Austria (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY

Belgium-DE (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
There is a partial process, but there are no plans for making this process overall. The National Agency sets qualitative and quantitative objectives in the annual Erasmus+ programme. The aim for 2016 is a quality increase in mobility projects and an extended dissemination of projects. To achieve this, the National Agency strengthens its efforts in monitoring activities and events as well as in dissemination activities. Other key aspects are the support and dissemination of Inclusion and Entrepreneurship.

Belgium-FR (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
No overall targets for the IVET mobility policy in general. -

Belgium-FL (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
No overall targets for the IVET mobility policy in general.

Bulgaria (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
The National Lifelong Learning Strategy (2014-2020) and the VET Development Strategy in Bulgaria 2015-2020 (both documents adopted by the Council of Ministers) set some elements for setting overall targets in IVET mobility policy. More specifically, the National Lifelong Learning Strategy (2014-2020) defines as part of its objectives “to Encourage the mobility of undergraduates, doctoral students, and instructors and the transborder cooperation among universities;”. In addition, as part of the activities defined by the strategy, the “Elaboration and introduction of flexible forms and paths for ensuring mobility within the education and training system” is pointed out. The VET Development Strategy in Bulgaria 2015-2020 calls for optimal use of the European structural funds and Erasmus+ to support the mobility instruments in the field of VET. The Action Plan for the implementation of the VET Development Strategy in Bulgaria 2015-2020 emphasises the use of guidance to encourage VET mobility in Bulgaria. Additionally, the National Youth Strategy (2010-2020) points out the importance of encouraging youth mobility. However, this is still not an overall process, as such elements are not definitely expressed at implementation level. Further plans for making the process overall are not evident for the moment, as the education and VET system in Bulgaria is in a process of adopting new legislation, and implementation plans will be available in future periods.

Croatia (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
Overall policy targets are in place. The results indicators and quantitative targets addressing international learning mobility in the VET are set by the competent national authority for education (Ministry of Science and Education - MoSE) within the three-year strategic plans (Strategic Plan of the Ministry of Science and Education for the period 2015-2017, Strategic plan of the Ministry of Science and Education 2016-2018).

For the 2016-2018 period, MoSE includes internationalisation of the Croatian education system among its objectives. In the following three-year period, MoSE aims to enhance the international dimension in initial and continuing vocational education and training, through EU programmes and other programmes with an international dimension. Among the existing targets:

1. The number of VET students having undergone study or training period (including work placements) abroad under the Erasmus+ programme on yearly basis is targeted to reach 560 students in 2018, in comparison to the 2014 result of 333.

2. The number of educational staff (teachers and assistants) participating in teaching/training activities abroad under the Erasmus+ programme is targeted to reach 220 in 2018 in comparison to 103 in 2014.

Cyprus (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
There is a process for setting up policy targets, but it is limited in coverage and not planned to be expanded. There is a target to involve all technical schools and IVET institutions in Cyprus, in IVET mobility and also as many students for long term mobility as possible (no target number).

Czechia (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
Overall policy targets are in place. The Ministry of Education as a national authority is responsible for the management of the Erasmus+ programme at the national level. The DZS sets quantitative targets for the Erasmus+ programme regarding the number of participants in individual key actions (both for IVET and other learners) in its yearly work programme which is being approved by the MSMT and European Commission. Qualitative targets are set every year (e.g. Europass and ECVET are tools highly recommended by the MSMT).

Tandem sets the short and long term goals on the basis of a detailed annual evaluation and objectives for the upcoming programme implementation period. – There are factors which have an influence over the set up of the objectives: Tandem's vision and programme content, financial and personnel limits of Tandem. Reaction to the current political situation in Europe. E.g. Besides the stated objective of enhancing quality (thematic seminars for teachers - quality, using ECVET , Europass), another objective mentioned in the programme titled Traineeships for 2016 is to increase the intercultural education for all active participants involved in mobility.

Qualitative targets are partly set by the strategic document of the Ministry of Education from January 2013 titled New measures supporting vocational education and training, which stipulates that ECVET and mobility programmes in general support the quality and promote the attractiveness of VET systems, enhance the transparency and recognition of competences and qualifications and strengthen the European dimension. Therefore the document puts emphasis on supporting mobility of pupils and teachers abroad.

Denmark (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
Overall policy targets have been set. Denmark is supporting the EU target of 6% of people in IVET pursuing some of their education abroad by 2020.

Estonia (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
Overall policy targets are in place. The Estonian Lifelong Learning Strategy's Vocational Education Programme sets an overall goal for improving international cooperation in general. The goal of the programme is to support participation in the Erasmus+ Programme to increase the student and teacher mobility and school participation in international networks. The Vocational Education Programme is updated every year with regard to the upcoming four years and confirmed by the Minister of Education and Research. In addition, most vocational institutions in Estonia have set qualitative and quantitative targets in their development plans to improve international cooperation between vocational institutions and increase the IVET learner's mobility. Some schools have set out specific IVET mobility indicators (e.g. "the share of students participating in mobility" or "the number of implemented mobility projects").

Finland (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
Overall policy targets are in place. The Finnish Government development plan 2011-2016 for education and research set targets and policy initiatives aimed to improve the provision related to IVET mobility. There were targets increasing student mobility (with 30%) and implementing ECVET as well as increasing the validation and accreditation of studies abroad. After 2016 there has not been a specific Government development plan for education and research. From 2017 onwards the steering document has been the Government programme with general targets for learning and education. One of the main five targets is to increase internationalization of education and research.

France (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
Overall policy targets are in place. Several quantified objectives have recently been set.
- The French government set a target of 15 000 apprentices in mobility per year by 2022 (1). This figure mixes the objectves of nobilities regardless of their duration, short or long: some of them will take place within the frame of “Erasmus Pro” programme (from 3 months to 12 months).
- Expanding international certification of students' level in modern languages through such schemes as the Cambridge Assessment, the Cervantes Institute or the Kultusminister Konferenz. From the start of the 2019 school year, final year students engaged in a specific linguistic programme (international sections, European and oriental language sections), as well as BTS students oriented towards professions open to international trade, will take certification tests.
- In view of the implementation of the new baccalaureate in 2021, the procedures for evaluating the modern language tests on this examination will be revised in order to strengthen their link with the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR).
- Strengthening the offer of international and European courses. France is submitting to the European authorities the application for two new European Schools in Lille and Courbevoie for the 2019 school year.
- Eeach student should speak two European languages by 2024 (2).
- Families will be offered support for mobility through the creation of a specific parent kit on mobility (3),
- The objectives set by the Ministry in charge of National Education are fully in line with the strategic objectives defined at the European level for education, training and higher education by 2020, in particular to ensure that at least 6% of 18-34 year-old holding diplomas of initial vocational education and training have carried out a period of study or training abroad.
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(1) https://travail-emploi.gouv.fr/actualites/l-actualite-du-ministere/arti…
(2) French president's speech at the Sorbonne (26 September 2017): http://www.elysee.fr/assets/Initiative-pour-lEurope-une-Europe-souverai…
(3) http://cache.media.education.gouv.fr/file/08_-_aout/52/1/2017_DPrentree…

Germany (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
Overall policy targets are in place. The federal act on VET (Vocational Training Act – BBiG) as well as the political objectives aim at the integration of international mobility activities as a rule and not an exception. This is the only way to qualify IVET-learners in an appropriate manner for the requirements of a labour market and to support the internationalization of Vocational Education and Training in Germany. This overall target includes the necessity to introduce and standardize several instruments of quality assurance in order to simplify the implementation of mobility activities.
This federal act on VET is reflected in a countrywide policy target: In 2013, the Deutsche Bundestag (German Parliament) recommended that in 2020 at least 10 % of all apprentices graduating in the Dual System should have had a learning experience abroad (1). Therefore, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research launched in September 2017 the new national pilot programme “AusbildungWeltweit” for funding international learning experience of German IVET-learners in the dual system. It offers the possibility to gain international learning experience in all countries outside Europe and to foster the participation of learners and their training companies in transnational mobility. This programme represents an attractive supplement to Erasmus+ for enterprises having a high demand for sending their apprentices in countries outside Europe. By implementing this programme, the German government creates not only new opportunities for IVET-learners to learn abroad and for their training companies to participate in international cooperations, it also demonstrates the political willingness to expand international learning mobility in IVET. The Federal Ministry of Education and Research provides from year to year a rising budget for “AusbildungWeltweit” in order to strengthen international learning experiences for VET-learners in all countries outside Europe and Erasmus+. As this funding programme was very successful in 2017 and 2018, this pilot programme became a national funding programme for international mobility in IVET in November 2018.
International mobility in IVET is also a policy target at the level of the Länder. A good example of this is the ministry of education in North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) (2) which adopted a decree on the "Certification of vocational schools for their international cooperation activities in European vocational training" (3). With this decree, the ministry aims at strategically supporting and implementing international mobility and internationalisation at vocational schools in NRW. This decree includes a benchmark for mobility as well as a curriculum for the additional qualification “international VET mobility”: vocational schools making transnational mobility possible for 10 % of their pupils and implementing this curriculum are awarded the certification.
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(1) http://dip21.bundestag.de/dip21/btd/17/109/1701986.pdf
(2) The Lander have political and legislative competence for the VET school part of dual IVET, and therefore play and important role in IVET mobility as well. North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) is a forerunner, since it is the first state to set a benchmark in this field. NRW is the most populous state and the economically strongest state (highest gross regional product) in Germany. NRW also has the most apprentices, the most participants in Erasmus+ funded IVET mobility, and the best developed guidance infrastructure for IVET mobility (at district level, guidance is provided in every VET school and company, esp. SMEs). NRW already experiences a shortage of skilled workers, so wants to make IVET more attractive, for example by fostering international mobility. Other Lander (like Bavaria or Baden-Württemberg) support IVET mobility politically, but don’t have a benchmark.
(3) https://www.berufsbildung.nrw.de/cms/bildungsganguebergreifende-themen/…

Greece (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
There is a process for setting up policy targets. It is limited in coverage but planned to be expanded. Greece has agreed to contribute to the benchmark for learning mobility in initial VET. That is, in accordance to Council conclusions on a benchmark for learning mobility (C 372/34, 20.12.2011), with a view to increasing the participation of initial vocational education and training students in learning mobility: by 2020, an EU average of at least 6 % of 18-34 year-olds with an initial vocational education and training qualification should have had an initial VET-related study or training period (including work placements) abroad lasting a minimum of 2 weeks, or less if documented by Europass.
The target setting process is under the joint responsibility of the foreseen Working Group for the strengthening of cross-border mobility of learners and teachers and the State Scholarships Foundation (IKY), which is the Greek Erasmus+ National Agency.

Hungary (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
There is a process for setting up policy targets, but it is limited in coverage and not planned to be expanded. Targets of mobility policy are embedded in other policy areas. The steps of the overall process are the following: general education development strategy, VET conception, creating acts, developing and implementing regulations. The general education development strategy includes particular policy targets and intervention areas for mobility: Promoting mobility of teachers and trainers within and across national boundaries; identifying and creating favourable conditions for mobility within Hungary; Identifying and creating favourable conditions for cross-border mobility; Overcoming the obstacles of international mobility through learning foreign languages; Integrating the results and experiences of mobility projects into the day by day teaching-training processes; Expanding social and communication links between public, clerical and civil organisations as well as with media and market stakeholders to enhance mobility.

Iceland (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
No targets/benchmarks have been set for the mobility policy

Ireland (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
Ireland has not set up any targets for the mobility policy in IVET. However, in December 2017, Ireland Department (Ministry) of Education and Skills published a strategy document entitled ‘Ireland’s strategy for foreign languages in education 2017-2026’. It sets out the goals and ambitions to foster foreign language learning in Ireland, particularly within the schools and higher education sectors. However, the document recognises that the further education/training (FET) sector, where most VET in Ireland occurs, is less well placed to foster foreign language skills as the typical duration of FET courses is rarely sufficient to allow for the development of foreign language proficiency to the level required in many of the occupations that require foreign language competences in Ireland (e.g. many call-centre operations require native, or near native standard of language proficiency). Nonetheless, as part of the goal to create a more engaging learning environment for foreign languages, the Strategy aims to look at how learners in both FET and HE could be encouraged to participate in the Erasmus+ programme and to improve the language competence of students returning from the programme.

Italy (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
No overall targets for the IVET mobility policy in general.

Latvia (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
Overall policy targets are in place. Aspects of learner mobility are part of national education policy to rise international competitiveness of education and to promote the prestige of vocational education. Education development guidelines for 2014-2020 (2014) set task to provide support measures for international mobility and cross-border co-operation in vocational education and defines quantitative goals on number of vocational students involved in learning mobility (473 students in 2017 and 538 students in 2020)_and share of initial vocational education graduates involved in learning mobility (5.3% in 2012 and 6% in 2020), as well as number of vocational education teachers involved in mobility (131 in 2017 and 170 in 2020) with support of Erasmus+ programme. Therefore, international mobility is increasingly becoming an integral part of vocational schools' development plan.

Lithuania (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
Lithuania has not set out any overall policy benchmark for its IVET mobility policy. VET providers set their own targets and goals for the international student mobility. Usually VET providers plan the number of new mobility projects and number of IVET international learning mobilities. These targets are planned in the annual school plan or set as the indicators of the internal quality management system. Those VET providers, which have an Erasmus+ Mobility Charter and internationalisation strategy (23 out of 70), are planning targets for incoming IVET mobility as well as targets for improving the quality of mobility in the action plan. The Erasmus+ National Agency monitors the achievement of these targets.

Luxembourg (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
Overall policy targets are in place. Each year Anefore sets goals approved by its Board of Directors and used as a guideline throughout the year. Anefore also defines national objectives and qualitative indicators related to each key action of the Erasmus+ programme. Regarding the mobility of IVET learners, the first objective is that all students use the Europass mobility certificate as a complement recognizing the learning outcomes of the training abroad.

Malta (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
The reference framework is the multi-annual plan of the National Agency (EUPA). A number of initiatives are being taken to secure the maximum uptake of funds available under the Erasmus+ programme whilst ensuring that quality level benchmarks relating to submitted applications is increased.

Netherlands (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
Policy targets for the overall IVET mobility policy are in place. In a Letter to Parliament (June 2018), the Minister of Education, Culture and Science announced a higher mobility target for senior secondary VET: an increase of outgoing mobility from 7% to 10% over the next five years.
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(1) https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/actueel/nieuws/2018/06/04/de-meerwaarde-va…

Norway (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
There is a process for setting up policy targets, which is planned to be expanded. In Norway, there has been a process for setting overall targets in IVET mobility policy through the Erasmus+ strategy, in which it is an objective to increase the total use of Erasmus+. The Erasmus+ participation shall contribute to reach the objectives in the Norwegian education politics, increase the quality and strengthen the international education cooperation at all levels. It will make the education more relevant, make students and apprentices more attractive to the labour market, and give the individuals opportunities to develop both professionally and personally. National targets are set to increase the mobility of VET teachers and trainers in the Erasmus+ programme from 320 in 2014 to 420 in 2020. In 2016 the Ministry of Education and Researched presented a National Strategy for Norwegian participation in the Erasmus+ programme. In 2017, Diku launched a National Action Plan to support the realization of the goals set out in this strategy.
The National Action Plan includes a range of detailed measures to be taken, by Diku and other relevant actors.

Poland (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
Poland has no targets set for international learning mobility in IVET. VET was not the object of reform or intensified corrective actions during the entire transition period (1990-2010) in Poland. Only recently, has vocational education been regaining its position among national policies. Restoring the importance of vocational education and creating an attractive educational offer for young people and adults have become national priorities, reflected in recent national and regional strategic documents and actions. Still, it appears that setting targets for IVET mobility has not been treated as a priority in the context of Polish VET reforming efforts. However, the Ministry of Education and KOWEZiU (currently the Centre for Education Development - ORE) published guidelines on the quality assurance of VET provision as part of implementing EQAVET. The guidelines contain a section on cooperation between national and international institutions when organising learning mobility opportunities for VET students. These measures are not compulsory. In 2018, a strategic document, the ‘Integrated Skills Strategy’, was developed - a document prepared by the Educational Research Institute for the Ministry of Education. The main aim of the strategy is to create opportunities and conditions for the development of skills, which is seen as necessary for creating social capital, social inclusion, economic growth and the quality of life. The document recognizes international mobility as one of the indicators for the achievement of goals in the field of higher education. In the field of IVET, it refers to building key competences and their relevance for vocational mobility, but does not refer to the international mobility of VET learners (only HE learners).
While no targets or indicators have been set forth in government policies, schemes and actions on mobility, it is supported by the government (Ministry of National Education, Ministry of Innovation and Development - either directly or via funds from PO WER and RPOs) and the Polish National Agency of the Erasmus+ Programme (the Foundation for the Development of the Education System, FRSE).

Portugal (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
Portugal has not set out any overall targets/benchmarks for its mobility policy.

Romania (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
The targets imposed through the Erasmus+ programme are followed at a national level.

Slovakia (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
No overall targets for the IVET mobility policy in general, but plans are underway. Mobility was for the first time in the history mentioned by the 2016 Government Manifesto. Subsequently, two measures of the 'National programme for development of education' approved by the government in June 2018 address mobilities. Measure No. 75 of the 'Implementation plan' to the 'National programme for development of education' explicitly addresses improvement of tertiary student mobilities. Additional Measure No. 76 envisages elaboration of the strategy of internationalisation of higher education environment. A similar approach towards IVET is lacking. Suggestions of the 'Learning Slovakia' strategy paper commissioned and published by the Ministry of Education in 2017 concerning stronger support for drawing lessons from IVET mobilities have not been reflected so far.

Slovenia (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
Overall policy targets are in place. Mobility is one of the priorities of the Ministry of Education, Science and Sport. The Centre of the Republic of Slovenia for Mobility and European Educational and Training Programmes (CMEPIUS), sets a target on how many students are to be sent on mobility in a given year.

Spain (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
Spain takes on the objectives set in Erasmus+ of increasing mobility during learning, reaching a 6% in IVET.
In the case of vocational training for employment, Employment public authorities developed the Common Services Portfolio (1) (2), along with regions, for the establishment of Protocols that implement and bring about targets and benchmarks and evaluation indicators of the quality of public services nationwide. These protocols have been set and collected as guidelines, and published in the official bulletin (3). As an example, in the Protocol related to vocational qualification and training named "Management of European tools to encourage mobility in training and professional qualification", objectives and criteria are set for measuring the quality of common services proposed. Satisfaction of mobility users is one of the criteria and quality indicators.
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1. https://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2015/02/05/pdfs/BOE-A-2015-1056.pdf
(2) https://www.sepe.es/contenidos/que_es_el_sepe/publicaciones/pdf/pdf_emp…
(3) https://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2018/04/14/pdfs/BOE-A-2018-5106.pdf

Sweden (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
No overall targets for the IVET mobility policy in general. The curriculum for upper secondary education states that the responsibility of the head teacher includes encouragement of international contacts, co-operation and exchange in education. It is applicable to all learners, but no targets are set.

United Kingdom (2019)

OVERALL TARGETS IN IVET MOBILITY POLICY
There is a process for setting IVET mobility policy targets, but it is limited in coverage and not planned to be expanded. The Erasmus+ National Agency, individual providers of learning mobility, and national government departments set targets for inward and outward mobility, but there are no overall national targets for the UK as a whole.
In Northern Ireland, targets have been set for each government department to increase the EU funding it attracts through competitive bidding programmes, including for mobility programmes such as Erasmus+. However, individual targets for mobility have not been set. Furthermore, although not a specific quantitative target, the Northern Ireland Strategy on Apprenticeships from June 2014 sets out a policy commitment that includes to "fully utilise opportunities for international placements and exchanges." It goes on to explain that the "Government will establish links with partner countries across Europe, and internationally, to provide opportunities for placements and exchanges through exploring the use of EU programmes, such as Erasmus+ and considering incentives for participating employers." One of the themes in the 2016 Further Education Strategy 'Further Education Means Success' has a theme of ‘Excellence' which sets out how colleges will embed high quality teaching and will enhance how performance is monitored.