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General themes

VET in Greece is strongly state-regulated and, until recently, mostly offered through a school-based approach; overall responsibility has the education ministry in cooperation, occasionally, with the labour ministry. It is offered, after the completion of compulsory schooling, mainly at upper secondary and post-secondary level.

Distinctive features [1]Data from VET in Greece Spotlight, see CEDEFOP (2018) https://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/4168_en.pdf 
:

Greek society strongly favours general education and appreciates university studies. Both these factors reflect sociological stereotypes rooted in long-lasting perceptions and have affected overall VET attractiveness. VET has been characterised by higher dropout rates; multiplicity and complexity of the legal framework; challenges regarding the design and implementation of VET-related policies; and impediments to linking with the labour market. It remains a second choice and often attracts low performers, who may also come from lower economic backgrounds.

The level of participation in formal education is generally high; Greece has already achieved early school leaving goals. Yet, the national average masks significant variation between geographical regions ([2]OECD (2018) Economic Survey, https://www.oecd.org/eco/surveys/Greece-2018-OECD-economic-survey-overview.pdf
), types of schools, gender and social groups (i.e. native and first- and second-generation migrant students) ([3]http://ec.europa.eu/education/tools/docs/2015/monitor2015-greece_en.pdf
).

Since 2016, the education ministry has been conducting a major reform of the VET system, taking into account challenges raised by the financial crisis, such as:

  • high unemployment rates;
  • high NEETs (people not in employment, education or training) rates (24.2% in 2017);
  • unexpected influx of refugees halted on Greek territory (requiring training and education programmes, which are currently being designed and implemented);
  • ageing population;
  • increased brain drain (highly qualified and mostly young people).

This socioeconomic landscape reflects enduring deficiencies in adapting to change and more specifically in equipping people in Greece with the necessary job specific skills that improve employability and well-being prospects.

To counteract these challenges the education ministry has undertaken the following key actions:

  • implementing a coherent national strategic framework for upgrading VET and apprenticeships (April 2016) aiming to promote and enhance the social role of VET, upgrade and expand apprenticeships, strengthen links between VET and the labour market, increase VET quality, and promote VET attractiveness;
  • establishing (since 2016) a new structure at upper secondary vocational education programmes (EPAL) to reduce early overspecialisation by focusing more on key competences in the first year of the programme; this aids permeability between general and vocational education and allows for better allocation of the teaching staff;
  • establishing (since 2016) a new pathway, a one-year apprenticeship programme at post-secondary level to offer upper secondary VET graduates the chance to acquire labour-market-relevant skills and to support them entering the labour market;
  • introducing the skills diagnosis mechanism (National Labour and Human Resources Institute - EIEAD) to reduce skills mismatch and update VET curricula.

The future course of development in Greece relies on VET as a primary instrument to provide necessary skills to individuals.

Population in 2018: 10 741 165 ([4]Source: Eurostat, tps00001 and proj_15ndbims [Extracted on 16.05.2019]
)

In the period 2013 to 2018, there is a population decrease of approximately 2.4%, due to negative natural growth (fertility to mortality rate) and migration.

Especially as a crisis effect, the population is ageing. Migration and the lack of significant economic incentives to young couples further deteriorated the phenomenon.

The old-age dependency ratio is expected to increase from 32 in 2015 to 68 in 2060 ([5]Old-age-dependency ratio is defined as the ratio between the number of persons aged 65 and more over the number of working-age persons (15-64 years). The value is expressed per 100 persons of working age (15-64).
).

Population forecast by age group and old-age-dependency ratio

Source: Eurostat, proj_15ndbims [extracted on 16.05.2019]

Latest Eurostat data shows a steady increase of overall VET learners in Greece, attributed to increased post-secondary non-tertiary education enrolments. Also, enrolments in upper secondary vocational education (EPAL) provide an indication that recent changes have positive effects. However, demographic changes (low birth rate and brain drain) are considered to have a negative impact on the size of VET learners’ population.

Resident population by citizenship group in Greece 2017

Source: Hellenic Statistical Authority (ELSTAT)

The sizeable presence of inflows, especially from third countries, creates the need to integrate them into education and employment. According to 2017 data a 7.5% of the population of Greece comprises of non-Greek nationals (92.5% Greek nationals, 1.9% nationals of other European Union countries, 3.5% nationals of EU candidate countries and 2.1% from other countries) ([6]See ELSTAT, https://www.statistics.gr (File A1605_SPO18_TS_AN_00_2009_00_2017_17_F_GR) Retrieved on 6/6/2018.
).

Most companies are medium and small-sized with some large sized companies. 

Main economic sectors:

VET specialties belong mainly to the following sectors:

  • Technician of electrical systems, installations and networks
  • Administration and Financial
  • Vehicle technician
  • IT application technician
  • Nurse assistant
  • Plant production technician

Many occupations/professions are regulated although a lot of diplomas are not connected to professional rights ([8]https://www.eoppep.gr/index.php/el/qualification-certificate/professional-rights
).

In the private sector both diplomas and skills are taken into consideration while hiring or assessing employees.

Total unemployment ([9]Source: Eurostat, une_rt_a [Extracted on 20.05.2019]
) (2018): 18.2% (6.0% in EU28); it is still 11.6 percentage points higher than in 2008

 

Unemployment rate (aged 15-24 and 25-64) by education attainment level in 2008-18

NB: data based on ISCED 2011; breaks in time series.
ISCED 0-2 = less than primary, primary and lower secondary education

ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education
ISCED 5-8 = tertiary education

Source: Eurostat, lfsa_urgaed [extracted on 16.05.2019]

 

Although unemployment has been reduced by almost 10 p.p., the unemployment rate of those with low and medium level qualifications is still above 20%. Unemployment of tertiary graduates is significantly lower (13.7%), but still considerably high.

Employment rate of 20 to 34-year-old VET graduates increased from 53.0% in 2014 to 63.1% in 2018 ([10]Source: Eurostat, edat_lfse_24 [extracted on 16.05.2019]
).

Employment rate of VET graduates (20 to 34 years old, ISCED levels 3 and 4)

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011; breaks in time series.
ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education

Source: Eurostat, edat_lfse_24 [extracted on 16.05.2019]

 

The increase (+10.1 pp) in employment of 20-34-year-old VET graduates in 2014-18 was higher compared to the increase in employment of all 20-34 year-old graduates (+8.3 pp) in the same period in Greece ([11]Source: Eurostat, edat_lfse_24 [extracted on 16.05.2019]
).

For more information about the external drivers influencing VET developments in Greece please see the case study from Cedefop's changing nature and role of VET in Europe project [11a]Cedefop (2018). The changing nature and role of vocational education and training in Europe. Volume 3: the responsiveness of European VET systems to external change (1995-2015). Case study focusing in Greece. Cedefop research paper; No 67. https://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/greece_cedefop_changing_nature_of_vet_-_case_study.pdf

Even with reduced spending on education ([12]A 36% drop in funding for education in 2009-15 has been reported by the Hellenic Government. See http://ec.europa.eu/education/tools/docs/2015/monitor2015-greece_en.pdf
), Greece has achieved progress in terms of educational attainment, while the already executed financing programme (via the overarching framework of the European Stability Mechanism), as well as the current ongoing reform agenda, place education as part of a national growth and development strategy. The share of those with medium level qualification (41.8%) is lower than the EU average (45.7%), while the share of tertiary graduates (31.7%) is very close to the EU average (32.2%).

Population (aged 25 to 64) by highest education level attained in 2018

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011; low reliability for Czech Republic, Poland, and Latvia.

ISCED 0-2 = less than primary, primary and lower secondary education

ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education

ISCED 5-8 = tertiary education

Source: Eurostat, lfsa_pgaed [extracted on 16.05.2019]

Share of learners in VET by level in 2017

Source: Eurostat, educ_uoe_enrs01, educ_uoe_enrs04 and educ_uoe_enrs07 [extracted on 16.05.2019]

Share of initial VET learners from total learners at upper-secondary level (ISCED level 3), 2017

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011; not applicable for Ireland.

Source: Eurostat, educ_uoe_enrs04 [extracted on 16.05.2019].

Information not available

The share of early leavers from education and training has decreased from 14.2% in 2009 to 4.7% in 2018. It is below the national target for 2020 (10.0%) and well below the EU-28 average (10.6%).

Early leavers from education and training in 2009-18

NB: Share of the population aged 18 to 24 with at most lower secondary education and not in further education or training; break in series.

Source: Eurostat, edat_lfse_14 [extracted on 16.05.2019] and European Commission, https://ec.europa.eu/info/2018-european-semester-national-reform-programmes-and-stability-convergence-programmes_en [accessed on 14.11.2018]

 

Dropout rates also vary by region, school and programme.

Lifelong learning (LLL) offers training opportunities for adults, including early leavers from compulsory education.

Participation in lifelong learning in 2014-17


NB: Share of adult population aged 25 to 64 participating in education and training.

Source: Eurostat, trng_lfse_01 [extracted on 16.05.2019]

 

Participation in LLL in Greece has been increasing, although it remains lower than the EU-28 average.

The need for updated skills, low participation in LLL and high NEET rates reflect enduring deficiencies in adapting to change and more specifically in equipping people in Greece with the necessary job specific skills that improve employability and well-being prospects.

On average, learners in Greece tend to graduate from upper secondary vocational education and training (VET) programmes at a younger age than in the rest of the OECD: 90% of Greek upper secondary VET graduates are under 25 years old, against 80% on average for the OECD countries ([13] http://gpseducation.oecd.org/Content/EAGCountryNotes/EAG2016_CN_GRC.pdf
).

NQF levels of education and training system ([14]
Source: https://nqf.gov.gr/en/index.php/ta-8-epipeda Training schools (SEK) are not functioning any more, but their certificate (post lower secondary training, NQF level 3) are recognised.
 
):

  • elementary school certificate (NQF level 1);
  • lower secondary school certificate (NQF level 2);
  • vocational school certificate (EPAS) / vocational upper secondary school degree and certificate (EPAL) / general upper secondary school certificate (NQF level 4)
  • vocational upper secondary school degree, apprenticeship class / vocational training diploma (IEK) after graduates’ certification / post-secondary and not higher education diploma or degree (NQF level 5)
  • bachelor’s degree (NQF level 6)
  • bachelor’s degree of 5 years / master’s degree (NQF level 7)
  • doctorate (NQF level 8)

Compulsory education in Greece lasts 11 years and extends from the ages of four to 15.  The main stages of the Greek education system are three.

Primary education that includes pre-primary and primary schools

  • pre-primary school in Greece has become compulsory for all four-year-old children, since school year 2018-2019.  It’s expected that in three years, the two-year pre-school education will become compulsory in all municipalities of the country and children will enrol in pre-primary schools (nipiagogeia) at the age of four.
  • Infant centres (vrefikoi stathmoi), infant/child centres (vrefonipiakoi stathmoi) and child centres (paidikoi stathmoi) represent early childhood care. They operate under the remit of municipal authorities. They cater for children between two months and up to four years old.
  • Primary school (dimotiko scholeio) lasts six years. It concerns children in the age range of six to12 years. Since school year 2016/17, there is a single type of all-day primary school with a new revised daily timetable.

Secondary Education includes two cycles of study

  • a lower secondary programme (gymnasio), which is compulsory, lasts three years, provides general education, covers ages 12 to 15 and is a prerequisite for enrolling at general or vocational upper secondary schools. There is also an evening lower secondary programme (esperino gymnasio); attendance starts at the age of 14;
  • upper secondary programmes, which are optional and can take the form of a general or vocational upper secondary programme (geniko or epaggelmatiko lykeio); they last three years and learners enrol at the age of 15. There are also evening upper secondary programmes.

Tertiary Education  

Most undergraduate degree programmes last four academic years of full-time study. Postgraduate courses last from one to two years, while doctorates last at least three years. The tertiary education comprises:

  • universities (panepistimio)
  • polytechnics
  • the school of fine arts.
  • technological education institutions (technologika ekpaideftika idrymata) (upgraded in universities in 2019)
  • the school of pedagogical and technological education (ASPETE).

Two to four-year higher professional programmes are offered by higher professional schools, under the supervision of the competent ministry ([15]Source: https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/national-policies/eurydice/content/greece_en
).

The Law 3879/2010 distinguishes between initial and continuing VET.

Formal, non-formal, initial and continuing VET

Source: Cedefop and ReferNet Greece

 

Both types provide the knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary to enter the labour market. Only initial VET is linked to professional rights (licences). Some initial VET programmes give learners access to the next qualification level (post-secondary or tertiary level). Non-formal continuing VET is part of adult learning. It is partially recognised in the private sector of labour market.

Formal VET leads to qualification level 4 and non-formal VET to qualification level 5 (of NQF and EQF), apart from the non-formal continuing VET certificate for “Security staff” awarded to professionals, which is at NQF level 3 (law 4229/2014).

The VET standard specifies the volume, learning outcomes, conditions for completion and continuation of studies for each VET type.

There are several VET learning options:

  • school-based learning
  • work practice (including internships and apprenticeships)
  • self-learning (too partial)

The title of VET programmes is awarded to learners after state examinations that certify their qualifications. The examinations are usually learning-outcomes based and include a theoretical and a practical part. Responsible for the certification procedure are the education ministry or the National Organisation for the Certification of Qualifications and Vocational Guidance (EOPPEP) or the labour ministry.

In upper secondary VET, there are apprenticeship programmes offered by EPAS Schools (scholes mathiteias).

In post-secondary VET, vocational training schools (IEK) offer 2.5-year programmes including optional internships; upper secondary vocational schools (EPAL) also offer apprenticeship programmes.

The apprenticeship programmes (offered by upper secondary vocational schools – EPAL) give to EPAL graduates the opportunity to upgrade their education qualifications and obtain work experience. The programme lasts for one academic year leading to a qualification at EQF level 5 and the corresponding professional license. It combines a seven-hour school-placed laboratory course (once per week) and the “workplace education programme – apprenticeship at work” in public and private companies (28 hours/ four days per week). During the latter, the apprentices receive a salary of 75% of the legal minimum wage and full insurance coverage, so that they become familiar with the rights and obligations of workers and so that employers acquire a sense of commitment to the apprentices' training.

The government approves the national education policy designed by the education ministry. Social partners including trade unions and employer organisations participate in the working group on developing legislation.

Public and private VET providers are monitored, evaluated and usually funded either by the General Secretariat of lifelong learning, the directorates of secondary or professional education of the education ministry or supervised organisations by the education ministry (i.e. National Organisation for the Certification of Qualifications and Vocational Guidance -EOPPEP, universities).

The National committee for VET was set up in 2017. It is responsible for the overall coordination of governance of the Greek VET system, monitoring the implementation of the 2016 National strategic framework for the upgrade of VET and apprenticeship and evaluating its results. The National committee is supported in its work by a Technical committee for VET. VET governance has been also reinforced through the introduction of two new bodies, i.e. the National apprentice co-ordination body (ESOM) and the National council for education and development of human resources (ESEKAAD).

Several advisory bodies and social partner organisations participate in policy implementation. County governments prepare and implement local education development plans and coordinate activities of municipal educational institutions.

The governance of VET depends on different committees’ decisions. As a consequence, its management has not yet reached the desirable integrity, immediacy or even coherence.

Formal VET is mostly state financed.

Apprenticeship programmes are financed from national, private and/or EU funds (i.e. European Social Fund). Participating enterprises contribute 45% of the apprentices’ remuneration. EU funds amount a total of approximately € 30 million. 

The following main categories of teachers and trainers are at play in VET programmes:

  • general subject teachers
  • vocational subject teachers
  • teachers of practical training
  • post-secondary VET teachers (in-school trainers)
  • in-company trainers

General subject teachers are required to hold a higher education degree and pedagogical and didactical expertise. Vocational subject teachers are required to hold either a higher education degree and pedagogical and didactical expertise, or a lower vocational degree and relevant work experience.

Teaching staff in public post-secondary VET institutions come from two alternative lists:

  • one comprising holders of the teaching competence certification, obtained on passing the certification exams;
  • a second list with trainers who possess specific qualifications − tertiary education degrees, teaching experience, relevant training − but have not (yet) completed the certification process.

Since December 2015, the mechanism for certification of trainers from this second list has become self-funded via certification fees that the candidates have to pay on submission of their application and portfolio. According to Law 4485/2017, the certification of teaching competences of VET teachers and adult trainers will become a prerequisite for their enrolment in training programmes partly funded by the State. This will affect post-secondary non-formal IVET and CVET teachers.

The formal VET (EPAL) teachers’ training is continuous and co-financed by ESF funds. Particular attention is paid to the CPD of teaching staff who work in school-based programmes and will be (re)allocated to the new apprenticeship programmes (at post-secondary level). Focus is on developing their knowledge and competences for collaborating with enterprises and apprentices. Also important is peer-learning and capturing the experience of teachers who already piloted work-based learning activities (other than apprenticeships) in previous years.

The informal VET (IVET and CVET) adult trainers’ training is continuous. In order to be certified by the National Organisation for the Certification of Qualifications and Vocational Guidance (EOPPEP) they must attend a programme of at least 100 hours on adult training. They also have to renew their certification every 10 years; to do so they either have to acquire teaching experience of at least 150 hours or attend a programme of at least 50 hours on adult training.

The 2016 National strategic framework for the upgrade of VET and apprenticeship introduced broad provisions on requirements and training of enterprise staff that will become in-company trainers, linked to a future goal of accreditation of companies that participate in apprenticeships. The strategy foresees that in-company trainers (at least one per company) will attend a short and flexible training programme, focusing on pedagogical knowledge and competences as well as on adult training techniques. Participation by professional associations and chambers is encouraged. In-company trainers should attend a training programme designed jointly by the national employment service, chambers and education institutions. Greek authorities are aiming at creating a register of certified in-company trainers.

As a major step to cover the gap between VET and labour market needs ([16]http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/cedefop_skills_forecast_2018_-_greece.pdf
), a new skills forecasting mechanism has been introduced ([17]Based upon Law 4368/2016, February 2016 and Ministerial Decree 4013/410/26.05.2016 on the introduction and operation of a relevant network and the supportive information system
). The mechanism:

  • addresses the necessity for early identification of medium-term trends in labour market needs;
  • eases the design of employment policies in accordance with training and education programmes;
  • allows the implementation of the Youth Guarantee scheme in Greece;
  • increases the impact of VET (i.e. development of required VET curricula), most importantly via providing necessary labour market information that will inform evidence-based policy making in the field of VET.

See also Cedefop’s skills forecast ([18]http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/data-visualisations/skills-forecast
).

In April 2016, the education ministry published the Strategic framework for upgrading VET and apprenticeships where there is an explicit reference to the need of upgrading the quality of curricula.

Upper secondary vocational programmes (EPAL) offer specialties that are defined by law; these specialties and their provision are determined by a decision of the education Minister. The specialties offered should reflect the needs of the economy, the proposals of the regional VET boards (not fully established), social partners, chambers and professional associations, and the recommendations of the labour ministry, OAED ([19]Manpower Employment Organisation
), the ministry of development and other competent ministries and will also be informed by the results of the skills forecasting mechanism. A structured procedure for this kind of consultation does not exist. The detailed curriculum of each specialty must be designed in accordance with the relevant occupational profile (if this exists) ([20]In the context of the overall updating of certification, the Ministry of Education in co-operation with EOPPEP and in consultation with social partners, is still in the process of reforming the system of Occupational Profiles.
) and the principles and guidelines laid down by ECVET. The curricula of formal upper secondary VET are developed by IEP ([21]Institute of Education Policy
) and issued in the form of ministerial decisions. The new law also requires that the duration and details of the timetable and curriculum will be assessed and, if this is deemed necessary, revised ([22]In these terms Law 4386/2016 introduces ongoing evaluation of curricula in contrast to Law 4186/2013 where revision was programmed for every 6 years.
). The education ministry has been recently promoting through a large-scale ESF project the upgrading and updating of EPAL curricula, the writing of new education material (laboratory guides, books) and relevant training for EPAL teachers.

Specialties of apprenticeship programmes were decided by the National committee for VET and apprenticeships, based on recommendations by the Technical committee ([23]The National committee for VET was set up in 2017. It is responsible for the overall coordination of governance of the Greek VET system, monitoring the implementation of the 2016 National strategic framework for the upgrade of VET and apprenticeship and evaluating its results. The National committee is supported in its work by a Technical committee for VET.
) and considering the findings of the skills forecasting mechanism. Several factors, such as demand for existing specialties and regional recommendations were taken into account. IEP is responsible for the development of curricula for the EPAL apprenticeship class and apprenticeship programmes (EPAS), which should include a clear workplace component (that was missing from existing EPAS programmes).

The curricula of post-secondary VET programmes (IEK) are developed by the General Secretariat for vocational education, training and lifelong learning (which also supervises all the public and private vocational training providers) and certified by the National Organisation for the Certification of Qualifications and Vocational Guidance (EOPPEP). The study guide of each specialty includes the job profile, the learning outcomes expressed as knowledge, skills and competences by subject and specialty, the corresponding credits, the potential candidate placement in the labour market, the timetable and specific curriculum, the teaching methods, and the necessary equipment. In 2017/18, 65 curricula of the new IEK specialties (established by Law 4186/2013) were drawn up together with the respective exam-subjects repository.

The law on lifelong learning (Law 3879/2010) sets quality standards for lifelong learning, introducing a requirement of teacher and trainer competence and professional development for teachers and trainers in adult education and stipulating continuous monitoring and evaluation of the national lifelong learning network. Specifically, it envisages (Article 18) that providers of lifelong learning services that are funded from the public purse must be evaluated as regards the realisation of the objectives set out in their lifelong learning programme and receive subsidies based on their effectiveness. It also provides (Article 19) for the establishment of a system for the professional development and evaluation of the trainers and staff involved in non-formal education and teachers in ‘second chance’ schools.

Other legislative initiatives in Greece aiming to upgrade the quality of education provided at all levels are:

  • law 3848/2010 on upgrading the role of the teachers and trainers – establishment of norms for evaluation and meritocracy in education and other provisions;
  • law 4009/2011 on the structure, operation, quality assurance of studies, and internationalisation of institutions of higher education;
  • Joint Ministerial Decision 26381/2017 (GG 490Β/20.2.2017) on the quality framework for apprenticeship and the implementation of the apprenticeship class which falls under the jurisdiction of the education ministry upgrading the learning methods of apprenticeship implementation, setting specific obligations for both the companies and the apprentices and providing the means to evaluate the apprenticeship system;
  • Joint Ministerial Decision No 26385 (GG 491Β/20.2.2017) on the quality framework for VET curricula.

Specifically, for apprenticeship programmes, the education and labour ministries provide:

  • quality assurance at the curriculum design stage;
  • quality assurance at the stage of preparation for implementation;
  • quality assurance at the implementation stage;
  • post-implementation evaluation.

 

Not applicable

The main incentives used by the state to increase VET participation, include: 

  • reinforcing the permeability for graduates of upper secondary vocational education (EPAL). EPAL graduates can take part in a designated national examination for admission to tertiary education programmes. They have at least a 20% quota (recently increased) for technological bachelor and higher professional programmes. A 2018 law provides for an increase to 5% admission quota to bachelor programmes, reinforcing VET permeability. Also, graduates have access to a joint group of faculties at universities, tertiary not higher education schools and military schools regardless of their graduation field, by sitting the same examinations as the general education graduates. EPAL graduates will also have direct access to the newly formed two-year professional programmes provided by universities ([24]They will only accept EPAL graduates
    ) leading to a degree at level 5 of the National qualifications framework.
  • the “Post-secondary year - apprenticeship class” for EPAL graduates. This apprenticeship programme strengthens VET attractiveness by enabling EPAL graduates to upgrade their professional qualifications. Apprentices receive a salary of 75% of the legal minimum wage and full insurance coverage.

The Lifelong learning law (Law 3879/2010) covering CVET provision also foresees incentives for updating the knowledge, skills and competence of the labour force (Article 18). These may include:

  • granting education leave for participation in lifelong learning programmes, especially for workers in the private sector;
  • setting up personal education accounts, with contributions from the employer and the employee (and possibly the state) to cover the worker’s training needs;
  • establishing personal learning time accounts to let workers take part in continuous training programmes.

Apart from such regulatory incentives, there are also financial incentives for workers and the unemployed to take part in continuing training programmes aiming to upgrade their knowledge, skills and competences. In practice, participation of learners in CVET is promoted through financial incentives that combine a voucher for classroom training with remuneration foreseen for workplace training / work placements in many programmes promoting key Active labour market policies (ALMP). Continuing training is subsidised primarily from ESF, but also from the Greek training fund (LAEK).

In an effort to tackle youth unemployment the labour ministry, in cooperation with the ministries of education, culture and development, elaborated a unified operational ‘Action plan of targeted interventions to boost youth employment and entrepreneurship in the framework of the national strategic reference framework (NSRF) operational programme (2014-2018). In the framework of this action plan, vocational training-related initiatives were implemented to foster employment and entrepreneurship of persons aged 15 to 24 and 25 to 35 ([25] The first Youth Guarantee implementation plan was submitted to the European Commission in 31.12.2013. An updated plan was submitted and approved in May 2014. An update file for 2018: https://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=1161&langId=en&intPageId=3337
). The budget was 620 million EUR (total) and the potential beneficiaries were estimated to 380 000 people for the programming period 2014-20.

The lifelong learning law (Law 3879/2010, Article 18) establishes incentives for the development of lifelong learning and updating of the knowledge, skills and abilities of the country’s human resources, including subsidies for lifelong learning providers. They are supported by public funds based on their effectiveness. This provision has not yet been implemented, but overall work on this topic was recently reassumed.

In addition, companies are entitled to receive back their contributions to the Greek training fund (LAEK) if they carry out training programmes for their personnel. The revenues of this account, which is managed by the Manpower employment organisation (OAED), come from employers’ contributions to the Social Security Organisation, with each company contributing 0.24% of its gross wage bill.

Many companies receive financial incentives to offer training places to students in or graduates of VET programmes. In this way they contribute to the education of learners, as for example in the EPAL ([26]https://www.e-nomothesia.gr/inner.php/epaggelmata-tekhnes/koine-upourgike-apophase-26385-2017.html?print=1 (Joint Ministerial Decision No. 26385/2017 GG 491 / Β / 20-2-2017: Apprenticeship Quality Framework)
) and EPAS ([27]https://www.taxheaven.gr/laws/circular/view/id/23805 (Joint Ministerial Decision No. 24018/411 / 26.5.2016-Subsidy for the practical training of pupils of the EPAs.OAED Apprenticeship under Law 3475/2006)
) apprenticeship schemes. There are also subsidies for companies that take part in vocational training actions funded by ESF that combine training with counselling and work placement schemes. CVET providers benefit from the training voucher schemes that largely form the basis of active labour market policies.

The education ministry offers in-school vocational guidance to students and parents (information about job and study possibilities, alternative pathways, risks that go with dropping out of school) through the decentralised structures of the department of vocational orientation. The secondary school programme includes a vocational guidance class, and vocational guidance can be selected as the focus of inter-thematic projects. There are also counselling and guidance centres for meetings bringing together children or young people (up to age 25) and their teachers and guardians (KESY).

OAED ([28]Manpower employment organisation
) has established 30 vocational education career offices (GDEE) within the framework of the EPAS schools, aiming at linking vocational education to the world of work by placing students in appropriate jobs in private and public-sector enterprises. OAED also offers counselling services aimed at mobilising the unemployed and helping them enter the labour market. These services include ([29]http://www.oaed.gr/symbouleutikes-yperesies1 (10/10/2018)
):

  • workshops for activation - mobilisation of the unemployed;
  • vocational guidance counselling - career management, for first-time jobseekers with no clear occupational goal and people obliged to change their occupation;
  • job search counselling;
  • counselling for business involvement- to encourage the development of entrepreneurial skills and help unemployed persons start businesses with enhanced feasibility prospects.

OAED is also a member of the European job mobility portal (EURES) network, which provides information, advice and hiring/placement services to workers and jobseekers in other European countries, and to employers looking to hire people. In Greece there are 39 EURES points in various cities.

Specialised centres offer counselling and vocational guidance (SYEP) services to students, jobseekers, employed individuals interested in managing their career or in a career change, parents, and special target groups (such as special education needs learners and migrants).

The agency responsible for lifelong counselling and vocational guidance is EOPPEP ([30]https://www.eoppep.gr/index.php/el/work-guidance-and-consulting/eoppep-syep (10/10/2018)
), which is a member of the corresponding European network (ELGPN) that was set up by the European Commission in 2007. EOPPEP is responsible for: helping to design and implement national counselling and vocational guidance policy, coordinating the action of public and private SYEP services providers, promoting the training and further education of SYEP staff and specifying the required qualifications, implementing actions supporting counsellors, and supporting citizens in matters relating to development and career management.

Teenagers can use a designated vocational guidance portal ([31]http://www.EOPPEP.gr/teens/ (10/10/2018)
) to look for information about occupations, take skills and vocational guidance tests and create their own personal skills file.

There is also an electronic lifelong careers counselling forum (IRIS), which is intended for public and private sector vocational guidance and careers counsellors and aims at encouraging supplementary actions by public and private sector counselling bodies and staff, nationally and in each region separately, and improving the quality of the services provided ([32]https://www.eoppep.gr/index.php/el/how-to/register-freelance (10/10/2018)
).

The National strategic framework for upgrading VET and apprenticeships (2016) explicitly refers to the need for an expansion of the guidance services. EOPPEP has developed occupational standards for career counsellors and at this stage is working on the creation of an institutional framework - qualification certification system for the careers / vocational guidance advisors and the set-up of a relevant register of certified career guides / vocational guidance officers ([33]https://www.eoppep.gr/index.php/el/work-guidance-and-consulting/eoppep-upgrade-actions/national-forum-syep-irida (10/10/2018)
).

Please see:

Vocational education and training system chart

Tertiary

Click on a programme type to see more info
Programme Types

EQF 5

Higher professional programmes

ISCED 655

Higher professional programmes leading to EQF level 5. ISCED 655 Higher Professional Programmes (Sxoles anoteris epaggelmatikis ekpaidefsis) (dance and theatre schools, schools of petty officers and the Academy of merchant navy)
EQF level
5
ISCED-P 2011 level

655

Usual entry grade

13

Usual completion grade

15+

Usual entry age

18+

Usual completion age

21+

Length of a programme (years)

3-4
 

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Yes and No

At public schools, free of charge. At private schools, learners pay fees.

Is it available for adults?

Y

(only for adults)

ECVET or other credits

Not applicable

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

Full-time

Main providers

Public and private schools supervised by respective ministries (e.g. education, culture, defence, tourism, mercantile Marine)

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

It depends on the programme

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

work practice (practical training at school or on the job training)

Main target groups

Programmes are available for adults. Special education needs learners can also attend these programmes.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Admission is granted via general national or a programme-specific examination to graduates of upper secondary vocational education programmes (EPAL) or upper secondary general education programmes (GEL).

Assessment of learning outcomes

To complete a higher professional programme, learners need to pass a final examination

Diplomas/certificates provided

Title of other type of typical tertiary education school (Ptycheio / Diploma)

Examples of qualifications

Actor, dance teacher, merchant marine officer

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

They can enter to:

  • higher education (tertiary) through a specific examination
  • labour market
Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Information not applicable

General education subjects

N

Key competences

Y

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Post-secondary

Click on a programme type to see more info
Programme Types

EQF 5

Post-secondary VET programmes

WBL>60%

ISCED 453

Post-secondary VET programmes leading to EQF level 5. ISCED 453 Institouto Epagelmatikis Katartisis (IEK)
EQF level
5
ISCED-P 2011 level

453

Usual entry grade

13

Usual completion grade

15

Usual entry age

18+

Usual completion age

21+

Length of a programme (years)

2,5

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

N

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Yes and No

At public schools, free of charge. At private schools, learners pay fees.

Is it available for adults?

Y

only for adults

ECVET or other credits

Not applicable

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

Full-time

  • school-based learning (2 years)
  • work practice (practical training at school or in-company learning)
  • internship or apprenticeship (6 months)

 

Main providers

Public or private schools supervised by General Secretariat of lifelong learning (GSLL) of the education ministry

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

>60%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school
  • apprenticeship or internship
Main target groups

Programmes are available for adults.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Successful completion of:

  • secondary apprenticeship programmes (EPAS);
  • upper secondary vocational programmes (EPAL);
  • upper secondary general education programmes (GEL).

Learners should be adults.

Assessment of learning outcomes

These programmes only allow learners to obtain an attestation of programme completion; alternatively, they can take VET certification examinations (practical and theoretical) conducted by the National Organisation for the Certification of Qualifications and Vocational Guidance (EOPPEP) leading to an EQF level 5 certificate ([37]https://www.eoppep.gr/index.php/el/certification-exams/thesmikoiek
).

Diplomas/certificates provided

Diploma of vocational training at post-secondary level (Diploma epagematikis katartisis epipedou metadefterovathmias epagelmatikis katartisis)

Examples of qualifications

Accounting office specialist, nursing traumatology, computer networks technician

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

They can enter to Labour market

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Information not appplicable

General education subjects

N

Key competences

N

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

EQF 5

Apprenticeship

1 year, WBL 100%

Apprenticeship programmes leading to EQF level 5. ISCED 453 Apprenticeship programmes offered by upper secondary vocational schools (EPAL)
EQF level
5
ISCED-P 2011 level

453

Usual entry grade

13

Usual completion grade

13

Usual entry age

18+

Usual completion age

18+

Length of a programme (years)

1

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

N

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

(only for adults)

ECVET or other credits

Not applicable

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

Full-time

  • in workshops (1 day/week)
  • apprenticeship (4 days/week)
Main providers

Public schools supervised by the education ministry

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

100%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • apprenticeship
  • workshops at schools
Main target groups

Programmes are available for adult graduates of upper secondary vocational education.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

This programme is offered to those who hold an upper secondary school leaving certificate and an EPAL specialisation degree.

Assessment of learning outcomes

To complete this programme, learners need to pass a final examination.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Degree of VET specialty (Ptychio epagematikis eidikothtas ekpaideusis kai katartisis)

Examples of qualifications

Vehicle technician, employee in administration and finance, technician of electrical systems, installations and networks, IT applications technician.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

They can enter the labour market.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Information not applicable

General education subjects

N

Key competences

Y

Depending on the programme

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

EQF 5

KEE programmes

2.5 years

WBL>50%

 

Post-secondary vocational programmes provided by universities leading to EQF level 5 (KEE programmes – VET centres; currently not available)
EQF level
5
ISCED-P 2011 level

Not applicable

Usual entry grade

13

Usual completion grade

15

Usual entry age

18+

Usual completion age

21+

Length of a programme (years)

2,5

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

N

Is it initial VET?

N

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

(only for adults)

ECVET or other credits

Not applicable

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

Full-time

  • School-based learning (theoretical and laboratory training)
  • practical training (placement in a company)
Main providers

Vocational centres supervised by each university (higher tertiary education level)

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

50%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • Practical training (placement in a company)
  • workshops at schools
Main target groups

Programmes are available for adults.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Successful completion of upper secondary vocational education programmes (EPAL)

Assessment of learning outcomes

To complete a VET programme, learners need to pass a final examination.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Diploma of level NQF 5

Examples of qualifications
Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

They can enter the labour market

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Information not applicable

General education subjects

N

Key competences

Y

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

Secondary

Click on a programme type to see more info
Programme Types

EQF 4

School-based VET

3 years, WBL>25%

ISCED 354

School-based VET programmes leading to EQF level 4. ISCED 354 upper secondary vocational education (Epaggelmatiko Lykeio - EPAL)
EQF level
4
ISCED-P 2011 level

354

Usual entry grade

10

Usual completion grade

12

Usual entry age

16

Usual completion age

18

Length of a programme (years)

3
 

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Not applicable

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

Full-time

  • school-based learning
  • work practice (practical training at school)
Main providers

Public schools supervised by the education ministry.

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

>25%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

Practical training at school

Main target groups

Programmes are available for graduates of lower secondary programmes young people and also for adults.

There are specific programmes for learners with special educational needs, such as moderate and severe disability. These programmes are offered by special vocational schools (ENEEGYL law 4459/2018 – state gazette A’ 142)

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Learners should hold a lower secondary school leaving certification (compulsory education) and be at least 15 years old.

Assessment of learning outcomes

To complete a VET programme, learners need to pass a final examination.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Successful graduates receive a vocational upper secondary school degree and / or a vocational upper secondary school certificate.

Examples of qualifications

Vehicle technician, employee in administration and finance, technician of electrical systems, installations and networks, IT applications technician

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

They can enter to:

  • higher professional programmes at level 5;
  • tertiary education at level 6;
  • post-secondary VET programmes (IEK) at level 5;
  • post-secondary VET apprenticeship programmes (EPAL) at level 5;
  • secondary school VET EPAL (different specialty) at level 4;
  • labour market.
Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Not applicable

General education subjects

Y

All students attend general education subjects such as mathematics, physics, Greek and English language, history, gymnastics, ICT, religion, civic education

Key competences
Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

EQF 4

Apprenticeship

2 years, WBL>80%

Apprenticeship programmes leading to EQF level 4. ISCED 353 Epagelmatiki Sxoli (EPAS)
EQF level
4
ISCED-P 2011 level

353

Usual entry grade

11

Usual completion grade

12

Usual entry age

17+

Usual completion age

18+

Length of a programme (years)

2 (up to)

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Not applicable

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

Full-time

  • school-based learning
  • work practice (practical training at school)
  • apprenticeship
Main providers

Public schools supervised by the labour and rural development ministries

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

>80%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school
  • apprenticeships
Main target groups

Programmes are available for learners that have successfully completed the first year of upper secondary education; they can also be adults.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Learners should have successfully completed the first year of upper secondary education and be at least 16 years old.

Assessment of learning outcomes

To complete a VET programme, learners need to pass a final in-school examination (Law 3475/2006-State gazette 146 vol.B-article 11).

Diplomas/certificates provided

Vocational school (EPAS) specialisation diploma (ptychio) (according to Law 3475/2006-State gazette 146 vol.B-article 12)

Examples of qualifications

Beautician, metal working technician, agrotourism and agroindustry businesses, dairy - cheese making

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Progression opportunities are significantly limited for graduates of EPAS apprenticeships programmes. They can enter to:

  • second year/class of school based upper secondary vocational education programmes (EQF4);
  • post-secondary VET programmes (IEK, EQF 5);
  • labour market.
Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Information not available

General education subjects

N

Key competences

Y

Depending on the curriculum of each specialisation.

Application of learning outcomes approach

N

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information not available

VET available to adults (formal and non-formal)

Programme Types
Not available

General themes

VET in Norway comprises the following main features:

  • VET is mostly provided as combination of school-based and apprenticeships with apprentices having employment contracts and being paid for their work
  • VET starts at upper secondary level through two main models; 2 + 2 model (two years in school and two years of apprenticeship training) leading to a trade or journemans certificate at EQF level 4 and 3-year school-based model leading to professional competence qualification at EQF level 3
  • There are several progression routes
  • VET is part of the formal education and training system
  • Approximately 42 per cent of the learners choose a vocational programme.
  • Most of the learners are in the age group 16-18 years
  • There are more male than female learners in VET both at upper secondary level and post-secondary VET

Distinctive features ([1]Cedefop (2017). Spotlight on vocational education and training in Norway. Luxembourg: Publications Office.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/8117_en.pdf
):

At upper secondary level, Norway has a long- standing tradition of close national and regional cooperation between education authorities and the social partners. National cooperation is organised in the National Council for VET (Samarbeidsrådet for yrkesopplæring – SRY), nine vocational training councils (Faglige råd), one for each programme area, and national appeal boards (Klagenemnder). Regional cooperation involves county vocational training boards (Yrkesopplærignsnemnder) and examination boards (Prøvenemnder).

Tripartite cooperation aims to ensure training provided to Norwegian VET learners meets labour market and skill needs. It informs changes in the VET structure, curriculum development, regional structure and volume of VET provision, the framework of examinations leading to trade or journeyman’s certificates, and quality control at all levels. At ISCED level 4, the social partners participate in the National Council for Vocational Colleges. In higher education, institutions are requested to set up a consultative council for cooperation with social partners.

Norway has a unified education structure with VET integrated as an equal to general education in upper secondary education. Most education at this level is provided by public schools. Since learners have a right to attend upper secondary education, most choose to do so. Learners are entitled to upper secondary education and have the right to enrol in one of the learners top three choice.

More than half of trade and journeyman’s certificates are awarded to people over 23.

The main policy measures in Norwegian upper secondary VET concern:

  • increasing the number of apprenticeship placements and increase the competence of vocational teachers;
  • increase the attactiveness of VET;
  • improving post-secondary vocational colleges and the position of their learners.

Skilled workers with VET qualifications will play an important role in the reorganisation of the Norwegian economy. Figures from the Confederation of Norwegian Enterprise (NHO) show that many enterprises lack these employees and consequently lose assignments.

Statistics Norway (SSB) estimates a shortage of almost 100 000 skilled workers in 2035.

The government and the social partners are collaborating closely to increase the number of apprenticeship places and so enable more learners to complete their education. In 2015 the government launched a vocational teacher promotion initiative strategy supporting increased vocational teacher competence. The work continues in 2017.

To make VET more attractive, a new white paper Skilled workers for the future (Fagfolk for fremtiden) was adopted in May 2017. It has close to 50 measures aiming at making post- secondary VET a fully equivalent profession- oriented alternative to university and university college education.

Since 2016 a yearly apprenticeship award has been given to the best public apprenticeships placement.

2018 was declared a VET year in Norway with information and reputation campaigns online and in social media to increase the interest in VET.

Important legislative changes took place in 2018:

  • A regulation was changed so completing the two years of vocational college programme give admission to higher education.
  • A committee was assigned to analyse upper secondary education and to make suggestions on how to change for a better school. A new law for higher vocational education was adopted ([2]https://lovdata.no/dokument/NL/lov/2018-06-08-28).
  • The Government implemented the possibility for learners to change from general education to VET after the first year of upper secondary education.
  • A new programme structure for upper secondary VET was adopted and will be implemented in 2020.

Adopted from VET in Norway Spotlight 2017 ([3]Cedefop (2017). Spotlight on vocational education and training in Norway. Luxembourg: Publications Office.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/8117_en.pdf
).

Population in 2019: 5 334 762 (1st Quarter) ([4]https://www.ssb.no/befolkning/faktaside/befolkningen)

It increased since 2013 by 4.8% ([5]NB: Data for population as of 1 January 2018. Eurostat table tps00001 [extracted 16.5.2019].) due to the positive growth and migration.

Age group 67+ constitutes 14.8%, an increase of 0.8 pp from 2017, and is expected to increase to 15% by 2020, 20% by 2040, 22% by 2060, and 21% by 2060 ([6]Statistics Norway:
https://www.ssb.no/utdanning/statistikker/voppl
).

An old-age dependency ratio is expected to increase from 25 in 2015 to 44 in 2060 ([7]Old-age-dependency ratio is defined as the ratio between the number of persons aged 65 and more over the number of working-age persons (15-64). The value is expressed per 100 persons of working age (15-64).)

 

Population forecast by age group and old-age-dependency ratio

Source: Eurostat, proj_15ndbims [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

The demographic has an impact on VET. More people move in to the cities. In the cities it is more common to choose general education whereas in rural areas VET is often prefered ([8]Source:
www.ssb.no and
www.udir.no
).

In Aksershus 37,6% of the learners attend VET. In Finnmark 59 % of the learners in upper secondary school attend VET ([9]https://www.ssb.no/utdanning/statistikker/vgu/aar).

In 2018, immigrants and those born in Norway to immigrant parents increased with 1% from 2016, representing 17.3% of the total population. 48.7% (370 000) of this segment of the population originates in other European countries ([10]Statistics Norway, h). The immigrant population is spread all over the country: 55% live in Oslo and the five surrounding counties, constituting 22.5% of the population in the area ([11]Statistics Norway, i).

Information about impact on VET is not available.

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), defined as enterprises with less than 250 employees, constitute more than 99% of all enterprises. 17% of SMEs have fewer than five employees, mainly because 65.3% of enterprises have no registered employees. Only 0.6% of the total number of enterprises has 100 or more employees ([12]Statistics Norway, b). These numbers indicate that apprenticeship training in Norwegian upper secondary VET often takes place in SMEs.

Most people in the production sector are employed in non-marketed services, business and transport and domestic trade.

 

Employment by production sector 2017

Source: Statistics Norway, c

 

Exports constitute an important part of the economy thanks to a large oil and gas sector, fishing and fish farming, shipping, and power-intensive manufacturing sectors such as metals production, industrial chemicals and paper.

Some trades are regulated and certificates or recognition of qualifications are compulsary to get a job (www.nokut.no).

There is an increasing number of job vacancies ads which require formal education and often a minimum of a bachelor. However, in trades where there is lack of employees and the trade is not regulated job seekers will get an employment also without formal education documentation.

Total unemployment ([13]Percentage of active population, 25 to 74 years old.) (2018): 3% (6% in EU28); it increased by 1.2 percentage points since 2008 ([14]Eurostat table une_rt_a [extracted 20.5.2019].).

Due to an oil crisis, Norway’s unemployment rate peaked in 2016, with slow recovery trend since then.

 

Unemployment rate (aged 15-24 and 25-64) by education attainment level in 2008-18

NB: data based on ISCED 2011; breaks in time series; low reliability for ISCED 5-8, age 15-24.
ISCED 0-2 = less than primary, primary and lower secondary education. ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education. ISCED 5-8 = tertiary education.
Source: Eurostat, lfsa_urgaed [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

Unemployment rates of people aged 15-24 are in general higher than among people aged 25-64 for each education level, with low qualified (ISCED levels 0-2) people scoring the highest unemployment rates.

Among 25-64 year olds, the economic crisis has hit more low-qualified than people with high-level (ISCED levels 5-8) and medium-level qualifications, including most VET graduates (ISCED levels 3 and 4).

Employment rate of 20 to 34-year-old VET graduates increased from 78.7% in 2014 to 91.7% in 2018 ([15]Eurostat table edat_lfse_24 [extracted 16.5.2019].).

 

Employment rate of VET graduates (20 to 34 years old, ISCED levels 3 and 4)

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011; breaks in time series.
ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education.
Source: Eurostat, edat_lfse_24 [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

The increase (+13 pp) in employment of 20-34 year-old VET graduates in 2014-18, was highter compared to the increase in employment of all 20-34 year-old graduates ( 1.8 pp) in the same period in Norway ([16]NB: breaks in time series. Eurostat table edat_lfse_24 [extracted 16.5.2019].).

For more information about the external drivers influencing VET developments in Norway please see the case study from Cedefop's changing nature and role of VET in Europe project [16a]Cedefop (2018). The changing nature and role of vocational education and training in Europe. Volume 3: the responsiveness of European VET systems to external change (1995-2015). Case study focusing in Norway. Cedefop research paper; No 67. https://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/norway_cedefop_changing_nature_of_vet_-_case_study.pdf

In 2018, the share of the population aged up to 64 with higher education (43.7%) was higher in Norway than EU-28 average (32.2%). Also, the share of the population with only ISCED levels 0-2 achieved was lower (17.0%) than EU28 average (21.8%).

 

Population (aged 25 to 64) by highest education level attained in 2018

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011; low reliability or ‘No response’ in Czech Republic, Iceland, Latvia and Poland.
ISCED 0-2 = less than primary, primary and lower secondary education.
ISCED 3-4 = upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education.
ISCED 5-8 = tertiary education.
Source: Eurostat, lfsa_pgaed [extracted 16.5.2019].

For more information about VET in higher education in Norway please see the case study from Cedefop's changing nature and role of VET in Europe project [16b]Cedefop (2019). The changing nature and role of vocational education and training in Europe. Volume 6: vocationally oriented education and training at higher education level. Expansion and diversification in European countries. Case study focusing on Norway. Cedefop research paper; No 70. https://www.cedefop.europa.eu/files/norway_cedefop_changing_nature_of_vet_-_case_study_0.pdf

Share of learners in VET by level in 2017

lower secondary

upper secondary

post-secondary

Not applicable

49.7%

100%

Source: Eurostat, educ_uoe_enrs01, educ_uoe_enrs04 and educ_uoe_enrs07 [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

Share of initial VET learners from total learners at upper-secondary level (ISCED level 3), 2017

NB: Data based on ISCED 2011.
Source: Eurostat, educ_uoe_enrs04 [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

In VET at upper secondary level there are more male than female learners; in 2019, 62% males and 38 % females. In post-secondary VET the number of female students is slightly higher (42 %) ([17]www.ssb.no).

Males prefer technical and industrial production (most popular option), followed by electrical trades and building and construction. Females choose healthcare, childhood and early youth development followed by design, arts and crafts and service trades.

It is a national target to increase the number of underrepresented sexes in all vocational educations.

The share of early leavers from education and training has decreased from 17.6% in 2009 to 9.9% in 2018. It is below 10.6%, the EU28 average.

In Norway it is a target to reduce the number of school leavers, and the Norwegian Government`s goal is that 9 out of 10 complete upper secondary education. Several measures have beein implemented and several have been initiated. It is a goal for the Norwegian government to keep up the work also in the future ([18]www.regjeringen.no).

 

Early leavers from education and training in 2009-18

NB: Share of the population aged 18 to 24 with at most lower secondary education and not in further education or training.
Source: Eurostat, edat_lfse_14 [extracted 16.5.2019] and European Commission: https://ec.europa.eu/info/2018-european-semester-national-reform-programmes-and-stability-convergence-programmes_en [accessed 14.11.2018].

 

In Norway, drop-out is defined as non-completion of upper secondary level within a five-year period after starting upper secondary level 1. More than half of those who do not complete upper secondary education complete by the age of 40.

Drop-out issue has been widely discussed in recent years, and measures to tackle it are developed and implemented. Studies have identified factors that influence study progression, success rates, and drop-out rates. Two such factors are social background and learning achievements in primary and lower secondary education. Another factor is the lack of apprenticeship placements for VET learners in the transition from school-based training to apprenticeship training. In 2017, 28 900 learners applied for an apprenticeship contract, and about 20 800 (72 per cent) received an apprenticeship placement. Most of those who receive apprenticeship placements complete their VET training with a trade or journeyman’s certificate. Nine out of 10 passed their final exam in 2015-16 ([19]Education Mirror 2017).

Statistics show significant variations in drop-out rates between education programmes. For instance, in the restaurant and food processing around 40% dropped out before completing the programme, compared to only 3.6% in sport and physical education programmes (one of the general study programmes) the same year ([20]udir.no). The differences in learners’ grades at lower secondary level are seen as a key factor; learners admitted to general study programmes generally have higher marks than learners admitted to vocational programmes.

Measures to reduce drop-out rates range from early interventions encouraging young people to learn, guidance and counselling, financial incentives, promoting VET and practice-based learning, common core subjects in VET, etc.

For more information, please read the VET in Europe report Norway 2018 ([21]Haukås, M.; Skjervheim, K. (2018). Vocational education and training in Europe – Norway. Cedefop ReferNet VET in Europe reports.
http://libserver.cedefop.europa.eu/vetelib/2019/Vocational_Education_Training_Europe_Norway_2018_Cedefop_ReferNet.pdf
).

 

Participation in lifelong learning in 2014-18

NB: Share of adult population aged 25 to 64 participating in education and training.
Source: Eurostat, trng_lfse_01 [extracted 16.5.2019].

 

Participation in lifelong learning in Norway has been stable in the last years with 20.1% in 2018, significantly above the EU-28 average of 10.8%.

In Norway most learners at upper secondary level, both VET and general education, are young people in the age group 16-18.

Age group

VET Learners

% of total VET learners

16-18

16 6183

83.40

19-24

20 172

10.10

25-29

4 892

2.50

30-34

3 406

1.70

35+

4 539

2.30

The share of adults (aged 25 and above) in upper secondary education (general and VET), has been increasing with more than 58 % since 2013 ([22]www.ssb.no).

The education and training system comprises:

  • First education level is divided into two levels:
  1. primary education (from 6 years to 13 years)
  2. lower secondary education (EQF 2, ISCED 2)
  • Upper secondary education (EQF 3 and 4 and ISCED 3. VET is available from upper secondary level.
  • Post- secondary, non- tertiary VET education (EQF 5, ISCED 453 and 554)
  • Higher education (EQF 6, 7 and 8, ISCED 6, 7 and 8)

Education is compulsory for 6-16 year olds. It comprise primary education (years 1-7) where learners get no grades, and lower secondary education (years 8-10) where learners are given grades that are also counted for entering upper secondary level.

It is under municipality responsibility and free of charge.

Upper secondary education is offered as general education and VET. The regional county authorities are responsible for general education and VET provision. All young people completing compulsory education have a statutory right to three years of upper secondary education and most of them use it. Public upper secondary schools are free of charge.

Post-secondary non-tertiary education builds on upper secondary education and an upper secondary certificate or an equivalent qualification is a requirement to enrol. The education can often be combined with work. There are public and private providers.

Norway has seven universities, 27 university colleges and five specialised, state-owned university institutions. In addition, Norway has a variety of private institutions for higher education.

Students must pay a small fee each semester. The semester fee is paid to the student welfare organisation at the educational institution. The purpose of the fee is to cover expenses relating to the students’ welfare needs at their place of learning. The amount varies, but it rarely exceeds NOK 500.

In Norway it is possible to attend formal, non-formal, initial and countinuing VET. Depending on the programme the learners may attend school-based or work-based learning or a combination of both. It is also possible to take an exam as an external candidate.

To complete a VET programme at upper secondary level, learners need to pass a final craft- or journeyman exam, which is both theoretical and practical. With one exception; it is possible to do a three year run, which leads to a qualification at EQF level 3.

Initial and countinuing VET are part of the formal educaiton system. In order to progress to CVET, the initial VET has to be completed. Initial VET starts at upper secondary school and most pathways leads to a EQF level 4 qualification. CVET is at EQF level 5.

The apprenticeship is offered at upper secondary level leading to EQF level 4 qualificaiton.

At upper secondary level, VET is conducted both in school and in public and private enterprises. The standard two-plus-two model normally includes two years in school, where students also participate in practical training in workshops and enterprises, followed by two years of formalised apprenticeship (training and productive work) in enterprises. The first year of training consists of an introduction to the vocational area. During the second year, VET students choose specialisations and courses are more trade- specific but core subjects are also included. Some crafts follow varying models with three years in school or one year in school followed by three years of formalised apprenticeship.

Upper secondary VET is completed with a practical-theoretical trade or journeyman’s examination (Fag- eller svenneprøve) leading to an EQF level 4 qualification: a trade certificate (Fagbrev) for industrial and service trades or a journeyman’s certificate (Svennebrev) for traditional crafts. The eight programme areas offer about 190 different certificates.

There are many possible routes to higher education via upper secondary VET.

From Spotlight on VET – 2018 compilation (2019) ([23]Cedefop (2019). Spotlight on VET – 2018 compilation: vocational education and training systems in Europe, p. 54. Luxembourg: Publications Office.
http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/publications/4168
)

Learn more about apprenticeships in the national context from the European database on apprenticeship schemes by Cedefop: http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/data-visualisations/apprenticeship-schemes/scheme-fiches

Central to the Norwegian education and training system is the Education Act of 17 July 1998 no. 61 (Opplæringsloven), most recently amended on 1 August 2018. It covers primary, lower and upper secondary general education and VET, including apprenticeship training, for young people and adults, delivered by both public and private institutions. It states that the Ministry of Education and Research (Kunnskapsdepartementet) has overall responsibility for national policy development and administration of all levels of education and training. The counties (fylkeskommuner) and municipalities (kommuner) are responsible for developing comprehensive plans and for organising and financing within their jurisdiction.

Pursuant to the Education Act, the social partners have (most often majority) representation in all important advisory bodies for upper secondary VET at national and county level:

  • the National Council for Vocational Education and Training (Samarbeidsrådet for yrkesopplæring (SRY)) gives advice on an overarching level;
  • eight Vocational Training Councils (Faglige råd) give advice on training in specific groups of trades, one for each VET programme (see Table 3, section 2.2.1);
  • the County Vocational Training Board (Yrkesopplæringsnemnda) for each county gives advice on quality, career guidance, regional development and the provision in the county to meet local labour market needs;
  • the trade-specific Examination Boards (Prøvenemnder) are situated in each county;
  • National Appeals Boards (Klagenemnder) cater for candidates who fail the trade or journeyman’s final test at county level.

For post-secondary vocational education (nationally referred as tertiary; fagskoleutdanning), the social partners are consulted through the National Council for Tertiary Vocational Education (Nasjonalt fagskoleråd) established by the Ministry of Education and Research in 2010. This council has less of a formal function than the vocational training councils have at upper secondary level, as the education and training providers at this level design their own programmes. Skills Norway hosts the secretariat. In addition, two advisory bodies with social partner representatives consult tertiary vocational education, one for technical and maritime education and one for health and social education.

Tertiary vocational colleges (fagskoler) represent a significant alternative to higher education. The colleges are important for developing competence and specialisation in VET. The objective of the National Council for Vocational Education and Training is to improve cooperation between the colleges, the rest of the education structure, working life, and society in general. The council acts as a coordinating body for the sector and is the advisory body to the Ministry of Education and Research. It comprises representatives from the education sector, employee and employer organisations and learners.

The regional county authorities are responsible for general education and VET provision, distributing VET financing provided by the State budget and ensuring apprenticeship placement and supervision ([24]Cedefop (2019). Spotlight on VET – 2018 compilation: vocational education and training systems in Europe. Luxembourg: Publications Office. http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/publications/4168). Enterprises with training contracts, according to the Education act, receive a grant (Basistilskudd I), approximately EUR 640 per month for two years (24 months) per apprentice. There are some grant variations depending on type of apprenticeship contract (main model (2+2) or 2, 3 or 4 years of training in enterprise). In addition, the enterprise receives a yearly funding of approximately EUR 6 000 per contract.

The grant given to training enterprises accepting adult apprentices (basistilskudd II) is about EUR 6 000 per year per apprentice.

Extra funding is also provided for enterprises signing contracts with apprentices in rare and protected crafts.

A EUR 2 million grant to encourage new enterprises to take on apprentices was introduced in 2014. From 2015, the county municipality could define regional criteria for the grant and from 2016 the grant may also be used to decrease unemployment amongst NEETs or ensure a high quality school based training as an alternative for those without an apprenticeships contract.

There are three main groups of VET training staff at upper secondary level:

  • VET teachers who provide formal school-based education and training;
  • training supervisors (faglige ledere); and,
  • trainers (instruktører) who provide training in enterprises.

VET teachers

The formal qualification requirements for VET teachers in schools are specified in national regulations. In principle, there is no difference between VET teachers and other teachers. Both groups must have two sets of formal qualifications: qualifications in the relevant subject and in education (pedagogics and didactics). VET teacher education programmes follow the general degree system, with a three-year bachelor’s degree and a two-year master’s degree. To become a qualified VET teacher, candidates must complete either vocational practical-pedagogical education or vocational teacher education.

Vocational practical-pedagogical education (consecutive model) is a one-year programme (or two years part-time) for learners who already hold a vocational/professional degree or other qualification (see below). The main fields of study are pedagogical theory, vocational didactics and supervised teaching and training practice. The admission requirements are:

  • a professionally oriented bachelor’s or master’s degree +;
  • a minimum of two years of professional experience,

or:

  • qualification as a skilled craftsperson/worker +;
  • general university and college admission certification +;
  • four years of relevant occupational experience +;
  • two years of further studies (technical, professional, managerial).

Vocational teacher education is a comprehensive three-year bachelor programme covering both vocational training and pedagogy. It is also available as a part-time course of study and through work-based provision. The admission requirements are:

  • general university and college admission certification +;
  • mark requirements in mathematics and Norwegian +;
  • trade or journeyman’s certificate; and,
  • minimum two years of relevant work experience.

All teacher education programmes for the lower and upper secondary levels (grades 8–13), including those for VET teachers, were revised in the Norwegian National Qualifications Framework of December 2011, following up both the European Qualifications Framework for Higher Education in the Bologna Process (QF-EHEA) and the European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning (EQF). The new regulation on the relevant framework curricula came into force in March 2013 and was last amended in 2016.

Already employed teachers may apply for grants to do a one-year undergraduate teacher training programme for vocations (60 ECTS) or a vocational teacher education (180 ECTS). The size of the grant size is from EUR 11 000 to 22 000.

Another option for teachers is to do continuing education in common core subjects. While studying, the teacher may be released with up to 37.5% of the employment.

Several new continuing education courses are available from the school year 2018/19, all 15 ECTS. The target group is vocational teachers who teach programme subjects.

Secondment as a visiting trainee for VET teachers, trainers and qualified training supervisors has been introduced to facilitate a better cooperation between schools and enterprises. The teacher will become familiar with the enterprises and the trainers and qualified training supervisors will get an insight in how training in schools is organised for future apprentices.

Training supervisor and trainers

A training enterprise with an apprentice must appoint a qualified training supervisor and one or more trainers. How training is conducted varies between enterprises, but other employees in the enterprise are often involved in the training. The training enterprise must be able to document how the training is planned, organised and assessed in order to ensure that apprentices can develop the necessary skills and competencies. These skills are not assessed by testing and grading, but rather through continuous evaluation by the enterprise and at two meetings a year between the trainer (instruktør) and the apprentice.

Training supervisors (faglige ledere) in enterprises or other workplaces with apprentices must ensure that the training meets the requirements stipulated in the Education Act. They must have one of the following qualifications:

  • a trade or journeyman’s certificate in the relevant trade or craft;
  • master craftsman’s certificate in the relevant craft;

relevant higher education in the trade or craft;

  • adequate educational background in the parts of the trade which, according to the curriculum, will be taught in the enterprise, or;
  • six years of experience in the trade or craft.

Trainers (instruktører) in training enterprises are vocationally skilled, often with a formal vocational qualification. They are not required to hold a teaching certificate. Some trainers do not hold formal qualifications in their vocational skills, but have instead developed them through work experience. Formal regulations simply state that the management of the training enterprise must ensure that trainers have “the necessary qualifications” (Education Act).

Initiatives for VET competence development

Norway will need more vocational education teachers in the years to come to help provide skilled trades-people for the national workforce. The Government gives priority to increased recruitment and qualification of VET teachers in the national competence development initiative from 2015. The Norwegian Directorate for Education and training is responsible for several VET competence development initiatives. Since 2015 there has been a mapping of skills development among VET teachers, for the best possible adapted schemes to this target group. Course material for trainers (instruktør), qualified training supervisor (faglig leder) and examination board member is made easy accessible online, together with tips and guidance to apprentices preparing for the qualifying exam.

It is not complusary to attend CPD for teachers in trainers.

There are, however, many possibilities for those who are interested and fundig is available. The funding covers temporary employment, scholarships and are ment to be incentives for continuing education.

www.udir.no

The courses are selected by the individuals and approved by the school leader. The courses takes place during the school year.

Demands for new skills and changes in the labour market call for continuous adjustment and revision of the upper secondary VET programmes, their content and their modes of delivery. The Ministry, parents, learners, employers, trade unions and others may initiate a need for adjustments or changes.

At upper secondary VET level

All eight upper secondary VET programmes are closely monitored. Changes are made continuously based on input and applications from social partners, counties or the Vocational Training Councils (Faglige råd) that give advice on training in specific groups of trades ([25]One for each VET programme.).

The Directorate for Education and Training (Directorate) hosts the secretariats of both the National Council for Vocational Education (Samarbeidsrådet for yrkesopplæring (SRY)) that gives advice on an overarching level, and the Vocational Training Councils. Vocational Training Councils must report on the situation to the national authorities once in the 4 years nomination period. The report also covers the potential need for changes in their respective VET programmes. The Directorate, in cooperation with Vocational Training Councils, vocational committees (faglig utvalg), county municipalities and social partners, reviewed VET programmes available in 2016. The result is a new structure for vocational subjects in upper secondary schools from 2020, which will be the biggest change in vocational education since 2006. The new structure will strengthen the quality and relevance of the education.

One element that may limit the social partners’ impact on upper secondary VET provision is the emphasis placed on the individual choices of learners. According to legislation ([26]Section 3-1 of the Education Act.), learners are entitled to admission to one out of three preferred upper secondary programmes. In the school year 2017/18, 82% of first-year learners were admitted to their first choice of upper secondary education ([27]Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training:
https://www.udir.no/tall-og-forskning/finn-forskning/tema/soker--og-inntakstall/forsteinntak-til-vgs-2017/
). County authorities must provide programmes and subjects that correspond to these preferences. Thus, in order to balance the VET provision with labour market needs, social partners give advice concerning a wide range of topics related to upper secondary VET, such as: training programme structure, curriculum development, regional structure, volume of VET provision, examinations framework for trade and journeyman’s certificates, and quality control at national, county and local level.

At post-secondary VET level

In post-secondary vocational education, and in higher education, study programmes are designed by the provider. Each post-secondary vocational education programme must be recognised by Norwegian Agency for Quality Assurance in Education (NOKUT). In higher education, all accredited institutions can establish programmes at bachelor level, within the scope of their accreditation. Universities are free to establish programmes at all levels, including master and PhD programmes. All tertiary education institutions have external board members, and consultation with relevant labour market players on the design of programmes is common. In some fields there are national framework curricula to ensure some degree of similarity in training for all graduates (in teacher education, nursing, engineering, auditing, etc.). For other fields of training, the respective industries have national boards which offer advice to higher education providers. All higher education institutions are required to have a strategy and a consultative council for cooperation with working life (Råd for samarbeid med arbeidslivet).

In April 2016, the Government adopted a new white paper ([28]Meld.St. 28 (2015-16) Fag – Fordypning – Forståelse — En fornyelse av Kunnskapsløftet [Report No 28 to the Storting, 2015-16, on in-depth learning and better understanding; a renewal of the Knowledge promotion reform].https://www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/e8e1f41732ca4a64b003fca213ae663b/no/pdfs/stm201520160028000dddpdfs.pdf) that will lead to a renewal of the curricular reform (Kunnskapsløftet) from 2006. The renewal of the school subjects in primary and lower- and upper secondary education, including VET, will give learners more in-depth training and a better subject understanding, more relevant content and links between subjects and the learning process progression will be made clearer. The new curricular will be ready autumn 2020.

The national curriculum

The National Curriculum for Knowledge Promotion (Kunnskapsløftet 2006) covers compulsory primary and lower secondary education and upper secondary education and training as a whole.

The curriculum consists of:

  • the Core Curriculum – values and principles in education;
  • subject curricula;
  • a framework regulating the distribution of teaching hours per subject.

The Core Curriculum deepens appreciation of basic values such as moral outlook, creative abilities, preparation for working life and society, general education, cooperation, and ecological understanding. This part of the curriculum underlies all education in Norway from primary to adult education and constitutes the binding foundation and values for primary and upper secondary education and training.

The quality framework consists of the principles that clarify the school owners’ (municipalities and county authorities’) responsibilities. Key competencies are integrated into the quality framework, such as learning strategies, social competencies, cultural competencies, motivation to learn, and learner participation.

The subject curricula consist of outcome-based learning targets, the main subject areas and basic skills. The main subject areas describe what the learner and apprentice should be able to do. The basic skills are: the ability to express oneself orally and in writing, the ability to read, fluency in numeracy, and the ability to use digital tools. The subject curricula also describe which final assessment will be given on completion.

The distribution of teaching hours per subject is set at national level. This is an overview of how the total teaching hours should be distributed per subject per year for the 10-year compulsory education as well as for the upper secondary level, VET included.

The National Curriculum encompasses 10-year compulsory education and upper secondary education and training as a whole. The competence objectives state what the learner/apprentice should be able to master at each level after grades 2, 4, 7 and 10, as well as after every stage of upper secondary education and training. Basic skills are decisive for acquiring subject-related knowledge and for communicating and cooperating with others in a wide range of situations. Their aims are integrated with, and adapted to each subject according to level. The subject curricula also describe the principles for assessment. However, decisions regarding teaching methods are left to the education and training institutions. Curricular activities at local levels are essential in order to implement the National Curriculum, particularly the outcome-based competence aims in the subject curricula. The school owners must have a system in place for following up the quality of local curricular activities. The Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training develops web-based guidelines to support local curricular activities as well as other measures to raise competence among school owners and school managements.

Developing VET curricula

The Directorate has responsibility for continuous curricular development. For this purpose it makes extensive use of expert groups from both schools and enterprises providing upper secondary education. When the need for a new qualification is identified, a tripartite group is set up to design vocational profiles. These form the basis for developing the subject curricula. The Directorate appoints teams for curricular development consisting of professionals (most often proposed by the employer and employee organisations) and VET teachers.

Within three months, the team submits a draft version of the curricula to the Directorate. The draft is distributed to the sector for a three-month consultation process. Relevant feedback is incorporated into the draft curricula. With support from external representatives from the sector, the quality of the curricula is assured by the Directorate. Depending on the subject, the curricula are finally set by the Ministry or the Directorate.

The identified labour market needs will have no direct influence on teachers’ training or assessment, but the training of teachers and the assessment of learners and apprentices will be dependent on the subject curricula.

In addition, the Directorate has a follow-up system for curricula (System for oppfølging av læreplan (SOL)). The purpose of the system is to obtain a more holistic and systematic overview of the situation for the curricula. SOL entails reviewing, compiling and analysing different sources that inform the situation for the curricula and how they function. These sources include studies, enquiries, evaluation reports and statistics. The intention is that SOL should contribute to making administration of the curricula more systematic, knowledge-based and predictable. The knowledge gained gives the Directorate a basis for initiating the necessary and adequate measures for strengthening implementation of the curricula. These measures can support and inform VET providers when adjusting the curricula.

Norway is in the process of renewing all subjects at all levels of education. The renewed subjects and a new core curriculum will be implemented in 2020.

The tripartite cooperation represents a crucial quality assurance mechanism for upper secondary VET. The Education Act requires the county authority (fylkeskommunen) to consult the County Vocational Training Board (Yrkesopplæringsnemda) on quality issues related to school-based and work-based VET. A main task for the Board is thus to give advice, especially related to accreditation of apprenticeship training enterprises. The County Vocational Training Board should also present proposals for quality development, including the enhancement of partnerships between schools and enterprises, and skills and competence development for teachers and trainers.

As quality assurance is embedded in the legal framework, the state is responsible for inspecting all activities stipulated in the Education Act. Furthermore, the state has the authority to issue legally binding orders to rectify unsatisfactory conditions. The Ministry of Education and Research (Kunnskapsdepartementet) has delegated this responsibility as the inspectorate at national level to the Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training (Utdanningsdirektoratet). The Directorate is responsible for developing and supporting inspections, to facilitate a unified inspection throughout the country, and to provide guidance on legislation. The county governors (fylkesmenn) serve as the operational inspection authority for basic training, and have responsibility for activities at county level. They also serve as the appeal body for individual decisions regarding learners in primary and lower secondary school. However, the Ministry still has the authority to exercise supervision, and can instruct the Directorate for Education and Training and the county governors on how inspections should be performed.

Quality standards for VET providers are set out in the Education Act and relevant regulations. The legislation sets standards for examinations, trade- and journeyman's certification, approval of apprenticeship training enterprises, and teacher competence. The Education Act also regulates the county governors’ responsibility to provide guidance to school owners. This applies to guidance not only on academic matters but also on other matters related to the Education Act. This includes guidance on administrative rules, and is intended to provide the best possible cooperation between the state and the school owners.

In addition to the county governors’ more general inspections, joint national inspections may also be implemented. These inspections are incident-based, and are based on regional risk assessments made in cooperation with the county governors. Situations may arise that invoke immediate attention by the authorities, and give county governors the authority to perform inspections at their own initiative.

The Norwegian Agency for Quality Assurance in Education (Nasjonalt organ for kvalitet i utdanningen (NOKUT)) is responsible for recognition, accreditation and quality assurance in post-secondary vocational education and higher education. The frameworks for these activities are laid down in the respective laws and regulations on quality assurance in higher education and post-secondary vocational education, as well as in supplementary regulations, rules and procedures laid down by NOKUT.

Validation of non-formal and informal learning is possible in all levels of education and training in Norway and can be used to acquire modules and/or full qualifications. There are laws and regulations in place relating to each level of education and training, providing a general framework for validation of prior learning. The Norwegian system of validation is based on shared principles across all sectors. One of these principles is that the validation process should be voluntary and of benefit to the individual.

Differences in funding and governance mechanisms found in primary, upper secondary, post-secondary vocational and higher education affect the preconditions for setting up validation procedures. The sectors of education have developed schemes for validation of non-formal and informal learning according to their specific needs and preconditions. Higher education institutions exercise the greatest freedom in the design and delivery of validation, because responsibilities are devolved to each institution. This also concerns post-secondary VET. The national government and its underlying administrations provide guidelines for all educational sectors.

During the autumn of 2013, the Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training, in cooperation with stakeholders from the sectors, developed national guidelines relating to adults who claim the right to have their formal, non-formal and informal learning validated compared to lower or upper secondary level. The guidelines focus mainly on how to interpret the regulations relating to validation and how to implement the different points described in the regulations. The purpose of the national guidelines for validation is to ensure that sound validation procedures are carried out, leading to similar practices in all Norwegian counties and municipalities. By providing a national basis for local practice, the guidelines could spur confidence and legitimacy of the validation practices.

  • It is possible to acquire a full qualification on the basis of validation in the Programme for General Studies in upper secondary education (university-preparatory).
  • In upper secondary VET, it is necessary to take the relevant final (trade) examination to achieve a trade or journeyman's certificate as a skilled worker.
  • In higher education, individuals can gain exemptions for parts of study programmes. On the diploma as well as on the Diploma Supplement, the relevant courses and credits will be identified as having been obtained through validation. In post-secondary VET, the possibility to give exemption from courses and modules on the basis of validation was introduced through regulations of 1 August 2013.

In terms of awarding credits or partial qualifications after validation in primary and upper secondary education and training, the Education Act permits candidates to achieve a partial certificate qualification, called 'certificate of competence' (kompetansebevis) at any level through validation. Candidates then have the right to access further education and training, in order to achieve a full trade or journeyman’s certificate. The certificate of competence is awarded to recognise that an individual has achieved certain objectives (learning outcomes) within an upper secondary curriculum. The certificates can serve as a stand-alone evidence of competences and can be used, for example, to support a job application or participation in further education courses.

These partial certificates of competence are recognised on the labour market, as a documentation of parts of the demands in the trade. It is also possible to access education through validation – the individual must be able to show (through documentation or other means) that s/he has the required skills and competences to enter a certain level of education and training.

For more information about arrangements for the validation of non-formal and informal learning please visit Cedefop’s European database ([29]http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/en/publications-and-resources/data-visualisations/european-database-on-validation-of-non-formal-and-informal-learning).

Salary during apprenticeship training

The apprenticeship scheme is a critical component of the upper secondary VET 2+2 model. The regulated salary during the apprenticeship training period is a financial incentive to promote learner participation in VET. The salary for apprentices constitutes a given percentage of the initial salary of a worker with a craft certificate in the relevant vocation. The salary is increasing throughout the apprenticeship.

For apprentices following the main model (2+2) the salary will be calculated as follows:

1st half of the years in an approved training company: 30 percent of the initial salary;

2nd half: 40 percent of the initial salary;

3rd half: 50 percent of the initial salary;

4th half: 80 percent of the initial salary.

Grants and loans for learners

The main purposes of the Act relating to Learner Grants (Lov om utdanningsstøtte) of 1985, most recently amended in 2015, are to:

  • improve equity in access to education and training regardless of geography, gender, age and social background;
  • improve learning environments and enable learners to study more effectively;
  • ensure a qualified workforce for society at large.

Learner loans carry no interest charges during the period of study. All registered learners participating in formally recognised study programmes at both public and private institutions of higher education may receive grants and subsidised loans from the Norwegian State Educational Loan Fund (Statens lånekasse for utdanning) for subsistence expenses. Support is also provided to Norwegian learners abroad, who may receive additional support for travel, admission and tuition fees.

Learners in upper secondary school-based VET (learners and apprentices alike) may qualify for grants and subsidised loans from the Norwegian State Educational Loan Fund subject to a needs-based assessment. They may receive:

  • relocation grants if they have to move away from home to attend school or enterprise-based training, and are also entitled to support from the Norwegian State Educational Loan Fund.

The following grants are also available to adult learners;

  • additional subsistence grant to cover expenses if they live away from home;
  • grants for purchasing compulsory equipment, according to study programme.

Support to learners at upper secondary level is mainly provided in the form of grants.

The apprenticeship scheme is a critical component of the upper secondary VET 2+2 model. After two years of school-based education, most VET programmes involve a two-year apprenticeship in a training enterprise. This period is equivalent to one year of practice-based training and one year of productive work for the training enterprise. During the first year as an apprentice with practice-based training the enterprise focus on teaching. There is no expectation to profit-making. The second year with productive work is expected to be profit-making for the company. After two years in school, the apprentice signs a legally binding apprenticeship contract with the training enterprise and a representative from the county authorities. By law, apprentices are employees of the enterprise, with the rights and obligations that follow. They are entitled to a salary that increases with the apprentice's productivity during the two-year apprenticeship period. Salary increases normally start at 30% and increase to 80% of a skilled worker’s salary. For the school year 2017/18, 66 562 vocational learners are registered in upper secondary education in Norway and there are 41 480 apprentices with apprenticeship contracts.

In 2017, all training enterprises received a state grant of approximately EUR 15 000 per apprentice for a 12-months training period. The grant covers the training period only, not the productive component. The grant is distributed evenly throughout the apprenticeship period in the company. The grant is supposed to cover costs related to training the apprentice. Additional grants are given to enterprises either for offering apprenticeships in rare and protected crafts (små og verneverdige fag) or for accepting apprentices or training candidates with special needs.

Legislation ([30]Under the Education Act (Opplæringsloven); came into effect 1.1.2009.) guarantees the right of every learner to receive both guidance regarding educational and vocational matters as well as for social or personal character.

Guidance and guidance services are provided by different institutions according to level of education and relation to the labour market. The main guidance services are organised within the school system. Learners in primary and secondary education have the right to “necessary guidance on education, vocational opportunities, vocational choices and social matters”. The provision is organised by the individual schools. All learners are entitled to guidance according to their needs.

A whole-school approach to guidance has been adopted, meaning that individual teachers, and all other personnel in schools, have a responsibility to provide guidance to learners. Moreover, one subject in the curriculum for lower secondary schools, Study Elective Programme Subject (Utdanningsvalg), is specifically aimed at providing learners with the competencies they need to make informed educational and vocational choices. A similar subject is offered in VET programmes in upper secondary schools. In addition to this, and with a different responsibility for guidance, guidance counsellors in lower and upper secondary education provide guidance to learners in school. Guidance counsellors in the Follow-up Service (Oppfølgingstjenesten) provide guidance to youth aged between 16 and 24 who are neither in education nor in employment.

All counties have allocated funding from the state budget to establish partnerships for career guidance, and most counties have established such partnerships or other forms of regional cooperation. Local and regional school authorities, the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration (NAV), the business sector, and social partners are often partners in these initiatives. Several counties have established career centres to provide guidance for everyone, primarily adults aged above 19. The career centres also play a role in helping improve the competence of guidance counsellors in schools, in local Labour and Welfare offices (NAV) and other institutions offering career guidance. The National Unit for Lifelong guidance in Competence Norway is in charge of managing and monitoring partnerships in career guidance.

In 2014 a master’s degree in career guidance was established in Norway. Career guidance strengthens the individual’s ability and competence to make informed education and vocational choices.

Although all learners in upper secondary education have the right to guidance under the Education Act, apprentices do not have this right. An official Norwegian report ([31]NOU 2016:7 Norge I omstilling – karriereveiledning for individ og samfunn [NOU 2016:7 Career guidance for individuals and society].https://www.regjeringen.no/en/topics/education/voksnes-laring-og-kompetanse/artikler/sammendrag-av-nou-20167-karriereveiledning-for-individ-og-samfunn/id2485528/) recommends a right to guidance also for apprentices. It additionally recommends an online guidance platform to increase the quality of guidance in both lower and upper secondary schools. Universities and some university colleges have established career centres to provide guidance to learners. Adults who need guidance may use the local offices of the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration (NAV) or visit regional career centres established by partnerships in career guidance. A small number of private agencies also provide career guidance on a commercial basis.

Please see also:

Vocational education and training system chart

Tertiary

Programme Types
Not available

Post-secondary

Click on a programme type to see more info
Programme Types

Master craftsperson

programme

Master craftsperson programme (Mesterbrevordningen)
EQF level
Not applicable
ISCED-P 2011 level

Not applicable

Usual entry grade

Not applicable

Usual completion grade

Not applicable

Usual entry age

Not applicable

Usual completion age

Not applicable

Length of a programme (years)

1,5 - 2 (part-time)

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

N

The craftsman education is still not linked to NKF/EQF

Is it initial VET?

N

Is it continuing VET?

Y

A trade or journeyman certificate is requred, as well as several years of relevant work experience.

Is it offered free of charge?

N

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Not applicable

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

Master craftsperson programme covers general administrative subjects, e.g. organisation and management, marketing and financial control, as well as craft theory.

Common subjects are delivered part-time over the course of two years (the training is typically combined with full-time work as an employee or owner of an SME). ICT is integrated throughout the course. Both common subjects and craft theory are offered as evening and part-time courses. Distance education courses are also available.

Main providers

Three institutions provide master craftsman education: Folkeuniversitetet (FU), Norges grønne fagskole – Vea, Blimester ([38]www.blimester.com)

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

This education targets people that are already in work, and the education is organised to allow for full time work besides studies.

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • Theory studies in e.g. administration, economics and leadership.
  • Both classroom teaching and web based education supplemented by study gatherings are offered.
Main target groups

Master craftsman education is for holders of a trade or journeyman’s certificate who also have several years of relevant work experience and wish to set up their own business or hold a managerial position in a craft enterprise.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Trade or journeyman’s certificate and several years of relevant work experience.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Courses in common subjects conclude with a written examination. In craft theory, a written examination is held for each master craftsman subject. Learners may also take the examination as private candidates.

Master craftsmen programme is administered by the publicly appointed Master Craftsman Certificate Committee (Mesterbrevnemnda (MCC)), which determines training standards and practice requirements and awards the certificate.

In recent years, MCC has further extended the education system for master crafts persons. As a result, learning output-based degrees from other providers can also be recognised.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Successful candidates obtain the title “Master Craftsperson”.

The master craftsman certificate is awarded in 73 different crafts covering all traditional trades in which journeyman’s examinations are held and journeyman’s certificates issued, as well as some (newer) trades with craft examinations and certificates.

Examples of qualifications

Example of qualifications (out of more than 70):

  • Masonry
  • Goldsmith
  • Wodcarving
Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Mater craftsman education does not qualify for further education.

The education qualifies for:

  • setting up own business
  • taking a managerial position in a craft enterprise
Destination of graduates

The education is primarily for people already in work, and they take the education part time.

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

Validation of prior learning in order to achieve the mastercraftsman tribunal (Mesterbrevnemnda) is possible.

General education subjects

Master craftsperson education combines general administrative subjects such as business organisation and management, marketing, financial control, and vocational theory.

Key competences

N

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Not applicable

EQF 5

Post-secondary

VET colleges,

0.5-2 years

ISCED 453, 554

Post-secondary vocation education (nationally referred as tertiary) leading to EQF level 5, ISCED 453 and 554 (fagskoleutdanning)
EQF level
5
ISCED-P 2011 level

453 and 554

Usual entry grade

Not applicable

Usual completion grade

Not applicable

Usual entry age

Not applicable

Share of learners in a range of age groups is as following:

  • 30% 21-25 y.o.
  • 20% 26-30 y.o.
  • 14% 31-35 y.o.
  • 11% 36-40 y.o.
  • 7% 41-45 y.o.
  • 7% 46-50 y.o.
  • 5% 51+ y.o.

Data from 2018 ([39]https://www.ssb.no/fagskoler).

Usual completion age

6 months up to 2 years after study entry.

Length of a programme (years)

From 0.5 year to 2 years (up to 3 years in special cases)

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

N

Is it continuing VET?

Y

Is it offered free of charge?

Depending on the study, some are free of charge and some are with tuition fee.

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

From 30 – 120 higher vocational eductaions credits.

In special cases 180 credits

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

Education at this level is available as:

  • part time studies to be combined with work
  • online studies

Training is available at school and within an enterprise.

Main providers

Post-secondary (nationally referred as tertiary) vocational colleges (fagskoler), private and public

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

The share of work-based learning depends on the study and varies.

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)

Work-based learning may be:

  • practical training at school
  • in-company practice
Main target groups

Programmes are available both for young people and for working adults.

The educations especially target working adults and the study is often adapted to fit a combination of work and study.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Access is based on an upper secondary general or vocational qualification, depending on the branch of study, or validated prior learning (VPL).

No practical work experience is required. However, many programmes, particularly those aimed at the health and social service sector, are designed as part-time courses, where learners are required to work part-time and undertake project assignments at a workplace, often their own.

No age restrictions apply.

Assessment of learning outcomes

The education is based on learning outcomes and the students have to pass a final examination.

Diplomas/certificates provided

VET students at this level may receive three qualifications:

  • Higher professional degree (120-180 credits)
  • Professional degree (60 -90 credits)
  • Certificate without a degree
Examples of qualifications

Mechanical engineer, electro technician, fashion designer and pattern maker.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Candidates who have completed a two-year post-secondary VET programme qualify for some engineer educations and some technical educations at tertiary level. The framework curricula for the bachelor programmes in engineering allow for the recognition of relevant two-year technical post-secondary vocational education as one year of the engineering programme.

Some vocational education colleges have agreements with higher education institutions whereby their graduates are directly admitted to the second year of engineering programmes in the relevant field of study. However, such agreements often set conditions for technical vocational college learners. For instance, engineering at tertiary education level requires college candidates to spend 3½ or 4 years on completing their bachelor's degree.

Destination of graduates

Information not available

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

Recognition of prior learning (RPL): Access based on individual assessment of formal, informal and non-formal qualifications is open to applicants aged 25 or above. Applications for admission on the basis of RPL are processed locally at each institution.

General education subjects

N

Key competences

N

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

Information for this type of programmes is not available.

In general, there are 16 000 students at post-secondary level compared to 293 287 students at universities and university colleges.

Data from 2019 ([40]https://www.ssb.no/fagskoler).

Secondary

Click on a programme type to see more info
Programme Types

EQF 3

School-based

programmes,

no WBL, 3 years

ISCED 353

The three-year upper secondary school-based pathway leading to EQF level 3, ISCED 353 (Yrkeskompetanse)
EQF level
3
ISCED-P 2011 level

353

Usual entry grade

11

Usual completion grade

13

Usual entry age

16

Usual completion age

18

Length of a programme (years)

3

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Credits are not available at upper secondary level.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

School-based learning consisting of 981 hours of teaching the first year of which 477 hours in the programme subject.

Second year:

982 hours of teaching, 477 hours in the programme subject

Third year:

981 hours, 926 hours in the programme subject.

Main providers

Upper secondary schools

Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

=0%

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school
Main target groups

This scheme is available both for young people and also for adults.

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Completed lower secondary education is required.

The level of the grades to enter may vary, depending on the demand (the number of applicants) and the grades of the applicants.

Assessment of learning outcomes

The learners need to pass a compulsory final exam, which is based on learning outcomes and usually includes a practical part.

At upper secondary level the learners have the right to a new final exam if the first attempt fails. The school is obliged to offer the opportunity to write the exam next time this is scheduled at the school. If a learner fail to do so, the exam has to be completed as an external candidate for a public examination

Diplomas/certificates provided

Professional competence qualification at EQF level 3

Examples of qualifications

Interior designer, piano repair, space technology, pharmacy technician, medical secretary and gardening.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

Those who complete VET may enter the labour market. The learners may also do a craft or journeyman`s certificate exam after five years of working in the trade.

Destination of graduates

Information for this programme is not available.

In Norway the graduates are tracked three years after completing a vocational education. In total, 80.8 % of all the 2016-17 graduates are employed, 12 % are in education and 7.2 % are neither in education nor job ([33]www.udir.no).

Awards through validation of prior learning

Achieving qualifications through validation of prior learning is possible.

General education subjects

Y

The common core subjects (fellesfag) (Norwegian, English, mathematics, physical education, natural sciences and social sciences) are the same for all VET programmes.

Key competences

Y

Key competences are integrated in the competence aims for the subject.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

The programme is based on learning outcomes.

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

In 2018/19 there were 121 390 learners in general education at upper secondary level. 35.59 % of the learners at upper secondary level were in vocatonal education and training (67 092). Only 2 465 learners attended the third year at upper secondary school and 58 % of them attended this programme. The others progress to apprenticeship or to a bridge year to access higher education.

EQF 4

Apprenticeship training,

WBL -100%

2+2 year

School-based programmes,

WBL 20-35%

ISCED level 353

The 2+2 apprenticeship pathway leading to EQF level 4, ISCED level 353 (2+2 modellen)
EQF level
4
ISCED-P 2011 level

353

Usual entry grade

11

Usual completion grade

14

Usual entry age

16

Usual completion age

19

Length of a programme (years)

4

  
Is it part of compulsory education and training?

N

Is it part of formal education and training system?

Y

Is it initial VET?

Y

Is it continuing VET?

N

Is it offered free of charge?

Y

Upper secondary school is free of charge.

Is it available for adults?

Y

ECVET or other credits

Credits are not available at this level of education.

Learning forms (e.g. dual, part-time, distance)

The model entails two years of education in school followed by two years of formal apprenticeship training in company.

Main providers
  • VET schools in the first two years
  • Training companies in the second two years
Share of work-based learning provided by schools and companies

=20-35% in the first two years

=100 % in the second two years

Work-based learning type (workshops at schools, in-company training / apprenticeships)
  • practical training at school in the first two years
  • apprenticeship in company in the second two years
Main target groups

Mainly young people, 16-18 year olds (85%).

The age group 19-24 represent 9.6%, 25-29 = 2.1%, 30-34 = 1.4% and 35+ represents 1.8% ([34]Statistics Norway:
https://www.ssb.no/vgu
).

Entry requirements for learners (qualification/education level, age)

Completed lower secondary education is required.

Assessment of learning outcomes

Upper secondary VET is completed with a practical-theoretical trade or journeyman’s examination (Fag- eller svenneprøve). In the test, candidates demonstrate their vocational skills, and explain and justify the methods chosen to solve the test assignments.

A county-appointed, trade-specific examination board prepares and assesses the examination. The minimum requirement for being a board member is a formal vocational education. The county authorities award the certificate.

In 2017, 82.6% of candidates who entered a VET programme in 2012 passed the exam, 5.8% completed their apprenticeship but failed the exam, 10.8% failed to complete their apprenticeship and 0.8% are still undertaking their apprenticeship ([35]Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training:
https://skoleporten.udir.no
).

Learners' competencies are assessed continuously throughout the four years of education and training, in school by the teacher and in apprenticeship by the training supervisor. In addition, they have to take exams in individual subjects developed at local and county level. Learners may also be randomly selected to take nationally organised examinations in common core subjects. Most learners have passed exams in vocational subjects after two and four years of training. After two years in school, learners take an interdisciplinary local practical exam which covers all the vocational subjects.

Diplomas/certificates provided

Upper secondary VET practical-theoretical trade or journeyman’s examination lead to an EQF level 4 qualification: a trade certificate (Fagbrev) for industrial and service trades or a journeyman’s certificate (Svennebrev) for traditional crafts.

The two certificates have equal status based on similar sets of theoretical knowledge and practical skills.

Examples of qualifications

Goldsmith, winder, painter, roofer.

Progression opportunities for learners after graduation

There are many progression opportunities to post-secondary and tertiary education from upper secondary VET.

With a trade or journeyman’s certificate, the options are:

  • Higher vocational education (EQF level 5), 6 to 24 months specialisation/further education
  • via a one-year bridging course in core subjects (påbyggingsår); direct admission to certain specially designed bachelor programmes (Y-veien).

Options without a trade or journeyman’s certificate are:

  • five years’ experience gained in work and/or education and passing a course in core subjects (for those aged 23 or older);
  • recognition of relevant formal, informal and non- formal learning for people aged 25 or older who do not meet general entrance requirements;
  • successfully completed two years in vocational college;
  • completing the bridge course (Påbygging til generell studiekompetanse) after completing the first two years of a VET programme. This option is a choice made by more than a quarter of upper secondary VET learners. In 2017, 8 200 learners (27.8% of the VET learners) selected this option after their second year in a VET programme ([36]Statistikk-portalen:
    https://skoleporten.udir.no/
    ). Already after two years in a VET programme, learners may transfer to a third year of supplementary studies that qualify them to enter higher education. This year leads to a qualification at NQF level 4B and EQF level 4. This pathway replaces the two-year apprenticeship period, and the learners will thus not receive a trade or journeyman’s certificate. The third year is a 'package' course in the six key academic subjects of Norwegian, English, mathematics, natural sciences, social sciences, and history, and successful candidates satisfy the general admission requirements to higher education (on par with those taking general study programmes). Apprentices also have a statutory right to a year of supplementary studies after passing the trade- or journeyman’s test, a fifth year of training. The fifth year is supplementary studies which qualify for higher education.
Destination of graduates

Information for this programme is not available.

In Norway the graduates are tracked three years after completing a vocational education. 80.8 % of all 2016-17 graduates are employed, 12 % are in education and 7.2 % are neither in education nor job ([37]www.udir.no).

Awards through validation of prior learning

Y

Validation of prior learning is always an option.

The Directorate of Education and training has developed national guidelines for the assessment of prior learning in lower and upper secondary school for adults.

General education subjects

Y

 

The 2+2 pathway (apprenticeship model) with structure of subjects

Source: ReferNet Norway.

 

The common core subjects (fellesfag) (Norwegian, English, mathematics, physical education, natural sciences and social sciences) are the same for all VET programmes.

Key competences

Y

The key competences are integrated in the competence aims for the subject.

Application of learning outcomes approach

Y

The programme is based on learning outcomes.

Share of learners in this programme type compared with the total number of VET learners

No information available on the share of learners.

At upper secondary level, 72% of the vocational programmes are structured according to the two main models (2+2 apprenticeships and 3+0 school based).

74.2% of all the learners applying for an apprenticeship signed a contract in 2018.

VET available to adults (formal and non-formal)

Programme Types
Not available