount awarded per unit. Among other things, this system provides an incentive for colleges to increase retention within the system.

Besides the ‘taximeter’ rate, VET providers also receive an annual fixed grant for the maintenance of buildings, salaries, etc. The total state grant is provided as a block grant which institutions use at their own discretion within the boundaries of the legislative framework and specific institutional objectives.

Expenditure on main youth education pathways (2018)

VET youth education

EGU and production schools

Upper secondary education ([16]General, vocational and others.)

DKK 7 173.3 million

(EUR 963 Million)

DKK 1 263.3 million

EUR 170 Million)

DKK 12 178 million

(EUR 1 635 million)

   

Upper Vocational Education

   

DKK 3 085.4 million

(EUR 414 million)

Source: National budget 2018.

When it comes to financing training in companies, all employers, both public and private, pay a sum into the ‘employers' reimbursement scheme’ (Arbejdsgivernes Uddannelsesbidrag), regardless of whether or not they provide apprenticeship placements. This fund finances VET both for young people and adults. From 2018, all employers will be obliged to pay an annual contribution of DKK 2 702 (EUR 362) per full-time employee. These funds are then allocated to workplaces that take in apprentices so that they do not bear the cost of training alone. These employers receive reimbursement for wages paid during apprentices’ periods of college-based training.

VET for adults (AMU) is largely publicly financed. Providers receive ‘taximeter’ funding and must negotiate budgets and targets with the Ministry of Education annually.

In VET, there are:

  • general subject teachers;
  • vocational subject teachers;
  • in-company trainers;
  • mentors.

General subject teachers are usually university graduates with a professional bachelor degree in teaching.

Vocational subject teachers usually have VET education background and substantial experience in the field (normally, at least five years is required).

The job of a VET teacher is considered demanding, and the motivation for applying for these jobs is of the highest level, when jobs in the private sector are hard to find.

Colleges and training centres have autonomy in staff recruitment. The Ministry of Education is not involved in teacher recruitment procedures, and teachers are not civil servants entering the system through tests.

There are no requirements for teachers to have a pedagogical qualification prior to their employment.

Pedagogical training (Diplomuddannelsen i Erhvervspædagogik) is part-time in-service training based on interaction between theory and practice. This programme was introduced for all teachers employed in VET and adult education (AMU) recruited after 15 January 2010 and replaces the previous teacher training course (Pædagogikum). The objective is to improve teaching skills to a level equivalent to teachers in compulsory education with a professional bachelor degree. The programme is the equivalent of one year of full-time study (60 ECTS) and the acquired qualification is placed at EQF level 6. It is, however, generally conducted as a part-time study to root training in practical teaching experience. New teachers must enrol in the programme within one year of gaining employment at a VET college or AMU centre. The programme must be completed within a period of six years. The programme was developed by the Danish National Centre for the Development of Vocational Education and Training (Nationalt Center for Erhvervspædagogik, NCE), a centre of excellence collecting, producing and disseminating knowledge on VET based at University College Copenhagen (UCC). The programme was developed in cooperation with an advisory group consisting of representatives of teacher associations and college management organisations, as well as the Ministry of Education. There are three compulsory and five optional modules, as well as a final examination project. Both NCE and other providers at different university colleges offer the programme ([17]For further information, see:
https://cumulus.cedefop.europa.eu/files/vetelib/2016/ReferNet_DK_TT.pdf
).

In-company trainers play an important role in VET, given the dual training principle characteristic of all VET. There are different types of trainers with different responsibilities: planners, training managers and daily trainers. However, there are very few legal requirements to become a trainer.

Trainers in enterprises who are responsible for apprentices must be craftsmen. They must have completed a VET programme, for which they have received a ‘journeyman’s certificate’, and have work experience.

Once qualified to teach in VET, there is no general legislation on in-service training. Individual teachers are obliged to keep their subject-specific and pedagogical knowledge up-to-date. The college is required to draw up a plan for the competence development of the teachers at the college. On this basis, and in cooperation with the teacher, the college determines the individual’s professional in-service training plan. Courses are offered locally by many providers in accordance with market conditions. A certificate is normally awarded to participants, but a recognised qualification is not generally awarded. The new VET reform requires skills updating for teachers and leaders in VET institutions at a level equivalent to 10 ECTS points. The updating will continue until 2020, and DKr 400 million (EUR 53 million) has been granted for it.

There are also no in-service training requirements or control mechanisms for in-company trainers. Quality assurance, beyond that undertaken voluntarily by the enterprise, is restricted to informal contacts between the VET college and the enterprise. The adult education (AMU) systems provide a number of courses of one to two weeks duration to support the training of trainers. The courses are not mandatory and are mostly used by the social care and healthcare professions.

More information is available in the Cedefop ReferNet thematic perspective on teachers and trainers ([18]http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/country-reports/teachers-and-trainers).

Social partners play an institutionalised role at all levels of VET, from the national advisory council on vocational upper secondary education and training (Rådet for de grundlæggende Erhvervsrettede Uddannelser), which advises the Ministry of Education on principal matters concerning VET, to playing an advisory role at the local level through local training committees comprising representatives of the social partners who advise colleges on local adaptations of VET. Their most important role is to ensure that VET provision is in line with the needs of the labour market.

Among their core responsibilities, national trade committees:

  • perform a central role in the creation and renewal of VET courses by closely monitoring developments in their particular trade. They also have a dominant position in formulating learning objectives and final examination standards based around the key competences that are deemed to be required in the labour market;
  • conduct relevant analyses, development projects, etc., and maintain close contact with relevant stakeholders;
  • decide the regulatory framework for individual courses within boundaries set by the legislative framework. They decide which trade is to provide the core of the training, the duration of the programme and the ratio between college-based teaching and practical work in an enterprise;
  • approve enterprises as qualified training establishments and rule on conflicts which may develop between apprentices and the enterprise providing practical training;
  • function as gatekeepers to the trade, as they are responsible for issuing journeyman’s certificates in terms of content, assessment and the actual holding of examinations.

Local training committees are affiliated to each vocational college and ensure close contact with the local community, thus improving responsiveness to particular local labour market needs. They consist of representatives of local employers and employees appointed by national trade committees, as well as representatives of staff, management and learners appointed by colleges. Training committees work closely alongside colleges in determining the specific curriculum of colleges, including which optional subjects are available. They assist and advise national trade committees in approving local enterprises as qualified training establishments and in mediating conflicts between apprentices and enterprises. Finally, training committees help to ensure that enough suitable local training placements are available.

See also Cedefop’s skills forecast ([19]http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/data-visualisations/skills-forecast) and European Skills Index ([20]https://skillspanorama.cedefop.europa.eu/en/indicators/european-skills-index).

Social partners play an institutionalised role at all levels of VET, from the national advisory council on vocational upper secondary education and training (Rådet for de grundlæggende Erhvervsrettede Uddannelser), which advises the Ministry of Education on the main issues concerning VET, to playing an advisory role at the local level through local training committees comprising representatives of the social partners who advise colleges on local adaptations of VET. Their most important role is to ensure that VET provision is in line with the needs of the labour market.

The national advisory council consists of 31 representatives from the social partners. In its advisory capacity, the council monitors developments in society and highlights trends relevant to VET. The council makes recommendations to the Ministry regarding the establishment of new VET programmes and the adaptation, amalgamation or discontinuation of others.

National trade committees (faglige udvalg) are the backbone of the VET system. Approximately 50 trade committees are responsible for 106 main programmes. The committees normally have between 10 and 14 members and are formed by labour market organisations (with parity of membership between employer and employee organisations). They are financed by participating organisations.

Among their core responsibilities, national trade committees:

  • perform a central role in the creation and renewal of VET courses by closely monitoring developments in their particular trade. They also have a dominant position in formulating learning objectives and final examination standards based around the key competences that are deemed to be required in the labour market;
  • conduct relevant analyses, development projects, etc., and maintain close contact with relevant stakeholders;
  • decide the regulatory framework for individual courses within boundaries set by the legislative framework. They decide which trade is to provide the core of the training, the duration of the programme and the ratio between college-based teaching and practical work in an enterprise;
  • approve enterprises as qualified training establishments and rule on conflicts which may develop between apprentices and the enterprise providing practical training;
  • function as gatekeepers to the trade, as they are responsible for issuing journeyman’s certificates in terms of content, assessment and the actual holding of examinations.

Local training committees are affiliated to each vocational college and ensure close contact with the local community, thus improving responsiveness to particular local labour market needs. They consist of representatives of local employers and employees appointed by national trade committees, as well as representatives of staff, management and learners appointed by colleges. Training committees work closely alongside colleges in determining the specific curriculum of colleges, including which optional subjects are available. They assist and advise national trade committees in approving local enterprises as qualified training establishments and in mediating conflicts between apprentices and enterprises. Finally, training committees help to ensure that enough suitable local training placements are available.

Various approaches to quality assurance of vocational colleges are implemented. Self-assessment remains the primary mechanism, but external monitoring is increasing in importance. Since the 1980s, a shift has taken place from detailed regulation of input to framework regulation of output. The aim of output regulation is to increase the focus on results and quality so that institutional practices meet political objectives, including adaptation to the needs of regional and local business sectors for education and competence development ([21]Ministry of Education (2014a). Tilsyn med erhvervsuddannelserne [Monitoring of VET].
https://www.uvm.dk/erhvervsuddannelser/ansvar-og-aktoerer/tilsyn/tilsyn-med-faglig-kvalitet
).

Monitoring is conducted at two levels:

  • system level: the assessment is on the effectiveness of the more than 100 different main programmes in terms of employment frequency among graduates. The education ministry then enters into dialogue with national trade committees about any programmes which fail to reach their targets in order to assess their relevance in terms of labour market needs and possible steps for improvement;
  • institutional level: at this level, monitoring can be divided into content monitoring and financial monitoring. The first concerns the degree to which a vocational college is providing its programmes in accordance with the legislative framework. The second monitors the college’s compliance with budgetary constraints as laid down by the education ministry.

Completion, dropout and examination pass rates also form part of the quality appraisal of a vocational college. Within companies, the social partners supplement ministerial monitoring through national trade committees and local training committees, appraising the quality of graduates, curricula, apprenticeships within enterprises, etc.

Quality assurance mechanisms are also part of the

validation process when it comes to including new qualifications in the Danish qualification framework. Only officially recognised, validated and quality-assured programmes are included in the qualifications framework. Informal and non-formal learning are only recognised to the extent that they are formalised though a process of validation of prior learning corresponding to one of the qualifications included.

In terms of VET, trade committees (at the upper secondary level) and further education and training committees (adult VET) assess programmes and make recommendations for their placement in the framework to be approved by the education ministry. For each educational field, guidelines have been produced to aid committees in their assessment and are quality-assured through consultation with independent experts. Procedures and criteria for including VET qualifications in the framework are the subject of an evaluation report compiled by the Danish Evaluation Institute ([22]EVA - Danish Evaluation Institute (2011). Referencing the Danish qualifications: framework for lifelong learning to the European qualifications framework.
https://www.voced.edu.au/content/ngv%3A54105
).

Competence assessment for young people

A young person participating in VET will have his or her competence assessed in the initial period of the education. The competence assessment should clarify what is required by the learner in relation to the education they want. The competence assessment is based on previous education or employment. The goal is to ensure that the education programme that the college offers the learner allows him or her to start at the right level and to avoid duplicating education. The college should allow the competence assessment to be included in the preparation of the learner’s individual education plan, so that the learner is credited with relevant parts of the programme ([23]https://www.uvm.dk/erhvervsuddannelser/adgang-og-optagelse/realkompetencevurdering).

Competence assessment for adults

Adults can have their competences assessed in relation to adult vocational courses and adult vocational education. In respect of short courses, this is an option known as Individual Competence Assessment (Individuel Kompetence Vurdering, IKV). Individual citizens have a right to this assessment and can even obtain financial compensation from the job centre for the time spent in this process, which takes between half a day and five days, provided by the relevant educational institution.

Recognition of prior learning results in an individual plan for education and a competence document listing formal qualifications, the individual’s prior experiences and learning equivalents, or a course certificate depending on the relevance and validity of his or her former experiences ([24]https://www.retsinformation.dk/Forms/R0710.aspx?id=152433#Kap6). When applying for adult vocational education, it is compulsory to have one’s prior learning and experiences assessed before enrolment, which means that every adult above 25 years of age who intends to embark on vocational education should participate in Recognition of Prior Learning (so-called realkompetencevurdering, RKV, or RPL). This process takes between half a day and five days and leads the participant to one of three learning options:

  • adult vocational education 1 (EUV 1): the learner has at least two years of relevant workplace experience. This means that the practice-based periods of the course and its initial part/ introductory basic programmes are left out (Basic Course 1; Grundforløb 1). In the case of mercantile vocational education, the primary part is included in the adult version;
  • adult vocational education 2 (EUV 2): the learner has less than two years of relevant workplace experience. An education plan should be drawn up reflecting the participant’s experiences, which will usually exclude the initial part and shorten the other parts;
  • adult vocational education 3 (EUV 3): the learner has no relevant workplace experience. Adults should follow the same education plan as young people, but should not have the initial part (Basic Course 1; Grundforløb 1, GF 1) ([25]https://uvm.dk/-/media/filer/uvm/.../pdf18/.../180321--vejledning-euv-ma...).

For more information about arrangements for the validation of non-formal and informal learning please visit Cedefop’s European database ([26]http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/data-visualisations/european-database-on-validation-of-non-formal-and-informal-learning).

Salary for apprentices

Danish VET learners are entitled to receive financial support during their education and training. If the VET learner signs a contract with a company, he or she will receive a salary during the education and training period. The salary is DKK 9 500 -12 500 per month (EUR 1 275 - 1 675) and increases each year.

If the VET learner does not have a contract with a company, he or she is entitled to receive financial support from the Danish learners' grants and loans scheme (Statens Uddannelsesstøtte, SU) when the learner is enrolled in the basic course (GF1 and GF2).

If the learner is living with his or her parents, the monthly amount is DKK 946 (EUR 125). If the learner is living away from his or her parents and is 20 years of age, the monthly amount is DKK 6 090 (EUR 800).

Loans and grants

A learner receiving financial support from the SU is also entitled to take out a loan with the SU. The monthly amount of the loan is normally DKK 3 116 (EUR 420). Loans must be repaid at 4% interest during the period of education and at the national discount rate of +1% after finishing that period.

Participants of VET for adults (AMU) are entitled to a fixed allowance: the State grant system for adult training (godtgørelse, VEU). In 2018, the amount available was DKK 4 300 (EUR 578) per week, corresponding to the maximum unemployment insurance benefit rate. As most participants are employed and receive a full salary during the training period, this allowance is primarily paid to employers as partial reimbursement of wages. As with apprenticeship training (EUD), expenditure for the allowances is covered by the employers’ reimbursement scheme, to which all enterprises contribute a fixed amount regardless of levels of participation in adult education and continuing training activities.

Participants may also receive a transport allowance and financial support for board and lodging ([27]Covered by Arbejdsgivernes Uddannelsesbidrag (AUB)the employers reimbursement scheme.) if programmes are offered at a considerable distance from the participant’s home.

Employers’ reimbursement scheme

All employers, both public and private, pay a sum into the ‘employers' reimbursement scheme’ (Arbejdsgivernes Uddannelsesbidrag), regardless of whether or not they provide apprenticeship placements. This fund finances VET for both young people and for adults (AMU). From 2018, all employers will be obliged to pay an annual contribution of DKK 2 702 (EUR 362) per full-time employee. These funds are then allocated to work places that take apprentices so that they do not bear the cost of training alone. These employers receive reimbursement for wages paid during apprentices’ periods of college-based training.

The latest tripartite agreement of August 2016 has launched a couple of new incentives for Danish companies aiming to establish more contracts with apprentices. The overall goal is to establish 10 000 new contracts in 2025.

Primarily, companies will be able to provide a much clearer picture of themselves as education operators, giving them the option of assessing whether they are in line with political expectations.

Fines and stimulations for companies

Companies that fail to sign the necessary number of contracts must pay a fine of DKK 27 000 (EUR 3 620) for each missing contract relative to the size of the company. On the other hand, companies that meet the standard number of contracts will receive a 7.4% higher refund from AUB (Arbejdsgivernes Uddannelsesbidrag, the employers reimbursement scheme,) to motivate them to sign the expected number of contracts.

In some Danish regions, public employers have laid down rules concerning the involvement of private companies in projects, underlining that the company cannot be engaged in public activities if the number of apprentices is below the standard.

Wage compensation scheme

Among the incentives promoting companies’ interest in having their low-skilled workers participate in adult vocational education is the wage compensation scheme. Companies are partly compensated for the wages they pay to their employees who are participating in education at a rate, in 2018, of DKK 4 300 (EUR 4 300) a week, equivalent to the highest level of unemployment benefit ([28]http://www.veug.dk/borger/veu-godtgoerelse). The companies should pay for the courses. In 2018 the payment will be between 590 DKK (EUR 79) and DKK 950 (EUR 127) per person per week ([29]https://www.efteruddannelse.dk/VEUPortal/faces/ApplFrontPage?_afrLoop=25...).

Please see:

Vocational education and training system chart

Tertiary

Click on a programme type to see more info
Programme Types

EQF 5

Further adult education

programmes,

some WBL

ISCED 554

Further vocational adult education programmes leading to EQF level 5, ISCED 554 (VVU, Videregående Voksenuddannelse).
EQF level
5
ISCED-P 2011 level

554

Usual entry grade

Not applicable

Usual completion grade

Not applicable

Usual entry age

Information not available

Usual completion age

Information not available

Length of a programme (years)

2-3 years on average (part-time); requested completion within 6 years

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

N

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

N

with some exceptions

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

The education ministry has decided that ECVET points should not be used in the Danish vocational training system.

In Denmark, it has been decided not to split up education programmes into modules to which ECVET, or other credit points, might be assigned. However, there are other countries in the EU that have introduced a credit points system. Therefore, there may be a need for a school receiving foreign pupils in mobility programmes to decide how many ECVET/other credit points the course corresponds to. In Denmark, the course of study is awarded ECVET points in relation to time. A full-time equivalent programme corresponds to 60 points.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

VVU programmes are specifically tailored to the needs of adults, for example, by providing courses over a longer duration on a part-time basis, largely during evenings and weekends, to allow ongoing employment.

Main providers

Business and technical academies

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

25%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school
  • in-company practice
Main target groups

Programmes are available for young people and adults.

People with job experience are the main group. Unemployed people can receive grants for participation (SVU).

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

In addition to an appropriate VET qualification or a general upper secondary qualification, two to three years of relevant work experience is required.

Assessment of learning outcomes

To complete a programme, learners need to pass a final examination. Each module in the flexible programme is finalised with an examination and the learner has to pass a final examination as well.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Award of an academy profession degree (erhvervsakademigrad, AK)

Examples of qualifications

Retail, interpreter, international transport and logistics, and information technology

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Adult VVU) qualifications, like the mainstream KVU, can provide access to a supplementary diploma degree programme, allowing graduates to build on an academy profession degree to bachelor-equivalent level within the same field, while VVU qualifications also provide access to relevant full-time professional bachelor programmes.

As such, there is full horizontal permeability between the mainstream and adult education and continuing training systems.

Destination of graduates

Most participants (66%) finalise only a part of VVU and return to their jobs. Of this group, 50% continue into other forms of education (3-4 years after VVU.)

Of the group of participants who finalise a full VVU, 9% participate in further education (3-4 years after VVU) ([45]https://www.eva.dk/sites/eva/files/2017-08/Videregaende%20voksenuddannelse%20-VVU.pdf).

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

General education subjects

Y

The programme is flexible and the learner can choose general education subjects as part of the programme.

Key competences

Y

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

Each module in the programme is based on learning outcomes.

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

9% ([46]This figure is for VVU and Academy Professions Programmes and calculated in relation to all VET learners at secondary level.)

EQF 5

Academy professions

programmes (KVU),

some WBL

ISCED 554

Short-cycle higher education programmes leading to EQF level 5, ISCED 554 (Erhvervsakademiuddannelser, KVU)
EQF level
5
ISCED-P 2011 level

551, 554

Usual entry grade

Not applicable

Usual completion grade

Not applicable

Usual entry age

21

Usual completion age

23

Length of a programme (years)

2 years

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

N

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

A programme can be 90, 120 or 150 ECTS credits.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

School-based learning and practical training at school (and in-company practice)

Main providers

10 business and technical academies (erhvervsakademier)

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

50%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

Workshops at schools

Practical training at schools

Main target groups

The main target groups are young people and adults who have completed their initial education.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Admissions requirements for academy profession and professional bachelor programmes are either relevant vocational upper secondary education and training (EUD) or general upper secondary education combined with relevant labour market experience. There may be more specific requirements regarding certain attainment levels within particular general subjects for some programmes (applicants with a VET background may have to take additional general education qualifications as a supplement).

Assessment of learning outcomes

Apart from theoretical subjects, programmes are usually completed by a project examination and always contain a degree of workplace training.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Award of an academy profession degree (erhvervsakademigrad, AK)

Examples of qualifications

Dental hygienist, installation electrician, multimedia designer, laboratory technician, marketing manager, etc.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

An academy profession degree can provide access to a supplementary diploma degree programme.

The latter allows graduates to build on an academy profession degree to bachelor-equivalent level in the same field.

Destination of graduates

Most graduates (65%) enter the labour market after they finish their KVU. Some progress to further education.

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

General education subjects

Y

a few general education subjects are part of this programme.

Key competences

Y

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

The programme is based on learning outcomes.

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

In 2017, 36 272 students were enrolled in KVUs and professional bachelor programmes. This figure indicates a significant increase over previous years of more than 50%. To strengthen cohesion at the tertiary level, since autumn 2011 all higher education from KVU to PhD level has been placed under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Higher Education and Science.

EQF 6

Professional bachelor

programmes,

some WBL

ISCED 655

Professional bachelor programmes leading to EQF level 6, ISCED 655 (Professionsbachelor)
EQF level
6
ISCED-P 2011 level

665

Usual entry grade

Not applicable

Usual completion grade

Not applicable

Usual entry age

21

Usual completion age

25

Length of a programme (years)

3-4 years

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

N

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

30 ECTS credits per semester. A full programme is normally 210 credits.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

School-based learning and practical training at school.

Main providers

Seven university colleges

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

25%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

Workshops and practical training at schools as a part of general education subjects.

Main target groups

Young people and adults who have completed their initial education.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Admissions requirements for professional bachelor programmes are either relevant vocational upper secondary education and training (EUD) or general upper secondary education combined with relevant labour market experience. There may be more specific requirements regarding certain attainment levels within particular general subjects for some programmes (applicants with a VET background may have to take additional general education qualifications as a supplement).

Assessment of learning outcomes

Apart from theoretical subjects, programmes are usually completed by a project examination and always contain a degree of workplace training.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Professional bachelor degree

Examples of qualifications

Teacher, social educator, midwife, radiographer, occupational therapist, biomedical laboratory scientist, nurse, leisure manager, journalist, social worker, a wide range of engineering programmes.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

A professional bachelor degree can provide access to certain university-based master programmes.

Destination of graduates

Most graduates (75%) enter the labour market after they finish their professional bachelor programme.

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

General education subjects

Y

General education subjects are a major part of a professional bachelor education.

Key competences

Y

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

The programme is based on learning outcomes.

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

In 2017, 36 272 students were enrolled in KVUs and professional bachelor programmes. This figure indicates a significant increase over previous years of more than 50%. To strengthen cohesion at the tertiary level, since autumn 2011 all higher education from KVU to PhD level has been placed under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Higher Education and Science.

The total number of students enrolled in KVUs and professional bachelor programmes was about 60% of the number of students who were enrolled in VET in 2017.

Post-secondary

Click on a programme type to see more info
Programme Types

EQF 2-5

CVET (AMU) for

new skills and upgrade

Adult vocational training programmes leading to EQF levels 2-5, (Arbejdsmarkedsuddannelser, AMU)
EQF level
2-5
ISCED-P 2011 level

Range

Usual entry grade

Not applicable

Usual completion grade

Not applicable

Usual entry age

Not applicable

Usual completion age

Not applicable

Length of a programme (years)

Half a day to 50 days; one week on average

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

Yes and no

– some courses are free of charge, some have charges

Is it available for adults?

Y

Aged 25 and above

ECVET or other credits

The education ministry has decided that ECVET points should not be used in the Danish vocational training system.

In Denmark, it has been decided not to split up education programmes into modules to which ECVET, or other credit points, might be assigned. However, there are other countries in the EU that have introduced a credit points system. Therefore, there may be a need for a school receiving foreign pupils in mobility programmes to decide how many ECVET/other credit points the course corresponds to. In Denmark, the course of study is awarded ECVET points in relation to time. A full-time equivalent programme corresponds to 60 points.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

Depending on what best corresponds to the needs of enterprises and participants, courses can take the form of traditional classroom teaching, training in open workshops, distance learning or training at the workplace and be spread over several consecutive days, over a longer period or conducted as evening classes. Programmes can be combined both within and across qualification areas and alternate between theory and practice.

Main providers

Vocational colleges, AMU training centres and private providers

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

75%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

According to the needs of participants and enterprises, individual training maps are developed and followed and a range of learning types can be included.

Main target groups

AMU programmes target both low-skilled and skilled workers, but they are open to all citizens who are either resident or employed in Denmark, irrespective of educational background. Some AMU courses are also targeted at the unemployed. The objectives are threefold:

  • to contribute to maintaining and improving the vocational skills and competences of participants in accordance with the needs of the labour market and to further the competence development of participants;
  • to contribute to solving problems in labour-market restructuring and adaptation in accordance with the needs of the labour market in both the short- and long-term;
  • to give adults the possibility of upgrading competences for the labour market, as well as personal competences through opportunities to obtain formal competences in vocational education and training ([41]Source: Ministry of Education’s webportal. See the Governments objectives for adult vocational training: short vocational training programmes mainly for low skilled and skilled workers on the labour market. http://www.eng.uvm.dk/adult-education-and-continuing-training/adult-voca...).
Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Adults aged 25 and above

Assessment of learning outcomes

Examination of AMU courses is practical-based and, depending on the context, may include some theoretical elements. All courses are finalised with an examination.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Upon completion, participants receive a certificate. In around 120 programmes, this certification is a formal requirement for fulfilling certain job functions (such as operating certain machinery). AMU certificates are also included in the Danish qualifications framework for lifelong learning, at any point from level 2 to level 5.

Examples of qualifications

Truck driver, scaffolder, team leader

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

AMU certificates do not provide direct access to further education and training, although they can be included in an assessment of prior learning resulting in credit transfer, for example, if entering a mainstream VET programme in the same field.

Destination of graduates

Information not available ([42]ReferNet DK estimates the majority of graduates enter labour market.)

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

The validation process in conducted by the AMU Centre and the relevant teacher is responsible for the specific validation of prior learning. The process is a combination of validation of formal learning and practical assessment.

Prior to enrolment into adult vocational education, it is compulsory to have one’s prior learning and experiences assessed. Every adult above 25 years of age who intends to embark on vocational education should participate in Recognition of Prior Learning (so-called realkompetencevurdering, RKV, or RPL). This process takes between half a day and five days and leads the participant to one of three models:

  • EUV 1: the learner has at least two years of relevant workplace experience. This means that the practice-based periods of the course and its initial part/introductory basic programmes are left out (Basic Course 1; Grundforløb 1). In the case of mercantile vocational education, the primary part is included in the adult version;
  • EUV 2: the learner has less than two years of relevant workplace experience. An education plan should be drawn up reflecting the participant’s experiences, which will usually exclude the initial part and shorten the other parts;
  • EUV 3: the learner has no relevant workplace experience. Adults should follow the same education plan as young people, but should not have the initial part (Basic Course 1; Grundforløb 1, GF 1).
General education subjects

Y

such as reading, writing and mathematics courses

Key competences

Key competences can be included

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

All AMU courses are described in terms of learning outcomes.

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

In 2018 the share of AMU participants among all VET participants was 6.5%.

In 2018, there were approximately 463 327 participants in AMU courses, a significant drop since 2010 when there were almost 590 000 participants in AMU.

This could partly be explained by the high pace and bustle of industry during this period, and partly by the rigidity and formal structures of the education system.

However, as many of these courses are of very short duration (as little as half a day), the figures for full-time equivalent students are much lower at just 7 406 in 2018 ([43]https://www.uddannelsesstatistik.dk/Pages/Reports/1801.aspx). This again represents a significant fall in comparison with 2010 figures. Most participants in the programmes either have VET as their highest level of education (51%) or compulsory schooling (25%) ([44]VEU-rådet (2011). Strategiske fokusområder 2011 [Strategic focuses 2011], p. 45.).

Secondary

Click on a programme type to see more info
Programme Types

EQF 2-3

Basic VET (EGU)

programmes,

WBL at least 75%

ISCED 353

Basic vocational training programmes leading to EQF levels 2-3, ISCED 353 (Erhvervsgrunduddannelse, EGU)
EQF level
2-3
ISCED-P 2011 level

353

Usual entry grade

Not applicable

Usual completion grade

Not applicable

Usual entry age

Not applicable

Usual completion age

Not applicable

Length of a programme (years)

2

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

Aged below 30

ECVET or other credits

The education ministry has decided that ECVET points should not be used in the Danish vocational training system.

In Denmark, it has been decided not to split up education programmes into modules to which ECVET, or other credit points, might be assigned. However, there are other countries in the EU that have introduced a credit points system. Therefore, there may be a need for a school receiving foreign pupils in mobility programmes to decide how many ECVET/other credit points the course corresponds to. In Denmark, the course of study is awarded ECVET points in relation to time. A full-time equivalent programme corresponds to 60 points.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

Training is full-time. It is primarily practical, with little theoretical content, and combines alternating school-based (one third) and workplace-based training (two-thirds).

Main providers

Vocational colleges, agricultural colleges, social and healthcare colleges, etc.

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

>=75%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • workplace-based training
Main target groups

Basic vocational training is aimed at unemployed young people aged below 30 who are unable to complete another form of education or training, which might equip them with qualifications to enter the labour market. The goal is to improve their vocational and personal skills and inspire them to enter the labour market or pursue further training possibilities.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

There are no minimum entry requirements concerning age.

Assessment of learning outcomes

The training programme is set on an individual basis and may contain elements from the main programmes. Each training period should be concluded as an individual training element, which may be accredited through other training programmes. Statements are issued giving details of training content, job function, marks, etc.

Diplomas/certificates provided

On completion of the entire training programme, a certificate is issued by the college. Any completed elements from a main programme can later be transferred as credit if entering the relevant programme.

Examples of qualifications

Low-skilled pedagogical assistant, low-skilled carpenter, low-skilled chauffeur

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation
  • labour market
  • IVET
  • production school
  • adult education (AVU)
Destination of graduates

Graduates from EGU progress to ([32]Source: The Ministry of Children and Education, 2016.):

  • 48% in jobs;
  • 10% in education and training;
  • 38% receiving public support.
Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

Learning outcomes obtained in companies and different education institutions are assessed and validated and can

be recognised as part of IVET.

General education subjects

Y

General education subjects (for example Danish or Mathematics) can be a part of the educational plan.

Key competences

Y

Key Competences can be a part of the programme.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

The school-based part of the programme will typically be based on learning outcomes.

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Students within EGU ([33]Basic vocational training programmes leading to EQF levels 2-3, ISCED 353 (Erhvervsgrunduddannelse, EGU).)

2012

2013

2014

2015

231 6

2 331

238 2

2337

Source: Statistics Denmark, 2018.

EQF 4-5

VET programmes (EUX),

WBL 50%,

4-4.5 years

ISCED 354

Combined vocational and general upper secondary education leading to EQF levels 4-5, ISCED 354 (Erhvervsuddannelse og gymnasial eksamen, EUX)
EQF level
4-5
ISCED-P 2011 level

354

Usual entry grade

9/10

Usual completion grade

12/13/14

Usual entry age

17

Usual completion age

20

Length of a programme (years)

4-4.5

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

The education ministry has decided that ECVET points should not be used in the Danish vocational training system.

In Denmark, it has been decided not to split up education programmes into modules to which ECVET, or other credit points, might be assigned. However, there are other countries in the EU that have introduced a credit points system. Therefore, there may be a need for a school receiving foreign pupils in mobility programmes to decide how many ECVET/other credit points the course corresponds to. In Denmark, the course of study is awarded ECVET points in relation to time. A full-time equivalent programme corresponds to 60 points.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)
  • school-based learning (contact studies, including virtual communication with the teacher/trainer);
  • work practice (practical training at school and in-company practice);
  • self-learning.
Main providers

Vocational colleges in cooperation with companies

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

50%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school
  • in-company practice
Main target groups

In 2012, the EUX programme was introduced with the aim of bridging the gap between general upper secondary education and vocational upper secondary education and training.

It also offers highly motivated young people the opportunity to gain both vocational qualifications providing direct access to the labour market and general qualifications providing similar opportunities to continue into higher education as students in the four general upper secondary programmes.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

There are no minimum or maximum entry requirements concerning age.

EUX students must fulfil the requirements for IVET programmes, including a minimum grade 2 in Danish and mathematics.

Assessment of learning outcomes

To complete an EUX programme the student must pass a journeyman’s test concerning the vocational part of the programme and an examination in 6 upper secondary subjects (including Danish at level A) concerning the non-vocational part of the programme.

If a learner fails the journeyman test or an examination in one of the 6 subjects, it is possible to have a re-examination.

Diplomas/certificates provided

VET learners achieve both general and vocational upper secondary qualifications.

Examples of qualifications

Carpenter, blacksmith, electrician

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

EUX graduates gain both vocational qualifications providing direct access to the labour market and general qualifications providing similar opportunities to continue into higher education as graduates of the four general upper secondary programmes.

Destination of graduates

Since EUX was only introduced in 2012, there are only a small number of EUX graduates so far. It is, therefore, too early to predict their progress in continuing education and training or the labour market.

However, there is no doubt that the EUX programme has succeeded in attracting a more motivated and dedicated type of student to VET ([34]A preliminary evaluation of EUX was published in 2017:
https://uvm.dk/aktuelt/nyheder/uvm/udd/erhvervs/2017/mar/170315%20eux%20har%20potentiale%20til%20at%20tiltraekke%20en%20ny%20type%20elever%20til%20erhvervsuddannelserne
).

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

If the learner has obtained certain parts of IVET or upper secondary education, it is possible to acquire awards through validation.

General education subjects

Y

Key competences

Y

Key competences are part of the subjects in vocational colleges.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Since its introduction in 2012, the EUX programme has become quite popular. In 2019, 32.2% of all students choosing VET wanted an EUX programme in order to obtain a full VET qualification and a study preparatory qualification as well. Consequently, Danish VET institutions are working intensively to develop new learning arrangements combining learning outcomes from VET and general upper secondary institutions.

EQF 3-5

VET programmes,

apprenticeships (EUD),

WBL 67%,

3-5 years

ISCED levels 353 and 354

Vocational upper secondary education and training programmes leading to EQF levels 3-5, ISCED levels 353 and 354 (Erhvervsuddannelse, EUD)
EQF level
3-5
ISCED-P 2011 level

353-354

Usual entry grade

9/10

Usual completion grade

12/13/14

Usual entry age

22

Usual completion age

28.9

Length of a programme (years)

5 (up to)

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

The education ministry has decided that ECVET points should not be used in the Danish vocational training system.

In Denmark, it has been decided not to split up education programmes into modules to which ECVET, or other credit points, might be assigned. However, there are other countries in the EU that have introduced a credit points system. Therefore, there may be a need for a school receiving foreign pupils in mobility programmes to decide how many ECVET/other credit points the course corresponds to. In Denmark, the course of study is awarded ECVET points in relation to time. A full-time equivalent programme corresponds to 60 points.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

EUD, as the main upper secondary VET option, is organised according to a dual principle, alternating between a training placement, generally in an enterprise, and periods of college-based training.

EUD consists of:

  • the introductory basic programmes, which are predominantly school-based and combine theoretical, classroom-based learning with, to varying degrees, more practical workshop-based learning. For example, the commercial programme concentrates more on classroom-based learning than many of the more technical programmes. Basic programmes combine common competence goals, where students are given a broad introduction to the competences to be acquired in the associated main programmes and pursue specific competence goals aimed at individual programmes;
  • the main programme, consisting of several ‘steps’ (trin) and specialisations that divide the main programme into branches. While the exact distribution varies according to both the programme and the needs of the individual student, the main programmes generally comprise alternating periods of workplace-based training and college-based teaching in a ratio of 2:1.

College-based teaching in the main programmes can be divided into four types of subject:

  • general subjects;
  • trade-specific area subjects;
  • specialised subjects;
  • optional subjects.

College-based teaching in the main programmes is organized through an integrated approach, and students frequently work on projects where they are expected to incorporate what they have learned in different subjects and combine both general and more specialised competences.

Main providers

VET colleges

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

>=60%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

Apprenticeships with:

  • practical training at school;
  • practical training in company.
Main target groups
  • young people (16-20) – main target group
  • young Adults (20-25)
  • adults (25+)
  • immigrants
Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Admission to basic programmes

Admission is offered to anyone who has completed compulsory schooling at Folkeskole or equivalent and obtained the pass mark in Danish and mathematics in the leaving examination from the ninth or 10th grade respectively, unless they have an apprenticeship contract with a company.

Young people attending the first part of the basic programme just after compulsory school must be declared ‘study-ready’, based on an assessment of their academic, personal and social competences conducted by either the college or the local youth guidance centre (Ungdommens Uddannelsesvejledning). These assessments consider a broad range of factors such as grades, motivation and conflict management skills and are used in compiling individual education plans (Elevplan).

Admission to main programmes

All students completing a basic programme are entitled to complete one of the associated main programmes. These programmes generally commence with an on-the-job training placement. As such, the student must not only have completed the relevant basic programme, but also have an apprenticeship contract with an approved training company prior to being admitted to the main programme.

The students are duty-bound to seek out suitable placements. When no suitable placements are available in a desired programme, students are offered admission to another associated main programme where placements are available. Another possibility is for the student to enter a training agreement with the college itself, where practical training also takes place in a Placement Centre.

For some programmes (32), admission to the second of the two basic courses is limited. This is to ensure that the number of students is aligned with labour market needs. In these cases, all students are either admitted in accordance with a quota or are required to have a training agreement with an enterprise prior to commencing the second part of the relevant foundation course.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Basic programmes are completed with a project which forms the basis of an externally graded examination. This is done by an external examiner appointed by the school and validated by the education ministry.

In the main programmes, there are various forms of assessment throughout the course, including both oral and written examinations, and both theoretical and practical project work. The exact form of assessment can differ from programme to programme.

Programmes include both subject-specific examinations (for example, in English or mathematics) and broader assessments to evaluate students’ abilities to combine the knowledge, skills and competences acquired from the programme as a whole.

The final examination, which generally takes place during the final period of college-based learning, also varies from programme to programme. In some cases, it consists entirely of a college-based examination; in others it comprises a combination of a college-based examination and a journeyman’s test (svendeprøve); in others it involves only the journeyman’s test conducted by local training committees.

However, most common is a combination of an assessment of project-based practical assignments and a theoretical examination, either oral, written or both. The relevant local trade committee nominates external examiners. Generally, two external examiners assess individual students in cooperation with the teacher. The training college, in consultation with the trade committees, develops the content of examinations. After passing the journeyman’s certificate, the graduate acquires a qualification at skilled-worker level and is able to enter the labour market ([35]Ministry of Education (2014b). Praktikpladsen: mødested for elever og virksomheder [Traineeships/internships: meeting place for students and companies].
http://www.praktikpladsen.dk/
).

Diplomas/certificates provided

The basic course examination leads to a certificate documenting the subjects and levels they have achieved; this certificate forms the basis for entering the main programme.

At the end of each training placement, the company issues a certificate to the college, the student and the trade committee listing the student’s achievements.

The successful passing of the final examination leads to a journeyman’s certificate; the graduate acquires a qualification at skilled-worker level and is able to enter the labour market ([36]Ministry of Education (2014b). Praktikpladsen: mødested for elever og virksomheder [Traineeships/internships: meeting place for students and companies].
http://www.praktikpladsen.dk/
).

Examples of qualifications

Flight mechanic, event coordinator, fitness instructor, multimedia animator, veterinary nurse: ‘small animals’, veterinary nurse: ‘horses’, veterinary nurse: ‘aide’, etc.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Graduating from EUD main programmes gives access to tertiary education in the previously acquired field. Additional general subject qualifications ([37]These courses can be obtained at Adult Education Centres (VUC).) are required at higher levels in order to gain access to higher education.

Destination of graduates

The most recent figures for students completing an EUD programme in 2015 show that, 6 months later, only 8% were continuing in higher education ([38]http://statweb.uni-c.dk/Databanken/uvmdataweb/fullClient/Default.aspx?report=EOU-gf-overg6-tiludd-frafuldf&res=1366x560 ).

Improving pathways from VET to higher education is currently a political priority.

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

It is possible to acquire awards through validation of prior learning, and the education institution receiving the student is responsible for this.

General education subjects

Y

College-based teaching in the main programmes includes general education subjects, including English, mathematics, Danish, etc. However, in VET, the content of these subjects is adapted to the particular programme so that, for example, mathematics for carpenters will concentrate on areas relevant to working as a carpenter and will be quite different from mathematics for veterinary nurses. General subjects also include other broad subjects such as product development and basic materials science. College-based teaching also includes optional subjects that might help them gain competences, which provide access to further education, such as qualifications in general subjects at a higher level.

Key competences

Y

Key competences are included in the subjects in the college-based part of VET, but are not taught as specific subjects.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

All educational orders, defining the framework of a VET programme are described in terms of learning outcomes.

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

After completing ninth (compulsory) or 10th grade in 2018, 93% of all students chose some form of further education or training activity, either general upper secondary education (73.1%), or EUD vocational upper secondary education and training (19.4%). As suggested by the discrepancy in these two sets of figures, students in VET are generally older. While the average age for young people commencing general upper secondary education is 16.6, the equivalent for those entering VET is 22. Young people also take longer to complete VET programmes: the average age for those completing a general upper secondary qualification in 2017 was 19.5; in VET it was 28.9.

In 2019, 32.2% of young people applying for a VET programme chose the EUX programme.

Students entering VET basic programmes (EUD and EUX) 2019

EQF 3-5

Adult VET (EUV)

programmes

3-5 years

ISCED 353, 354

Basic vocational adult education programmes (equivalent to EUD) leading to EQF levels 2-3, ISCED 353, 354 (Erhvervsuddannelse for voksne)
EQF level
3-5
ISCED-P 2011 level

353, 354

Usual entry grade

Not applicable

Usual completion grade

Not applicable

Usual entry age

Average: 22 years

Usual completion age

Average: 28.9 years

Length of a programme (years)

1.5 – 5.5 years

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

Aged 25 and above

ECVET or other credits

The education ministry has decided that ECVET points should not be used in the Danish vocational training system.

In Denmark, it has been decided not to split up education programmes into modules to which ECVET, or other credit points, might be assigned. However, there are other countries in the EU that have introduced a credit points system. Therefore, there may be a need for a school receiving foreign pupils in mobility programmes to decide how many ECVET/other credit points the course corresponds to. In Denmark, the course of study is awarded ECVET points in relation to time. A full-time equivalent programme corresponds to 60 points.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

It is a dual system consisting of:

  • school-based learning (contact studies, including virtual communication with the teacher/trainer);
  • work practice (practical training at school and in-company practice);
  • self-learning;
  • apprenticeships.
Main providers

Vocational colleges in cooperation with companies

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

60%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school/workshops
  • in-company practice
Main target groups

EUV programmes target low-skilled workers with at least two years of relevant work experience and allow acquisition of qualifications equivalent to EUD, which incorporate validation of prior learning.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Adults aged 25 and above

Assessment of learning outcomes

To complete a VET programme, learners need to pass a journeyman’s test (practical), organised by a professional committee. Some examinations in the school-based part of the programme are compulsory.

If a learner fails a journeyman’s test or an examination in a subject, re-examination is possible. Normally, three attempts are possible.

Diplomas/certificates provided

The basic course examination leads to a certificate documenting the subjects and levels they have achieved; this certificate forms the basis for entering the main programme.

At the end of each training placement, the company issues a certificate to the college, the student and the trade committee listing the student’s achievements.

The successful passing of the final examination leads to a journeyman’s certificate; the graduate acquires a qualification at skilled-worker level and is able to enter the labour market ([39]Ministry of Education (2014b). Praktikpladsen: mødested for elever og virksomheder [Traineeships/internships: meeting place for students and companies].
http://www.praktikpladsen.dk/
).

Examples of qualifications

Carpenter, blacksmith, electrician

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Those who complete VEU can enter the labour market or continue their studies at professional Academies.

Destination of graduates

Information not available ([40]ReferNet Denmark estimates the majority of graduates enter labour market.)

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

The validation process in conducted by the vocational school and the relevant vocational teacher is responsible for the specific validation of prior learning. The process is a combination of validation of formal learning and practical assessment.

Prior to enrolment into adult vocational education, it is compulsory to have one’s prior learning and experiences assessed. Every adult above 25 years of age who intends to embark on vocational education should participate in Recognition of Prior Learning (so-called realkompetencevurdering, RKV, or RPL). This process takes between half a day and five days and leads the participant to one of three models:

  • EUV 1: the learner has at least two years of relevant workplace experience. This means that the practice-based periods of the course and its initial part/introductory basic programmes are left out (Basic Course 1; Grundforløb 1). In the case of mercantile vocational education, the primary part is included in the adult version;
  • EUV 2: the learner has less than two years of relevant workplace experience. An education plan should be drawn up reflecting the participant’s experiences, which will usually exclude the initial part and shorten the other parts;
  • EUV 3: the learner has no relevant workplace experience. Adults should follow the same education plan as young people, but should not have the initial part (Basic Course 1; Grundforløb 1, GF 1).
General education subjects

Y

Depending on the specific education programme, a number of subjects are included in the programme – for example Danish, mathematics.

Key competences

Y

Key competences are included in the subjects in the college-based part of VET, but are not taught as specific subjects.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

All education orders, defining the framework of a VET programme, are described in terms of learning outcomes.

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

The share of people aged 25 or more is 32% of the total VET learners.

VET available to adults (formal and non-formal)

Programme Types
Not available