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Policy instruments

Scroll down to explore detailed information on skills anticipation and matching policy instruments from EU countries. Click on the respective tabs to select and filter by specific search criteria, such as the focus of the policy area, the aim of the instrument, the specific use of labour market intelligence and the type of stakeholders involved.

Displaying 47 policy instruments
Title Country Focus area Policy area Aim of policy instrument Use of labour market intelligence Policy goal
AMS Standing Committee on New Skills AT Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployedAddress skill shortagesUpskill employed adultsFacilitate job/career transitionsOther Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform job-search decisions of unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionEnable strategic business decisions

Identifying changes in the needs for qualifications/new skills. To design training measures for the unemployed and to guide (further) training in companies and in specific occupations, based on input working groups (PES and companies representatives). Working groups are created for specific sectors, made up of sectoral clusters of business representatives (e.g. in construction and building, business administration, chemicals and plastics, electrical engineering/electronics/ telecommunications, energy and environmental engineering, commerce, machinery/motor vehicles/metal, tourism, and health). These groups then formulate a list of current and future sector-specific requirements for employees and jobseekers in their sectors. The outcomes are used by AMS for the design of training measures for the unemployed and are also meant to guide (further) training in companies and in specific occupations.

PES Skills Barometer AT Matching skills for today’s job market Adult education and training Broadly address skill mismatch Inform decisions on course funding/provisionInform career-making decisions of studentsInform job-search decisions of unemployedEnable strategic business decisions

Preparation of labour market related information to make it accessible and understandable for everyone. It helps all interested parties (PES employees, journalists, politicians, company representatives, persons who want to choose their career) to process information on the local, regional and national labour market.

Online courses BE Matching skills for today’s job market Adult education and training Upskill employed adults Design training programmes to activate unemployedDesign standards and accreditationInform decisions on course funding/provision

The instrument aims to help working adults to remain employable and active in the labour market by giving them easily accessible options to learn skills across a broad variety of subject areas. The main rationale for this instrument is to improve the competences and employability of workers and job seekers in Flanders. The instrument does so by offering (in October 2017) 635 online courses for free to both target groups.

HRDA Scheme for Job Placement and Training of Tertiary-Education Graduates CY Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Match skills of young graduatesAddress skill shortages Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform job-search decisions of unemployed

To reduce unemployment amongst tertiary-education graduates by helping them find productive and suitable employment through acquiring work experience and specialised additional knowledge suitable to market needs. At the same time help businesses/organisations to improve their productivity and competitiveness by employing highly educated young graduates. The programme focused on the integration of highly qualified young people into the labour market by providing practical on-the-job experience in a company for a maximum period of 12 months.

Education and Work CZ Matching skills for today’s job market Other Facilitate job/career transitions Inform decisions on course funding/provisionInform job-search decisions of unemployedOther

The policy goal of Education and Work is to create a user-friendly tool communicating to the general public the concepts of the National Register of Qualifications, namely the Vocational Qualifications. It also serves as an intermediary platform connecting information on skills and corresponding work opportunities. The portal provides users with the opportunity to match their skills and qualifications with corresponding job titles and vacant positions. It also works the other way around: giving information on available training courses, exams and certificates for those interested in gaining skills required for specific jobs.

Regional Vocational Scholarship Programmes CZ Matching skills for today’s job market Initial vocational education and training Address skill shortages Inform decisions on course funding/provisionOther

The key problem that the instrument aims to address is a low number of pupils/students studying specific fields of secondary education (especially technical/vocational fields). In many regions, there is a long track record of a low number of students studying technical fields at the secondary education level, because many children (and their parents) prefer general or administration/business fields of education. This results in the shortage of a qualified workforce for particular sectors and also causes the outflow of qualified training staff from vocational schools, which could be a threat for vocational education in the future.

Favourable educations DK Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Adult education and training Address skill shortagesUpskill employed adultsMatch skills of young graduatesFacilitate job/career transitions Inform decisions on course funding/provisionInform career-making decisions of students

The policy goal of the instrument is to raise the number of skilled workers and to influence the decision of young people to choose vocational trainings where more skilled workers are needed. The scheme provides subsidies to businesses who agree to sign an internship agreement with a student from one of the favourable educations. It is especially designed to meet future skill needs, as the employer federations, in collaboration with the Ministry of Education, will decide which educational programs are eligible for the scheme. In addition, it provides guidance to the students or employees who wish to take a vocational education program, with good opportunities for internships and job opportunities in the future.

Choose IT! EE Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Adult education and training Upskill and match skills of unemployedAddress skill shortagesUpskill employed adultsFacilitate job/career transitions Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform job-search decisions of unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provision

The policy instrument addresses the issue of labour shortages in the field of ICT. As there is a serious mismatch between the supply and demand of such workers, more active measures are needed in addition to classical ones, e.g. increasing the number of study places and engaging qualified foreign labour. This implies that the possibilities for retraining and in-service training for adults have to be broadened.
The policy goal is to improve digital literacy (information and communication technology skills) of adults. The rationale for the intervention is to provide active and intensive retraining opportunities in the field of ICT for adults with higher education (or discontinued higher education, 50% of the curricula must be completed), who currently work in other areas (or are currently unemployed), but in the future are interested in working as software developers or more general, in the ICT field. The instrument contributes to increasing and enhancing digital literacy of adults through active, intensive and agile retraining programme.

Development of OSKA, a system of labour market monitoring and future skills forecasting EE Matching skills for the future of work Employment policy Upskill and match skills of unemployedAddress skill shortagesUpskill employed adultsMatch skills of young graduatesFacilitate job/career transitionsBroadly address skill mismatch Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform job-search decisions of unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform career-making decisions of studentsEnable strategic business decisionsInform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)Design standards and accreditation

The policy instrument comprehensively addresses the issue of better matching the needs of the labour market with the provided education and training. The policy goal is to improve and tighten the linkages between the world of learning and the quantitative and qualitative needs and expectations of the labour market. The rationale for the intervention is the creation and implementation of a systematic process to engage all relevant stakeholders, so that they can provide input into skills anticipation and give recommendations to upgrade competency standards, provide relevant training and courses, also retraining possibilities. The general aim of OSKA is to teach and learn about the right skills relevant in the society. The OSKA system creates a cooperation platform, which enables the exchange of information between employers and training providers and educational institutions to comprehensively analyse the growth potential of different economic sectors and their needs, and to facilitate the planning of education provision at different levels of education and by types of school, as well as in the fields of retraining and in-service training.

Development of the Career Guidance System in Estonia EE Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work General education Address skill shortagesUpskill employed adultsMatch skills of young graduatesFacilitate job/career transitionsBroadly address skill mismatch Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform career-making decisions of studentsInform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)Design standards and accreditation

To develop career guidance in the national system of education seeking to cope with the current and future skills mismatch. The general goal of the policy instrument was to provide easily accessible and high quality career guidance services and to guarantee that the development of the career guidance system in Estonia is systematic and sustainable.
The policy goal was related to lifelong learning and the development of human resources, specifically the goal was increased participation in lifelong learning according to the possibilities and needs of the population. The development of the Career Guidance System in Estonia contributes to the reduction of the future skills shortages through the following tasks: development of the national system of career guidance in the system of education; development of career education in general and vocational schools; development of the provision of career information and career counselling in regional information and counselling centres, including the creation of quality assurance system; development and introduction of ICT applications in guidance and counselling (questionnaires for choosing suitable occupations and the ability to recognise suitable professions etc); and strengthening of cooperation and information exchange within the institutional network in the fields of education, training, guidance, youth work and labour market in Estonia.
As the policy goal was to increase participation in lifelong learning, the instrument contributed to it by methodologically and systematically helping youth in their (career related) decision making process and making career studies and career planning part of their ordinary, everyday education. Furthermore, with the introduction of ICT applications, digital literacy was improved which nowadays is an essential part of lifelong learning. Institutional cooperation in the field of career guidance and counselling was strengthened through the creation of the Cooperation Council (Koostöökogu), which united various ministry representatives, youth organization representatives and employer federations etc. Also, during the programme period, various temporary working groups were assembled to solve relevant issues.

Vocational reintegration programme of early school leavers "Kutse" EE Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Initial vocational education and training Upskill and match skills of unemployedUpskill employed adultsOther Inform job-search decisions of unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform career-making decisions of students

To enhance the return and re-integration of dropouts to VET schools, thus preventing their unemployment and reducing their vulnerability in the labour market. The policy goal is related to lifelong learning and the development of human resources, specifically the goal is to increase participation in lifelong learning according to the possibilities and needs of the population.
The rationale for the intervention is to increase the competitiveness of people with lower education and no formal qualification, who discontinued their studies at the time of the economic boom and after the collapse, and to equip them with skills and knowledge relevant to the labour market. The instrument contributes to achieving the policy goal by giving a second chance to people to return to school and finish their studies. The focus of the instrument is on the learner and his/her choice of specialty (personal preference), and not so much on national priority study specialties or areas.

Labour market training FI Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployedUpskill employed adults Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform job-search decisions of unemployed

The goal is to improve the professional skills of unemployed adults or adults who are at risk of being unemployed, enhancing their possibilities of finding a job or retaining one. It also aims to improve their capacity for working as entrepreneurs. The overall aim is to promote the availability of skilled labour. Education and training are key measures to help people meet changing skills requirements and improve the matching of supply of and demand for labour. Skills development of individuals has an important role in the implementation of ALMPs and in managing challenges of changing skills requirements.

National adult education anticipation FI Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Adult education and training Address skill shortagesBroadly address skill mismatch Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)

The policy goal is to increase the knowledge of the (current and future) skills required for the adult population in different businesses. That information is needed to make better informed policy decisions at all levels of the educational system, to better meet the needs of labour market. The anticipation tries also to increase the level of expertise and know-how in Finland in general. For that reason it is not only reactive but proactive. The rationale is to adjust the supply and the content of education to better meet the need of industry in a proactive manner. The anticipation material is used also by the students to make better informed decisions and by teachers to plan the content of their teaching.

Personal Training Account FR Matching skills for today’s job market Adult education and training Upskill employed adultsAddress skill shortages Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform job-search decisions of unemployed

The goal is to concretely apply the right to lifelong learning by enhancing access to training, independent of the employment record or situation. This instrument enables the accumulation of credits for the right to training for every individual since his/her entrance into the labour market. The account is entirely transferable from one occupation to another, and preserved when changing or losing one’s job.

BERUFENET DE Matching skills for today’s job market Other Match skills of young graduatesUpskill and match skills of unemployedUpskill employed adultsBroadly address skill mismatch Inform decisions on course funding/provisionInform career-making decisions of studentsInform job-search decisions of unemployedEnable strategic business decisions

Informing people in the labour market on career choice opportunities. It helps all interested parties (PES employees, journalists, politicians, company representatives, people who want to choose their career) to process information on the local, regional, and national labour market.

Initiative for skilled workforce Eastern Germany DE Matching skills for today’s job market Growth and innovation Facilitate job/career transitionsAddress skill shortages Inform decisions on course funding/provisionEnable strategic business decisions

Labour force supply in Eastern Germany will shrink earlier and stronger than in the Western Länder due to the massive decrease in fertility after the reunification and the persistent migration of young and well-qualified people from Eastern Länder to Western Länder. The goal of the project is to support the competitiveness of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and the economic growth in Eastern Germany. With this initiative, the Ministry of the Interior promotes and funds regional approaches of securing a skilled workforce. These approaches are capable of exploiting the employment potential as far as possible. The core activity - besides events and publications - is to fund and support a number of projects introduced by companies and company networks. The projects are identified via a contest. Therefore, by supporting the interplay of various regional actors, the focus lies in testing measures of securing a skilled workforce in promising sectors in terms of increasing demand for skilled personnel.

EGF/2014/015 EL/Attica Publishing Activities GR Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployedUpskill employed adultsFacilitate job/career transitions Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform career-making decisions of studentsInform job-search decisions of unemployedOther

The instrument relates to 705 workers made redundant in 46 enterprises operating in the Publishing activities sector in the region of Attica. All of them are entitled to receive support in terms of counselling, training, business consultancy, self-employment subsidy and mobility allowance. Through a series of personalised services the instrument aims to support workers that lost their jobs in publishing enterprises due to the crisis. The personalised services, which are to be provided to the redundant workers consist of the following actions: occupational guidance (recording and investigation of the needs, skills assessment, personal and occupational development procedure, conducting the individual action plan, follow-up), training and vocational training, self-employment subsidy, job-search allowance and training allowance, mobility allowance.

Local Action Plans (TOPSA) GR Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill employed adults Inform decisions on course funding/provisionInform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform job-search decisions of unemployed

The policy goal is the creation of new jobs and the support of entrepreneurship at the local level. The TopSA include actions such as training and education, work based learning and apprenticeships in private enterprises in Greece or abroad, the preparation of business plans, specialised research and evaluation services for start-ups, support for legal and tax issues, etc.
The goal of TopSA is that beneficiaries are able to:
- establish their own businesses that will benefit from the characteristics of their area
- qualify for other subsidised investment programs
- develop skills that will meet the identified needs of local firms that will hire them.

Community (public) work program complemented with training programs (PW) HU Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployedOther Inform decisions on course funding/provision

The policy goal is to lead the unemployed back to the labour market, so that people get work rather than social benefits. Community work means the launching of employment programmes that connect work and practical training, in order to eliminate employment disadvantages, increase the job-seekers’ qualification level, improve their skills, and transmit practical experience. The programme's available in the well-organised public application system, and also facilitate the realisation of local, as well as regional and national objectives with well-considered, planned and checked value-creating employment.

One step ahead HU Matching skills for today’s job market Adult education and training Upskill and match skills of unemployedUpskill employed adultsOther Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provision

The policy goal was to improve the qualification level of the Hungarian adult population through training programmes designed to allow trainees to “take a step forward” relative to their previous levels of qualification and knowledge/skills.
The aim of the program was to bring into employment those people with low school qualifications, or no skills. The program is an example, where approximately 20,000 adults were assisted in completing primary schooling and acquiring a vocational qualification during the program free of charge. The labour centres used every means at their disposal to foster the successful implementation of the program. They took part in the identification of shortage vocations to specify the types of training to be delivered under the program, as well as in the compilation of the training list.

Renewal of the contents, methodologies and structure of vocational training HU Matching skills for today’s job market General education Upskill employed adultsOther Inform decisions on course funding/provisionInform and train career guidance and counsellors

The policy goals were the following: to reform the contents and structure of vocational training; to develop/introduce a modular training system; and to strengthen the links between education and training and the economy.
A new phase in the modernisation of the VET system began in Hungary in 2006, which concurrently meant renewal of content, methodology and structure. The key concepts of the new training structure are modularisation and competence-based training. Together with this, the content of vocational training has also been updated, and new professional and examination requirements have been developed. The Regional Integrated VET Centres (TISZK) were established from consortiums of 6 to 8 vocational schools in 2006. TISZKs provide a professional learning environment for theory and workshop-based practical classes of IVET. The training workshops are equipped with state-of-the-art technology. TISZKs constitute a network of multi-purpose and multi-functional institutions that meet the needs of youth VET, adult education and further education efficiently and economically; are able to respond to changes in labour market requirements; and stimulate real cooperation and planning among partners contributing to performing tasks.

Youth Guarantee Work Trial HU Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployedOther Inform decisions on course funding/provision

The actions target all types of NEETs below the age of 25, including inactive and unemployed young people who are not in education or training and who need practical experience before they can enter the primary job market. By providing subsidies to employers hiring young people in need of help, young people gain experience, knowledge, upgrade their skills and are more likely to be able to find a job in the primary job market.

ICT Skills Conversion Programme IE Matching skills for today’s job market Higher education Address skill shortagesOther Inform decisions on course funding/provisionInform career-making decisions of studentsInform job-search decisions of unemployed

Up-skilling and re-skilling graduates. Explicitly addresses the current shortage of skills in the ICT sector.

IVET Programme 2017-2018 Friuli-Venezia Giulia Region IT Matching skills for today’s job market Initial vocational education and training Match skills of young graduatesOther Inform decisions on course funding/provisionInform career-making decisions of students

The main policy goal is to offer under 18s the possibility to achieve a formal IVET qualification within the regional IVET system through pathways which are: a) shorter than those delivered in State education vocational and technical programmes (5 years long); b) explicitly and tightly linked to the local labour markets needs and structures; c) recognized, in their final qualifications at national level. The main problem the policy instrument addresses is to raise the initial level of knowledge and skills of under 18s who do not chose to enter a 5 years education programme, enabling them to find employment with a qualification or to continue in the upper secondary and/or tertiary education or training system. The instrument contributes to achieving the policy goal through the identification and provision of IVET courses to be offered and delivered throughout the regional territory by accredited training providers and a certain number of upper secondary schools. IVET courses supply is supported, within the programme, by other complementary activities like the development of courses prototypes, the delivery of IVET leaving prevention measures, training for trainers, innovative pilot-projects, training standards' updating.

Regional Deed on Vocational Training aimed at Reducing Unemployment (Labour Market, 2015-2016, Piedmont Region) IT Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployed Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provision

The policy goal is to give the unemployed the opportunity to find employment through the development of skills and competences that match companies', sectors' or local economic systems' needs. The instrument specifically targets young and adult unemployed (also TCNs). The rationale of the instrument is that if an unemployed person develops skills and competences that are related to skills/competences needs characterising a specific local economic system (formally and rigorously analysed), then he/she will be more likely to find employment in that system. Within this framework, the instrument gives a contribution to the policy goal of tackling and reducing unemployment by explicitly indicating for each sub-regional area, what are the sectors and the professional profiles to be given priority in terms of training.

Competences LT LT Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Match skills of young graduatesUpskill employed adultsAddress skill shortages Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provision

The main goal of the policy is to fulfil specific sectorial needs, by providing training and to create a sub-system of high qualification development at a work place. The rationale for the intervention is strengthening the potential of human resources. The instrument covers the whole country and a wide network of employees and employers.

The open system of vocational information and consulting AIKOS LT Matching skills for today’s job market Initial vocational education and training Match skills of young graduatesUpskill and match skills of unemployedUpskill employed adultsFacilitate job/career transitions Design standards and accreditationInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform career-making decisions of studentsInform job-search decisions of unemployedEnable strategic business decisions

The goal of the policy is to ensure relevant and comprehensive information about labour market and education and training possibilities in Lithuania is provided. It is an open online information portal, providing information on qualifications, VET and HE study programmes, as well as about the providers of these programmes to the different target groups. The target group includes pupils and young people seeking to obtain the information about occupations and qualifications, students, employers, education and training providers.

Skills Observatory LU Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Initial vocational education and training Upskill and match skills of unemployedAddress skill shortagesUpskill employed adults Inform decisions on course funding/provision

The 5 main objectives for the Skills Observatory: to identify and anticipate the skills that employees should have currently and in the future; to ensure, based on sector analysis, rapid implementation of training involving the relevant actors in the field; to develop training through individual and collective skills in companies of four specific economic sectors: logistics, the hospital sector, the administrative staff of private companies and the legal sector; to provide policymakers and the professional sectors concerned with tangible elements, so that they can agree on training solutions and continue to implement these; and to conduct a forward thinking strategy and sustainability of training in place. The Skills Observatory identifies and anticipates skills and competence needs, which look to be required in a given sector. In doing so, it aims to identify what sort of competences and skills require improved treatment or further attention within continued and initial vocational education and training.

Fund for young people entering the labour market NL Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Match skills of young graduatesUpskill and match skills of unemployedFacilitate job/career transitionsAddress skill shortages Inform decisions on course funding/provisionEnable strategic business decisionsOther

The policy instrument aims to solve the issue of graduates from tertiary level education (WO and HBO degrees in the Netherlands) not being able to find work due to lack of work experience. Often employers do not have the financial capacity or desire to take on an employee with no practical work experience. The instrument aims to enable graduates to acquire work experience through subsidized internships at enterprises, thus making them more attractive in the labour market. Without practical working experience, labour market information shows that graduates leaving tertiary education do not have the relevant skills and practical work experience that enterprises are looking for. Therefore, hiring a fresh graduate represents a risk for enterprises, as they must invest time and money to train a graduate to work in their enterprise. The rationale of the instrument is that by subsiding the training of graduates, it is more attractive for enterprises to hire them. Moreover, graduates gain work experience, making them more attractive on the labour market as a whole. Furthermore, having trained at an enterprise, a graduate has higher chances of being hired there. Overall, the main purpose is to help graduates find work more easily.

Study of Human Capital in Poland (BKL) PL Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Active labour market policies Address skill shortagesBroadly address skill mismatchOther Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform career-making decisions of studentsEnable strategic business decisionsInform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)

Projects analysing how the structure of competences is changing in the labour market. This extensive research project seeks the answers to the key questions about the future asked by schoolchildren, students, employees, employers, and public institutions responsible for shaping policies related to human capital at both national and regional levels: What subjects of studies to select to have desirable knowledge and skills after graduation? What competences to hone to build the best professional career, one that will be in demand in the face of dynamic economic changes? How to plan the development of the team, so that the firm gains a lasting competitive edge founded on the team’s qualifications? Finally, what changes to introduce at the state level to support the building of an innovative economy based on human capital?

Active Life Measure – Qualified Employment PT Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployed Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provision

The instrument aims to reinforce the quality, the effectiveness and the responsiveness of active employment policies, namely regarding the professional qualification of unemployed people. This instrument creates a qualification measure that aims to adjust the personal employment plans and the individual potential and needs of each unemployed, in order to improve his/her employability, and favour his/her return to the labour market. Whenever considered adequate to the profile of the unemployed, the instrument may include a skills recognition, validation and certification process.

Apprenticeship courses PT Matching skills for today’s job market Initial vocational education and training Other Inform decisions on course funding/provision

The apprenticeship courses are dual training courses that provide double certification (educational and a professional), targeting young people and their integration into the labour market, and/or allowing the continuation of studies to higher education. The main principles of this measure are: intervene among young people in transition to active life, in order to improve their employability levels and social and professional inclusion; recognize the importance of on-the-job training, improving the valorisation of the company’s contribution to training; alternating training methods, that is theory and practice and the contexts in which both occur. The number of apprenticeships courses places and their professional areas is defined annually by the Institute of Employment and Vocational Training (IEFP), based on an assessment of the dynamics of the labour market.

Criteria for definition of number of vacancies in public higher education PT Matching skills for today’s job market Higher education Match skills of young graduatesAddress skill shortages Inform decisions on course funding/provisionInform career-making decisions of students

The policy goal is to gradually reduce the number of unemployed graduates from public universities and polytechnic institutes by limiting the number of vacancies in the public higher education institutes, taking in consideration the level of unemployment of graduates in the calculation of the number of new places to be opened. It is an instrument regulating vacancies to be opened by calculating formulae of employability of graduates. There is a set of formulae that must be applied by each public university and polytechnic institute every year to determine if they can increase or must decrease the number of vacancies for each of the bachelors and integrated master courses they intend to open.

Professional internships PT Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Match skills of young graduatesUpskill and match skills of unemployed Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provision

The improvement of qualifications and skills of unemployed young people (18-30 years), as well as of unemployed people who are in a situation of particular vulnerability, in order to promote their employability. The professional internships aim at smoothing transitions to labour market. Their major intention is providing a first work experience to young unemployed who lack practical skills and knowledge of the work environment. After the big economic crisis, they were extended to cover the transition to the labour market of long term unemployed who need to reconnect with work experience, as well as other groups that are victims of different kinds of prejudice or difficulties of access to labour market due to their social background.

Vocational courses PT Matching skills for today’s job market Initial vocational education and training Match skills of young graduatesAddress skill shortages Design standards and accreditationInform decisions on course funding/provision

The vocational courses have three main goals: contribute to the development of personal and professional skills in order to pursuit a profession; develop training offers related with the local and regional work needs; and enable the students to continue to post-secondary education or higher education. They provide a double certification (secondary and professional) giving an EQF level 4. The vocational courses are courses of the secondary level of education (double certification), characterized by a strong connection with the professional world. Taking into account the personal profile of the students, the learning carried out enhances the development of competences for a profession, in cooperation with the local business sector.

Development of a Labour Market needs anticipation instrument RO Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployedUpskill employed adultsMatch skills of young graduatesFacilitate job/career transitions Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionEnable strategic business decisionsInform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)

Identification of future skills shortages and needs/demands, labour market trends, which is useful for the design and assessment of active labour market policies. This instrument uses a more sophisticated methodology (dynamic general equilibrium) and implies a macro-economic forecasting tool to indicate all macro-economic aggregates in an autonomous process. It was recently designed by INCSMPS and Fondazione G. Brodolini Italy in an ESF-financed project. Two models of the project has been merged to enable the National Labour Research Institute to anticipate future skills needs, so as to enable decision-makers to use it for tailoring and targeting LM interventions.

Evaluation and forecasting of the potential labour demand for higher education graduates up to 2020 RO Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Higher education Address skill shortagesMatch skills of young graduatesFacilitate job/career transitions Inform decisions on course funding/provisionInform career-making decisions of studentsEnable strategic business decisionsDesign standards and accreditation

The policy focuses on matching the supply of higher educated graduates with the demand of the employers, the adaptation of curricula and strengthen the link between higher education supply and the changing demands of the real economy. The instrument has been designed to assist the decision making at national level and thus reduce the gap between the supply of higher educated graduates and the demand coming from the labour market. It has been used to forecast trends by occupation and thus inform the national decision making process, as well as at the university level, with respect to the trends of the labour market and help adjust the structure of the university studies, adjust curricula and education plans and ultimately assist in creating a better match between education and the needs of the enterprises.

Matching VET supply with labour market demand RO Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Adult education and training Upskill and match skills of unemployedAddress skill shortagesUpskill employed adultsMatch skills of young graduatesFacilitate job/career transitions Inform job-search decisions of unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionEnable strategic business decisionsInform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)

Identification of future skills shortages and needs/demands. This project focused on the identification of the potential demand for VET, based on quantitative approach, having been inspired by the Pan-European model to forecast the supply and demand for skills, referring to levels of occupations and terms of development of regions and their relation to VET demand.

Partnership analysis and labour market forecasting system with continuing adaptation to economic dynamics RO Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Active labour market policies Upskill employed adultsMatch skills of young graduatesBroadly address skill mismatch Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionEnable strategic business decisionsInform and train career guidance and counsellors

The aim is to respond to a growing need of updated information from employers, social partners and other stakeholders of the labour market, in order to improve access to labour market information, to deal with mismatches, as well as to enhance the capabilities of the National Agency for Employment to provide and elaborate labour market analyses and forecasts.

A list of fields of study in an oversupply at the labour market and a list of fields of study in an undersupply in the labour market SK Matching skills for today’s job market Initial vocational education and training Match skills of young graduatesAddress skill shortages Inform decisions on course funding/provision

The policy goal is to better adjust the IVET system to labour market needs, in order to supply occupations in demand to the labour market and to prevent unemployment of IVET graduates. The intervention aims to better align supply and demand in the labour market. The instrument contributes to this by changing funding incentives for selected fields of study in IVET, to steer regulatory decisions of regional territorial units, which are founders of IVET schools in Slovakia.

National Project: Forecasting of Developments of Labour Market Needs SK Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Employment policy Upskill and match skills of unemployedAddress skill shortagesUpskill employed adultsMatch skills of young graduatesBroadly address skill mismatch Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform job-search decisions of unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform career-making decisions of studentsInform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)Other

The instrument aims to address skill mismatch in the economy. The project implements statistical models as tools for systematic monitoring of labour market needs, developments in skills mismatch, and skills supply/demand ratios at regional level, as well as with respect to graduates.

National project: National Register of Occupations (NRO) III SK Matching skills for today’s job market Other Match skills of young graduatesUpskill and match skills of unemployedUpskill employed adultsFacilitate job/career transitionsAddress skill shortagesBroadly address skill mismatch Inform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)Design training programmes to activate unemployedDesign standards and accreditationInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform career-making decisions of studentsInform job-search decisions of unemployed

The instrument addresses the skills mismatch in the economy and aims at linking employers' demands for skills with labour supply (via education and training). This instrument is the third (final) phase and continuation of previous projects National Register of Occupations I and II. After defining occupational standards that reflect employers needs for skills, and linking them to education and training (first and second phase), this instrument was finalised by the creation of the information portal with job classifications.

Records and analytical information system for higher education in the Republic of Slovenia SI Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Higher education Match skills of young graduatesBroadly address skill mismatch Inform decisions on course funding/provisionInform career-making decisions of studentsEnable strategic business decisionsInform and train career guidance and counsellors

eVŠ was developed for the purposes of:
- determining students’ eligibility to study and other rights chargeable to public funds.
- HE policy planning and the monitoring of the HE system.
- the monitoring of a network of HE institutions and study programmes.
- the monitoring of the employability of higher education graduates, which will enable appropriate professional and career counselling and will provide the basis for forecasting the needs for higher education staff in the labour market.
- public information.
- for research, analytical and statistical purposes, i.e. for the implementation of statistical, social and economic and other research activities in the area of HE. eVŠ addresses the fundamental need for the monitoring of students' employability, related to the question of transition from education system to labour market, and the problem of poor competencies - work match. eVŠ also addresses the general public policy trend of increased transparency, accountability and evidence-based decision-making, the growing international competitiveness of HEIs and the ever-increasing need for collecting and processing data.

Green Jobs Programme ES Matching skills for today’s job market Other Upskill and match skills of unemployedUpskill employed adultsFacilitate job/career transitionsAddress skill shortages Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform job-search decisions of unemployedEnable strategic business decisions

The problems addressed are the lack of skills for green jobs and environmental problems. The policy goal is to provide skills for green jobs to promote the greening of the economy and employability of workers. The final policy goal is to promote employment and competitiveness of the private sector through environmental transformation and greening. Thus, the instrument has three linked goals (environmental, economic and social). The programme was initially (2007-2013) focused on employed workers, but on the new ESF period (2014-2020) focuses on unemployed workers as well. In addition, the programme includes support to green entrepreneurs.

Observatory of Occupations of the Central PES ES Matching skills for today’s job market Other Upskill and match skills of unemployedAddress skill shortagesUpskill employed adultsMatch skills of young graduatesFacilitate job/career transitionsBroadly address skill mismatch Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform and train career guidance and counsellorsDesign standards and accreditation

The instrument addresses the problem of skills mismatch in the labour market. The policy goal is that the training delivered within a ALMP framework is correctly matched with labour market demands. Thus, the final goal is to improve workers' employability and competitiveness in the economy. The rationale is to carry out qualitative research about selected occupations in order to identify skill shortages and the main changes in skill demands (due to technological change, changes in regulation, etc.). This information should be taken into account for the design of training provision, within ALMP. Training provision within ALMP is structured through training courses for unemployed and professional certificates (VET managed by the PES).

Regional skills platforms SE Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Growth and innovation Upskill and match skills of unemployedAddress skill shortagesUpskill employed adultsMatch skills of young graduatesFacilitate job/career transitions Inform decisions on course funding/provisionEnable strategic business decisionsOther

To improve the national co-ordination of skills supply and to strengthen local and regional cooperation between public institutions and agencies in charge of skills supply. Set up platforms for cooperation in skill supply and short and long-term educational planning in each region.

The Teachers' Lift 2 SE Matching skills for today’s job market Higher education Upskill employed adultsAddress skill shortages Inform decisions on course funding/provision

Data and labour market forecasts show a large shortage of certified teachers now and in coming years. By funding studies, the instrument aims at increasing the number of certified teachers. The aim is to raise the competence and increase the accreditation of qualified, practicing teachers, in subjects they already teach. Via courses given by the Swedish National Agency for Education, teachers improve their subject knowledge and acquire tools for enhancing didactic skills. The teachers also have the opportunity to exchange views and experiences with other teachers. Upon completion, teachers can apply for new subject accreditation within their certificate. A total of 1,906 participants have begun a course by 2016.