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Policy instruments

Scroll down to explore detailed information on skills anticipation and matching policy instruments from EU countries. Click on the respective tabs to select and filter by specific search criteria, such as the focus of the policy area, the aim of the instrument, the specific use of labour market intelligence and the type of stakeholders involved.

Displaying 42 policy instruments
Title Country Focus area Policy area Aim of policy instrument Use of labour market intelligence Policy goal
Competent (this is the name of the database) BE Matching skills for today’s job market General education Upskill and match skills of unemployedFacilitate job/career transitionsAddress skill shortages Inform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform job-search decisions of unemployed

Increases the most needed skills in the labour market. The programmes are directly targeted towards the ‘knelpuntenberoepen’ (professions with shortages) – as identified by the VDAB (public employment service). The rationale here is that by allowing job seekers and enterprises to contribute to the database (by filling in career fiches), the database and career fiches are quickly updated according to current and actual supply and demand of skills, allowing for more effective and efficient matching.

Online courses BE Matching skills for today’s job market Adult education and training Upskill employed adults Design training programmes to activate unemployedDesign standards and accreditationInform decisions on course funding/provision

The instrument aims to help working adults to remain employable and active in the labour market by giving them easily accessible options to learn skills across a broad variety of subject areas. The main rationale for this instrument is to improve the competences and employability of workers and job seekers in Flanders. The instrument does so by offering (in October 2017) 635 online courses for free to both target groups.

Development of a Workforce Competence Assessment System by Sectors and Regions (CASSY) BG Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Active labour market policies Address skill shortagesUpskill employed adultsFacilitate job/career transitions Inform job-search decisions of unemployedInform career-making decisions of studentsEnable strategic business decisionsInform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)Design standards and accreditation

The overarching objective of the initiative was to enhance labour market adaptability and effectiveness, as well as to strike a greater balance of labour market demand and supply by developing a system for workforce competence assessment by sectors and regions. The rationale of the Competence Assessment System can be defined, as follows: Forecasting the demand for labour force with specific qualification levels in specific sectors and regions. The policy goal, defined in section 2 were achieved through:
- Analysing and defining workforce competence requirements by considering EU, national and sector requirements and standards;
- Establishment of a Bulgarian Competence Assessment Network by sectors and regions and improvement of the coordination and information exchange of workforce competence assessment among national, branch and regional structures of the employers and trade unions and the responsible government institutions;
- Gaining national recognition and fostering prerequisites for the integration of the workforce competence assessment system in the future e-government so as to enhance adaptability and effectiveness, and to achieve a balance of the labour market demand and supply.

Updating Higher Education Curricula in Compliance with Labour Market Requirements BG Matching skills for today’s job market Higher education Match skills of young graduates Other

The policy instrument addresses the need for better defining the range of skills and knowledge offered in the system of higher education, through establishing active cooperation mechanisms between higher education institutions and business entities and their associations. Thus, the policy goal of the initiative is to translate the social order for new professionals of the Bulgarian business into the language of education. The intervention contributed to the establishment of a direct link between HEIs on the one hand and employers on the other, including at higher and mid-management level. Key business experts were attracted, together with academics to redefine and update university curricula to better respond to labour market needs. Strategies were elaborated at HEI level for the development of the different degrees of education by professional fields and/or specialties, as a direct response to the needs of the business sector.

HRDA Scheme for Job Placement and Training of Tertiary-Education Graduates CY Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Match skills of young graduatesAddress skill shortages Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform job-search decisions of unemployed

To reduce unemployment amongst tertiary-education graduates by helping them find productive and suitable employment through acquiring work experience and specialised additional knowledge suitable to market needs. At the same time help businesses/organisations to improve their productivity and competitiveness by employing highly educated young graduates. The programme focused on the integration of highly qualified young people into the labour market by providing practical on-the-job experience in a company for a maximum period of 12 months.

STAD - Scheme for the Job Placement of Young Unemployed Graduates of Lower Secondary, Upper Secondary & Post-Secondary Education of up to 2 years for the Acquisition of Work Experience in Enterprises/Organisations (2014) CY Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Match skills of young graduatesUpskill and match skills of unemployed Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform job-search decisions of unemployed

The instrument addresses the problem of unemployment among young people. The aim of the Schemes is to provide young unemployed persons (below tertiary-education graduates) the opportunity to acquire work experience in order to improve their employability, at the same time, giving the opportunity to enterprises/organisations to use the services of those young persons at no financial cost to them. The scheme gives young graduates of secondary education the opportunity to enter/re-enter the labour market and improve their employability through acquiring training and work experience in companies and organisations.

Subsidy scheme for attracting people in the labour market through flexible forms of employment CY Matching skills for today’s job market Social and integration policies Other Inform job-search decisions of unemployed

The main objectives of the project are: keeping more people in the labour market by improving their employability and promoting the reconciliation of work and family life; and improved productivity and enhanced competitiveness of enterprises. The Scheme aimed to facilitate the employment of economically inactive and unemployed persons, who have difficulty entering or remaining in the labour market by way of some form of flexible arrangement.

Public work HR Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Other Enable strategic business decisions

The goal of the instrument is the inclusion of unemployed people in programs of involvement in socially beneficial jobs. Public work is an instrument in the active politics of labour market in the area of direct creation of new workplaces. Socially beneficial work that is implemented in limited time period provides financing and co-financing of employment of unemployed people from target groups. It is especially beneficial for activation and increase of employment and participation of people in particularly unfavourable positions in the labour market, especially older people. The program of public work is initiated by local community, civil society organizations and other subjects. Public work has to be non-profit and non-competitive to the existing economy in that area. A preference is given to projects in the area of social care, education, protection and preservation of environment, maintenance and communal work.

Vocational Qualification CZ Matching skills for today’s job market Adult education and training Upskill and match skills of unemployedUpskill employed adultsFacilitate job/career transitions Design training programmes to activate unemployedDesign standards and accreditation

Provide the unemployed, job seekers etc. with the possibility of having their informally acquired skills and competences assessed and certified, thus deepening, increasing or changing their qualifications, and in effect, improving their chances in the labour market.
An increasing number of citizens find their original formal qualifications either obsolete or losing relevance in the changing conditions of the current labour markets, and their workplace-learned (i.e. informally acquired) skills gaining significance. At the same time, quick technical developments cause employers to lack required skills in their staff. Vocational Qualifications are designed according to current and actual needs of the labour market, and allow for obtaining formally recognised qualifications by demonstrating actual skills and competences rather than by absolving periods of formal education.

Job Rotation Scheme DK Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployedUpskill employed adultsFacilitate job/career transitionsOther Design training programmes to activate unemployed

The job rotation scheme aims to address two main problems: the unemployment rate in Denmark and the need to upgrade the skills of employed people. Issues relating to the unemployed and underemployed people include: enabling entry into the profession by supporting education, the recruitment of new staff members once the scheme is complete and addressing the need for a more skilled workforce. The employer hires unemployed people as temporary workers, while permanent staff members receive further education and training. One precondition is that there is an ‘hour-to-hour relation’ between the employees attending education or training and the temporarily recruited workers.

Choose IT! EE Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Adult education and training Upskill and match skills of unemployedAddress skill shortagesUpskill employed adultsFacilitate job/career transitions Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform job-search decisions of unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provision

The policy instrument addresses the issue of labour shortages in the field of ICT. As there is a serious mismatch between the supply and demand of such workers, more active measures are needed in addition to classical ones, e.g. increasing the number of study places and engaging qualified foreign labour. This implies that the possibilities for retraining and in-service training for adults have to be broadened.
The policy goal is to improve digital literacy (information and communication technology skills) of adults. The rationale for the intervention is to provide active and intensive retraining opportunities in the field of ICT for adults with higher education (or discontinued higher education, 50% of the curricula must be completed), who currently work in other areas (or are currently unemployed), but in the future are interested in working as software developers or more general, in the ICT field. The instrument contributes to increasing and enhancing digital literacy of adults through active, intensive and agile retraining programme.

Development of OSKA, a system of labour market monitoring and future skills forecasting EE Matching skills for the future of work Employment policy Upskill and match skills of unemployedAddress skill shortagesUpskill employed adultsMatch skills of young graduatesFacilitate job/career transitionsBroadly address skill mismatch Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform job-search decisions of unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform career-making decisions of studentsEnable strategic business decisionsInform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)Design standards and accreditation

The policy instrument comprehensively addresses the issue of better matching the needs of the labour market with the provided education and training. The policy goal is to improve and tighten the linkages between the world of learning and the quantitative and qualitative needs and expectations of the labour market. The rationale for the intervention is the creation and implementation of a systematic process to engage all relevant stakeholders, so that they can provide input into skills anticipation and give recommendations to upgrade competency standards, provide relevant training and courses, also retraining possibilities. The general aim of OSKA is to teach and learn about the right skills relevant in the society. The OSKA system creates a cooperation platform, which enables the exchange of information between employers and training providers and educational institutions to comprehensively analyse the growth potential of different economic sectors and their needs, and to facilitate the planning of education provision at different levels of education and by types of school, as well as in the fields of retraining and in-service training.

Development of the Career Guidance System in Estonia EE Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work General education Address skill shortagesUpskill employed adultsMatch skills of young graduatesFacilitate job/career transitionsBroadly address skill mismatch Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform career-making decisions of studentsInform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)Design standards and accreditation

To develop career guidance in the national system of education seeking to cope with the current and future skills mismatch. The general goal of the policy instrument was to provide easily accessible and high quality career guidance services and to guarantee that the development of the career guidance system in Estonia is systematic and sustainable.
The policy goal was related to lifelong learning and the development of human resources, specifically the goal was increased participation in lifelong learning according to the possibilities and needs of the population. The development of the Career Guidance System in Estonia contributes to the reduction of the future skills shortages through the following tasks: development of the national system of career guidance in the system of education; development of career education in general and vocational schools; development of the provision of career information and career counselling in regional information and counselling centres, including the creation of quality assurance system; development and introduction of ICT applications in guidance and counselling (questionnaires for choosing suitable occupations and the ability to recognise suitable professions etc); and strengthening of cooperation and information exchange within the institutional network in the fields of education, training, guidance, youth work and labour market in Estonia.
As the policy goal was to increase participation in lifelong learning, the instrument contributed to it by methodologically and systematically helping youth in their (career related) decision making process and making career studies and career planning part of their ordinary, everyday education. Furthermore, with the introduction of ICT applications, digital literacy was improved which nowadays is an essential part of lifelong learning. Institutional cooperation in the field of career guidance and counselling was strengthened through the creation of the Cooperation Council (Koostöökogu), which united various ministry representatives, youth organization representatives and employer federations etc. Also, during the programme period, various temporary working groups were assembled to solve relevant issues.

Vocational reintegration programme of early school leavers "Kutse" EE Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Initial vocational education and training Upskill and match skills of unemployedUpskill employed adultsOther Inform job-search decisions of unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform career-making decisions of students

To enhance the return and re-integration of dropouts to VET schools, thus preventing their unemployment and reducing their vulnerability in the labour market. The policy goal is related to lifelong learning and the development of human resources, specifically the goal is to increase participation in lifelong learning according to the possibilities and needs of the population.
The rationale for the intervention is to increase the competitiveness of people with lower education and no formal qualification, who discontinued their studies at the time of the economic boom and after the collapse, and to equip them with skills and knowledge relevant to the labour market. The instrument contributes to achieving the policy goal by giving a second chance to people to return to school and finish their studies. The focus of the instrument is on the learner and his/her choice of specialty (personal preference), and not so much on national priority study specialties or areas.

Personal Training Account FR Matching skills for today’s job market Adult education and training Upskill employed adultsAddress skill shortages Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform job-search decisions of unemployed

The goal is to concretely apply the right to lifelong learning by enhancing access to training, independent of the employment record or situation. This instrument enables the accumulation of credits for the right to training for every individual since his/her entrance into the labour market. The account is entirely transferable from one occupation to another, and preserved when changing or losing one’s job.

Initiative for skilled workforce Eastern Germany DE Matching skills for today’s job market Growth and innovation Facilitate job/career transitionsAddress skill shortages Inform decisions on course funding/provisionEnable strategic business decisions

Labour force supply in Eastern Germany will shrink earlier and stronger than in the Western Länder due to the massive decrease in fertility after the reunification and the persistent migration of young and well-qualified people from Eastern Länder to Western Länder. The goal of the project is to support the competitiveness of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and the economic growth in Eastern Germany. With this initiative, the Ministry of the Interior promotes and funds regional approaches of securing a skilled workforce. These approaches are capable of exploiting the employment potential as far as possible. The core activity - besides events and publications - is to fund and support a number of projects introduced by companies and company networks. The projects are identified via a contest. Therefore, by supporting the interplay of various regional actors, the focus lies in testing measures of securing a skilled workforce in promising sectors in terms of increasing demand for skilled personnel.

Local Action Plans (TOPSA) GR Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill employed adults Inform decisions on course funding/provisionInform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform job-search decisions of unemployed

The policy goal is the creation of new jobs and the support of entrepreneurship at the local level. The TopSA include actions such as training and education, work based learning and apprenticeships in private enterprises in Greece or abroad, the preparation of business plans, specialised research and evaluation services for start-ups, support for legal and tax issues, etc.
The goal of TopSA is that beneficiaries are able to:
- establish their own businesses that will benefit from the characteristics of their area
- qualify for other subsidised investment programs
- develop skills that will meet the identified needs of local firms that will hire them.

Local actions for vulnerable groups (TOPEKO) GR Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployed Inform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform job-search decisions of unemployed

The aim of the Local actions for vulnerable groups (TOPEKO) is to contribute towards the integration or re-integration of unemployed people belonging to socially vulnerable groups, through a broad set of actions that cover additional needs of different beneficiaries with a special emphasis on their employment or entrepreneurial perspectives. The actions aim to mobilise local actors to create jobs and at the same time facilitate a versatile and effective preparation of unemployed beneficiaries to:
- cover job positions of existing businesses
- start a business that will benefit from the characteristics of their area
- gain qualifications to benefit from other investment programs
- acquire skills that will meet real and identified needs of local businesses that will hire them

Special Public Works HU Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployedOther Other

The programme aims at developing the skills of individuals with low levels of education and mild disabilities. The Special Public Works programme aims at providing special workplaces for unemployed with disabilities, and those unable to find a job or a spot in the ordinary public works programme, due to social or mental reasons (Government decree 1253/2016. VI. 6. Formulates this goal). Besides these sheltered transitional workplaces, participants also received individualised, complex help to improve their employability skills.

Skillnets IE Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployedAddress skill shortagesFacilitate job/career transitions Other

The policy instrument aims to address skills mismatch/gaps and to meet the evolving needs of the labour market through training and upskilling, with company groups, businesses, employees and the unemployed. The goal of Skillnets is to sustain Ireland's national competitiveness. The current rationale behind Skillnets is based on Ireland’s National Skills Strategy 2025, which is to increase the supply of skills to the labour market, and to strengthen the role of employers and training providers. Through it's different programmes, it meets the policy goal by offering support and funding to all levels of the labour market, e.g. by developing new programmes that address emerging skills gaps with FSNP, or supporting management development training opportunities and mentoring support for SME managers with ManagementWorks.

(Re)training and qualification of Whirlpool's and satellite activities' dismissed employees in the area of Trento IT Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployed Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform job-search decisions of unemployed

The European Globalisation Adjustment Fund mission is to help workers losing their jobs, due to the impact of globalisation or the global financial and economic crisis to find new jobs as soon as possible. The instrument addressed the problem of the closing of the Trento Whirlpool plant (with about 600 employees) and the need to re-employ the workers who lost their jobs, possibly in Trento areas. The rationale of the intervention is that the combination of both demand (companies) and supply (dismissed workers) side actions could increase the employment opportunities for the workers who lost their jobs. In addition, on the workers' side, the possibility to use more than one type of action (information, counselling, training, coaching, etc), and to be involved in training actions designed in accordance to specific occupational opportunities could result in a higher employability level. The instrument, as implemented in Trento, contributed to achieving EGF's goals, because the objectives and the structure of the instrument was absolutely consistent with EGF's objectives and fundamentals.

Regional Deed on Vocational Training aimed at Reducing Unemployment (Labour Market, 2015-2016, Piedmont Region) IT Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployed Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provision

The policy goal is to give the unemployed the opportunity to find employment through the development of skills and competences that match companies', sectors' or local economic systems' needs. The instrument specifically targets young and adult unemployed (also TCNs). The rationale of the instrument is that if an unemployed person develops skills and competences that are related to skills/competences needs characterising a specific local economic system (formally and rigorously analysed), then he/she will be more likely to find employment in that system. Within this framework, the instrument gives a contribution to the policy goal of tackling and reducing unemployment by explicitly indicating for each sub-regional area, what are the sectors and the professional profiles to be given priority in terms of training.

Studies of the sectors and creation of Sectoral Expert Councils. LV Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Initial vocational education and training Address skill shortagesBroadly address skill mismatch Inform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)Design standards and accreditation

To ensure relevant and comprehensive information about skills demand and supply in the sectors of the economy. The goal of SECs is to promote VET effectiveness and quality of VET by promoting cooperation between state institutions, municipalities, employers and their organisations, trade unions and professionals to deal with human resource development issues. It aims to also improve the quality and efficiency of vocational education according to the needs of national economy sectors, as well as addresses vocational training directly in the fields where there is the largest number of labour force and the skills that will have to be upgraded most of all. The descriptions of sectors provide structured and detailed information, which can be used for the design and implementation of different skill mismatch policy measures. This information includes: data and forecasts on the macro-economic development of sectors of the economy, including the demand for workforce; data and forecasts on the development of the workforce in the sectors; and data on the structure of occupations and qualifications in the sectors. This instrument provides necessary information for the work of SECs and the development of occupational standards and other measures dealing with the matching of supply of skills in the education system and demand for skills in the sectors of economy.

Apprenticeship and qualification improvement at a work place LT Matching skills for today’s job market Initial vocational education and training Upskill and match skills of unemployedAddress skill shortagesBroadly address skill mismatch Inform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform job-search decisions of unemployed

Provide support for projects of apprenticeship and the acquisition of sectoral competences, and also for the development of a sub-system for qualifications obtained in the working environment. The rationale for the intervention is to increase workforce competitiveness, ensuring opportunities to adapt to economic needs.

Competences LT LT Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Match skills of young graduatesUpskill employed adultsAddress skill shortages Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provision

The main goal of the policy is to fulfil specific sectorial needs, by providing training and to create a sub-system of high qualification development at a work place. The rationale for the intervention is strengthening the potential of human resources. The instrument covers the whole country and a wide network of employees and employers.

Employment opportunities barometer LT Matching skills for the future of work Active labour market policies Address skill shortages Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform job-search decisions of unemployedInform career-making decisions of studentsInform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)

To provide information and forecasts on the short-term labour market demand for qualifications. This instrument mainly aims to identify short-term (up to 1 year) shortages of qualifications by indicating qualifications in high, medium and low demand. It is an instrument for vocational guidance and planning of the active labour market measures, especially training for the unemployed.

The open system of vocational information and consulting AIKOS LT Matching skills for today’s job market Initial vocational education and training Match skills of young graduatesUpskill and match skills of unemployedUpskill employed adultsFacilitate job/career transitions Design standards and accreditationInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform career-making decisions of studentsInform job-search decisions of unemployedEnable strategic business decisions

The goal of the policy is to ensure relevant and comprehensive information about labour market and education and training possibilities in Lithuania is provided. It is an open online information portal, providing information on qualifications, VET and HE study programmes, as well as about the providers of these programmes to the different target groups. The target group includes pupils and young people seeking to obtain the information about occupations and qualifications, students, employers, education and training providers.

Skills Observatory LU Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Initial vocational education and training Upskill and match skills of unemployedAddress skill shortagesUpskill employed adults Inform decisions on course funding/provision

The 5 main objectives for the Skills Observatory: to identify and anticipate the skills that employees should have currently and in the future; to ensure, based on sector analysis, rapid implementation of training involving the relevant actors in the field; to develop training through individual and collective skills in companies of four specific economic sectors: logistics, the hospital sector, the administrative staff of private companies and the legal sector; to provide policymakers and the professional sectors concerned with tangible elements, so that they can agree on training solutions and continue to implement these; and to conduct a forward thinking strategy and sustainability of training in place. The Skills Observatory identifies and anticipates skills and competence needs, which look to be required in a given sector. In doing so, it aims to identify what sort of competences and skills require improved treatment or further attention within continued and initial vocational education and training.

Linking Industrial Needs and VET to Optimise Human Capital (ESF 2.85) MT Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work General education Upskill and match skills of unemployedAddress skill shortagesUpskill employed adultsFacilitate job/career transitionsBroadly address skill mismatch Enable strategic business decisionsInform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)Design standards and accreditation

Several goals where defined, including conducting research in ten sector groups, where a report generated for each sector will seek to identify skills, competences and qualifications that will be used as the basics to design tailormade courses for each industrial sector. There was an aim to re-skill 20% of participants to enable them to take up new tasks in the same or different industry sector and to up-skill 80% of participants to enable them to take up new tasks or perform better the same tasks within the relevant industry. There was also the goal to identify and address emerging trends developing in the labour market by providing approximately 3,600 hours of training across 10 sectors. This project aimed to identify the specific skills needs and current gaps in 10 different sectors. After this, the instrument also allowed people to apply for courses related to these sectors, which will ultimately give them the adaptability to move around in the Maltese labour market and in turn close the skills mismatch that exists in the market.

Fund for young people entering the labour market NL Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Match skills of young graduatesUpskill and match skills of unemployedFacilitate job/career transitionsAddress skill shortages Inform decisions on course funding/provisionEnable strategic business decisionsOther

The policy instrument aims to solve the issue of graduates from tertiary level education (WO and HBO degrees in the Netherlands) not being able to find work due to lack of work experience. Often employers do not have the financial capacity or desire to take on an employee with no practical work experience. The instrument aims to enable graduates to acquire work experience through subsidized internships at enterprises, thus making them more attractive in the labour market. Without practical working experience, labour market information shows that graduates leaving tertiary education do not have the relevant skills and practical work experience that enterprises are looking for. Therefore, hiring a fresh graduate represents a risk for enterprises, as they must invest time and money to train a graduate to work in their enterprise. The rationale of the instrument is that by subsiding the training of graduates, it is more attractive for enterprises to hire them. Moreover, graduates gain work experience, making them more attractive on the labour market as a whole. Furthermore, having trained at an enterprise, a graduate has higher chances of being hired there. Overall, the main purpose is to help graduates find work more easily.

Subsidy for practical learning NL Matching skills for today’s job market Initial vocational education and training Match skills of young graduatesFacilitate job/career transitionsBroadly address skill mismatch Design training programmes to activate unemployedEnable strategic business decisions

The measure aims ultimately to help better prepare students from various vocational educational levels and backgrounds for the labour market. Enterprises and employers in turn gain better educated employees. The subsidy allows enterprises and employers to offer work-based learning places within their organisation to better train students. The rationale is that there are groups of students in vocational education programmes and research students that require practical work experience to complete their educational programmes or to gain practical working experience. The measure seeks to ensure that enough good quality work-based positions are available by encouraging and supporting enterprises and employers to set up such work-based training positions. In this way, students are ensured good positions where they learn the skills they need for their immediate education and their future jobs as well.

Labour Market Observatory for Education PL Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Initial vocational education and training Match skills of young graduates Inform career-making decisions of studentsInform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)Other

Supplying young people with information about the present situation and trends in the regional and global labour market, to help them in making educational and professional decisions; supplying vocational counsellors, teachers, parents with the same range of information to make them able to help young people in their decisions; and monitoring the labour market for education authorities. Support for decision making for pupils, young graduates, career counsellors, parents, regional authorities, and school authorities is provided by popularizing analyses of regional labour market.

Study of Human Capital in Poland (BKL) PL Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Active labour market policies Address skill shortagesBroadly address skill mismatchOther Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform career-making decisions of studentsEnable strategic business decisionsInform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)

Projects analysing how the structure of competences is changing in the labour market. This extensive research project seeks the answers to the key questions about the future asked by schoolchildren, students, employees, employers, and public institutions responsible for shaping policies related to human capital at both national and regional levels: What subjects of studies to select to have desirable knowledge and skills after graduation? What competences to hone to build the best professional career, one that will be in demand in the face of dynamic economic changes? How to plan the development of the team, so that the firm gains a lasting competitive edge founded on the team’s qualifications? Finally, what changes to introduce at the state level to support the building of an innovative economy based on human capital?

A list of fields of study in an oversupply at the labour market and a list of fields of study in an undersupply in the labour market SK Matching skills for today’s job market Initial vocational education and training Match skills of young graduatesAddress skill shortages Inform decisions on course funding/provision

The policy goal is to better adjust the IVET system to labour market needs, in order to supply occupations in demand to the labour market and to prevent unemployment of IVET graduates. The intervention aims to better align supply and demand in the labour market. The instrument contributes to this by changing funding incentives for selected fields of study in IVET, to steer regulatory decisions of regional territorial units, which are founders of IVET schools in Slovakia.

National Project: Forecasting of Developments of Labour Market Needs SK Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Employment policy Upskill and match skills of unemployedAddress skill shortagesUpskill employed adultsMatch skills of young graduatesBroadly address skill mismatch Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform job-search decisions of unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform career-making decisions of studentsInform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)Other

The instrument aims to address skill mismatch in the economy. The project implements statistical models as tools for systematic monitoring of labour market needs, developments in skills mismatch, and skills supply/demand ratios at regional level, as well as with respect to graduates.

National project: National Register of Occupations (NRO) III SK Matching skills for today’s job market Other Match skills of young graduatesUpskill and match skills of unemployedUpskill employed adultsFacilitate job/career transitionsAddress skill shortagesBroadly address skill mismatch Inform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)Design training programmes to activate unemployedDesign standards and accreditationInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform career-making decisions of studentsInform job-search decisions of unemployed

The instrument addresses the skills mismatch in the economy and aims at linking employers' demands for skills with labour supply (via education and training). This instrument is the third (final) phase and continuation of previous projects National Register of Occupations I and II. After defining occupational standards that reflect employers needs for skills, and linking them to education and training (first and second phase), this instrument was finalised by the creation of the information portal with job classifications.

Online Guide to the Labour Market / Labour Market Integrated System SK Matching skills for today’s job market Employment policy Broadly address skill mismatchOther Inform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform career-making decisions of studentsInform job-search decisions of unemployed

The policy goal of ISTP is to bring together the concept of skill-oriented guidance for the unemployed and a database of vacant jobs organised according to a standardised classification of occupations. This framework is meant to provide a job seeker with a personal skills profile that can be matched with skills and competences required for specific work positions and with actual job offers. The instrument (online guide) offers jobseekers information and counselling that is useful for finding a job that corresponds to educational attainment, experience, knowledge and skills of the user. It also presents job vacancies that can be searched and allow creating personal profile visible to employers. Employers can publish vacancies and search job candidates.

Increasing effective coordination of supply and demand in the labour market SI Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployed Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform job-search decisions of unemployedInform career-making decisions of studentsInform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)

The policy instrument addresses the lack of relevant instruments and advanced tools that enable quality labour market forecasts, which, combined with a shortage of in-depth cooperation between the individual stakeholders (public institutions, business associations, research institutions, social partners), disrupts the consistency of labour supply and demand and quality forecasts for labour market needs. The instrument addresses this challenge by:
- developing a taxonomy of competencies, the establishment of an employment competency model and the implementation of its use, which is aimed at the effective coordination of supply and demand in the labour market.
- developing a model for identification of employers’ short-term needs for knowledge, skills and competences in the labour market, which will be realised by the implementation of employment forecasts.
- developing a multi-channel services with the emphasis on the use of modern information technologies, solutions and services in accordance with user needs and expectations.

Observatory of Occupations of the Central PES ES Matching skills for today’s job market Other Upskill and match skills of unemployedAddress skill shortagesUpskill employed adultsMatch skills of young graduatesFacilitate job/career transitionsBroadly address skill mismatch Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform and train career guidance and counsellorsDesign standards and accreditation

The instrument addresses the problem of skills mismatch in the labour market. The policy goal is that the training delivered within a ALMP framework is correctly matched with labour market demands. Thus, the final goal is to improve workers' employability and competitiveness in the economy. The rationale is to carry out qualitative research about selected occupations in order to identify skill shortages and the main changes in skill demands (due to technological change, changes in regulation, etc.). This information should be taken into account for the design of training provision, within ALMP. Training provision within ALMP is structured through training courses for unemployed and professional certificates (VET managed by the PES).

Process of adaptation of VET provision to labour market demands. INCUAL (National Qualifications Institute) ES Matching skills for today’s job market Other Match skills of young graduatesAddress skill shortagesBroadly address skill mismatch Design standards and accreditation

The rationale is to carry out qualitative research about selected occupations, in order to identify the skill shortages and the main changes in the skill demands. This information is taken into account in the design of new VET diplomas and in the update of the contents of the already existing VET diplomas. Thus, VET provision should match better labour market demands, improving the employability of VET graduates and the capacity of companies to access adequate skilled workers. The final goal of the instrument is a correct matching between education and labour market demands. This is seen as necessary to reduce unemployment and to have a skilled workforce that enables economic growth.

Regional skills platforms SE Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Growth and innovation Upskill and match skills of unemployedAddress skill shortagesUpskill employed adultsMatch skills of young graduatesFacilitate job/career transitions Inform decisions on course funding/provisionEnable strategic business decisionsOther

To improve the national co-ordination of skills supply and to strengthen local and regional cooperation between public institutions and agencies in charge of skills supply. Set up platforms for cooperation in skill supply and short and long-term educational planning in each region.

Employer Ownership Pilot (England) Round One GB Matching skills for today’s job market Growth and innovation Match skills of young graduatesUpskill and match skills of unemployedAddress skill shortagesBroadly address skill mismatch Design training programmes to activate unemployedEnable strategic business decisions

The policy goal is to develop a training system that is fully focused on customers, businesses and employees, aligning skills potential with growth investment. By changing the way funding flows through the system, and to place responsibility and reward for investment more squarely with employers for employer-facing programmes, such as Apprenticeships. The Employer Ownership of Skills pilot is a competitive fund open to employers to invest in their current and future workforce in England. Government will invest in projects in which employers are also prepared to commit their own funds, in order to make better use of our combined resources.