The present report, after presenting a literature review leading to the formation of a conceptualization framework (Chapter 2), offers a thorough quantitative analysis of the expansion of NEETs in the target regions and countries between 2007 and 2018 (Chapter 3). Then, it presents an in-depth analysis of rich qualitative data. The material collected during 2019 in all target countries brings to the front the beliefs and agency of various actors, namely young NEETs, individuals involved in training policies and employment advisors or other key informants (Chapter 4). Finally, the report presents an impact assessment of contemporary training policies by focusing mainly on the effectiveness of the Youth Guarantee (YG) in the Southern regions of the EU. In doing so, it also approaches the efficiency of training schemes and youth counselling centres and services in the study area (Chapter 5).