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Policy instruments

Scroll down to explore detailed information on skills anticipation and matching policy instruments from EU countries. Click on the respective tabs to select and filter by specific search criteria, such as the focus of the policy area, the aim of the instrument, the specific use of labour market intelligence and the type of stakeholders involved.

Displaying 24 policy instruments
Title Country Focus area Policy area Aim of policy instrument Use of labour market intelligence Policy goal
Online courses BE Matching skills for today’s job market Adult education and training Upskill employed adults Design training programmes to activate unemployedDesign standards and accreditationInform decisions on course funding/provision

The instrument aims to help working adults to remain employable and active in the labour market by giving them easily accessible options to learn skills across a broad variety of subject areas. The main rationale for this instrument is to improve the competences and employability of workers and job seekers in Flanders. The instrument does so by offering (in October 2017) 635 online courses for free to both target groups.

Development of a Workforce Competence Assessment System by Sectors and Regions (CASSY) BG Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Active labour market policies Address skill shortagesUpskill employed adultsFacilitate job/career transitions Inform job-search decisions of unemployedInform career-making decisions of studentsEnable strategic business decisionsInform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)Design standards and accreditation

The overarching objective of the initiative was to enhance labour market adaptability and effectiveness, as well as to strike a greater balance of labour market demand and supply by developing a system for workforce competence assessment by sectors and regions. The rationale of the Competence Assessment System can be defined, as follows: Forecasting the demand for labour force with specific qualification levels in specific sectors and regions. The policy goal, defined in section 2 were achieved through:
- Analysing and defining workforce competence requirements by considering EU, national and sector requirements and standards;
- Establishment of a Bulgarian Competence Assessment Network by sectors and regions and improvement of the coordination and information exchange of workforce competence assessment among national, branch and regional structures of the employers and trade unions and the responsible government institutions;
- Gaining national recognition and fostering prerequisites for the integration of the workforce competence assessment system in the future e-government so as to enhance adaptability and effectiveness, and to achieve a balance of the labour market demand and supply.

Programme ‘Career Start’ BG Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Match skills of young graduates Other

The programme ‘Career start’ addresses the gap between education and employment. It facilitates the transition between education and employment by providing a possibility to gain work experience.

The Programme addresses the difficulties that young secondary school and university graduates face immediately after graduation in their efforts to find jobs that match the knowledge and skills they have acquired during their education. The 'Career Start' programme includes two components. The target group of the first component are university graduates aged up to 29 years without work experience, who are registered at the Labour Offices. They are given the possibility to gain experience in public administration (i.e. national institutions, regional and local administrations) for the period of nine months. The Minister of Labour and Social Policy approves an annual quota for the job placements.

The target group of the second component refers to young people up to 24 years old, who have completed vocational education in the past two years, have no work experience in their occupation and are registered at the Labour Offices. They are provided with an opportunity to gain experience in private companies for the period of six months.

Development of OSKA, a system of labour market monitoring and future skills forecasting EE Matching skills for the future of work Employment policy Upskill and match skills of unemployedAddress skill shortagesUpskill employed adultsMatch skills of young graduatesFacilitate job/career transitionsBroadly address skill mismatch Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform job-search decisions of unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform career-making decisions of studentsEnable strategic business decisionsInform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)Design standards and accreditation

The policy instrument comprehensively addresses the issue of better matching the needs of the labour market with the provided education and training. The policy goal is to improve and tighten the linkages between the world of learning and the quantitative and qualitative needs and expectations of the labour market. The rationale for the intervention is the creation and implementation of a systematic process to engage all relevant stakeholders, so that they can provide input into skills anticipation and give recommendations to upgrade competency standards, provide relevant training and courses, also retraining possibilities. The general aim of OSKA is to teach and learn about the right skills relevant in the society. The OSKA system creates a cooperation platform, which enables the exchange of information between employers and training providers and educational institutions to comprehensively analyse the growth potential of different economic sectors and their needs, and to facilitate the planning of education provision at different levels of education and by types of school, as well as in the fields of retraining and in-service training.

Development of the Career Guidance System in Estonia EE Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work General education Address skill shortagesUpskill employed adultsMatch skills of young graduatesFacilitate job/career transitionsBroadly address skill mismatch Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform career-making decisions of studentsInform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)Design standards and accreditation

To develop career guidance in the national system of education seeking to cope with the current and future skills mismatch. The general goal of the policy instrument was to provide easily accessible and high quality career guidance services and to guarantee that the development of the career guidance system in Estonia is systematic and sustainable.
The policy goal was related to lifelong learning and the development of human resources, specifically the goal was increased participation in lifelong learning according to the possibilities and needs of the population. The development of the Career Guidance System in Estonia contributes to the reduction of the future skills shortages through the following tasks: development of the national system of career guidance in the system of education; development of career education in general and vocational schools; development of the provision of career information and career counselling in regional information and counselling centres, including the creation of quality assurance system; development and introduction of ICT applications in guidance and counselling (questionnaires for choosing suitable occupations and the ability to recognise suitable professions etc); and strengthening of cooperation and information exchange within the institutional network in the fields of education, training, guidance, youth work and labour market in Estonia.
As the policy goal was to increase participation in lifelong learning, the instrument contributed to it by methodologically and systematically helping youth in their (career related) decision making process and making career studies and career planning part of their ordinary, everyday education. Furthermore, with the introduction of ICT applications, digital literacy was improved which nowadays is an essential part of lifelong learning. Institutional cooperation in the field of career guidance and counselling was strengthened through the creation of the Cooperation Council (Koostöökogu), which united various ministry representatives, youth organization representatives and employer federations etc. Also, during the programme period, various temporary working groups were assembled to solve relevant issues.

Door to Learning FI Matching skills for today’s job market Adult education and training Upskill employed adultsFacilitate job/career transitions Inform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform career-making decisions of students

The goal was to develop educational counselling and professional guidance services so that they meet the needs of all working-age adults and improve the availability of skilled workforces in the different regions of Finland. The instrument offers information, guidance and counselling services to those who: (1) are looking for information on educational possibilities and jobs; (2) wish to improve their professional knowledge; (3) wish to change professions or move to a new job; or (4) wish to improve the professional skills of their workplace or community.

Personal Training Account FR Matching skills for today’s job market Adult education and training Upskill employed adultsAddress skill shortages Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform job-search decisions of unemployed

The goal is to concretely apply the right to lifelong learning by enhancing access to training, independent of the employment record or situation. This instrument enables the accumulation of credits for the right to training for every individual since his/her entrance into the labour market. The account is entirely transferable from one occupation to another, and preserved when changing or losing one’s job.

Local Action Plans (TOPSA) GR Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill employed adults Inform decisions on course funding/provisionInform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform job-search decisions of unemployed

The policy goal is the creation of new jobs and the support of entrepreneurship at the local level. The TopSA include actions such as training and education, work based learning and apprenticeships in private enterprises in Greece or abroad, the preparation of business plans, specialised research and evaluation services for start-ups, support for legal and tax issues, etc.
The goal of TopSA is that beneficiaries are able to:
- establish their own businesses that will benefit from the characteristics of their area
- qualify for other subsidised investment programs
- develop skills that will meet the identified needs of local firms that will hire them.

Local actions for vulnerable groups (TOPEKO) GR Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployed Inform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform job-search decisions of unemployed

The aim of the Local actions for vulnerable groups (TOPEKO) is to contribute towards the integration or re-integration of unemployed people belonging to socially vulnerable groups, through a broad set of actions that cover additional needs of different beneficiaries with a special emphasis on their employment or entrepreneurial perspectives. The actions aim to mobilise local actors to create jobs and at the same time facilitate a versatile and effective preparation of unemployed beneficiaries to:
- cover job positions of existing businesses
- start a business that will benefit from the characteristics of their area
- gain qualifications to benefit from other investment programs
- acquire skills that will meet real and identified needs of local businesses that will hire them

Training voucher programme for unemployed aged 29-64 in 8 cutting-edge sectors GR Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployed Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform career-making decisions of students

The Training Voucher program aims to achieve a structured path for the entry of unemployed people into the labour market, which will potentially lead to a placement in the private sector of the economy. The action aims at the empowerment and the upgrade of the skills of the unemployed adults aged 29-64, through a combination of training, internship, counselling and certification. Through the matchings between learners and companies, the action aspires to generate new jobs after the programme’s lifetime. Thus, hosting companies are encouraged to utilize other actions of subsidising labour in order to hire the interns after their internship.

Community (public) work program complemented with training programs (PW) HU Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployedOther Inform decisions on course funding/provision

The policy goal is to lead the unemployed back to the labour market, so that people get work rather than social benefits. Community work means the launching of employment programmes that connect work and practical training, in order to eliminate employment disadvantages, increase the job-seekers’ qualification level, improve their skills, and transmit practical experience. The programme's available in the well-organised public application system, and also facilitate the realisation of local, as well as regional and national objectives with well-considered, planned and checked value-creating employment.

One step ahead HU Matching skills for today’s job market Adult education and training Upskill and match skills of unemployedUpskill employed adultsOther Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provision

The policy goal was to improve the qualification level of the Hungarian adult population through training programmes designed to allow trainees to “take a step forward” relative to their previous levels of qualification and knowledge/skills.
The aim of the program was to bring into employment those people with low school qualifications, or no skills. The program is an example, where approximately 20,000 adults were assisted in completing primary schooling and acquiring a vocational qualification during the program free of charge. The labour centres used every means at their disposal to foster the successful implementation of the program. They took part in the identification of shortage vocations to specify the types of training to be delivered under the program, as well as in the compilation of the training list.

Youth Guarantee Work Trial HU Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployedOther Inform decisions on course funding/provision

The actions target all types of NEETs below the age of 25, including inactive and unemployed young people who are not in education or training and who need practical experience before they can enter the primary job market. By providing subsidies to employers hiring young people in need of help, young people gain experience, knowledge, upgrade their skills and are more likely to be able to find a job in the primary job market.

(Re)training and qualification of Whirlpool's and satellite activities' dismissed employees in the area of Trento IT Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployed Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform job-search decisions of unemployed

The European Globalisation Adjustment Fund mission is to help workers losing their jobs, due to the impact of globalisation or the global financial and economic crisis to find new jobs as soon as possible. The instrument addressed the problem of the closing of the Trento Whirlpool plant (with about 600 employees) and the need to re-employ the workers who lost their jobs, possibly in Trento areas. The rationale of the intervention is that the combination of both demand (companies) and supply (dismissed workers) side actions could increase the employment opportunities for the workers who lost their jobs. In addition, on the workers' side, the possibility to use more than one type of action (information, counselling, training, coaching, etc), and to be involved in training actions designed in accordance to specific occupational opportunities could result in a higher employability level. The instrument, as implemented in Trento, contributed to achieving EGF's goals, because the objectives and the structure of the instrument was absolutely consistent with EGF's objectives and fundamentals.

IVET Programme 2017-2018 Friuli-Venezia Giulia Region IT Matching skills for today’s job market Initial vocational education and training Match skills of young graduatesOther Inform decisions on course funding/provisionInform career-making decisions of students

The main policy goal is to offer under 18s the possibility to achieve a formal IVET qualification within the regional IVET system through pathways which are: a) shorter than those delivered in State education vocational and technical programmes (5 years long); b) explicitly and tightly linked to the local labour markets needs and structures; c) recognized, in their final qualifications at national level. The main problem the policy instrument addresses is to raise the initial level of knowledge and skills of under 18s who do not chose to enter a 5 years education programme, enabling them to find employment with a qualification or to continue in the upper secondary and/or tertiary education or training system. The instrument contributes to achieving the policy goal through the identification and provision of IVET courses to be offered and delivered throughout the regional territory by accredited training providers and a certain number of upper secondary schools. IVET courses supply is supported, within the programme, by other complementary activities like the development of courses prototypes, the delivery of IVET leaving prevention measures, training for trainers, innovative pilot-projects, training standards' updating.

School extension programme NL Matching skills for today’s job market Initial vocational education and training Match skills of young graduatesUpskill and match skills of unemployedBroadly address skill mismatch Inform career-making decisions of studentsInform job-search decisions of unemployed

The policy goal is to bring together demand of employers and the supply of skills of potential employees. The measure was introduced in 2009 and continued as an important programme in 2013. The aim was to help soften the impacts of the European crisis on youth unemployment. The rationale behind this particular programme is that in times of economic difficulty, it can be more advantageous for an individual to keep studying and learning. As such, the School Ex Programme helps guide the graduates (or leavers) of secondary VET to the next level of study which suits the graduate, for which there is also demand in the labour market. In cases where a graduate wants to work, a suitable job is found via the PES.

Labour Market Observatory for Education PL Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Initial vocational education and training Match skills of young graduates Inform career-making decisions of studentsInform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)Other

Supplying young people with information about the present situation and trends in the regional and global labour market, to help them in making educational and professional decisions; supplying vocational counsellors, teachers, parents with the same range of information to make them able to help young people in their decisions; and monitoring the labour market for education authorities. Support for decision making for pupils, young graduates, career counsellors, parents, regional authorities, and school authorities is provided by popularizing analyses of regional labour market.

Vocational education modernization in Małopolska region PL Matching skills for today’s job market Initial vocational education and training Match skills of young graduatesOther Inform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform career-making decisions of studentsOther

Comprehensive support for vocational education in the Małopolska region, aimed at improving its quality. The Strategy prepared by Małopolska Voivodesip (Malopolska Voivodship is a regional government unit/regional public authority) is aimed at comprehensive support for the vocational education system in the region, with the use of instruments available in the Human Capital OP and in the Regional Operational Programme. The emphasis is especially put on co-operation between schools and enterprises, as well as organising internships.

Career guidance in tertiary education SI Matching skills for today’s job market Higher education Match skills of young graduates Inform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform career-making decisions of students

The policy instrument was designed to help graduates’ transition from education to work. Counselling in career planning and career guidance provide better match of students‘ knowledge and skills to labour needs, thus contributing to better quality of study and easier labour market integration. The instrument promotes further activity and development of career guidance, especially career counselling for students in higher education, with the aim of achieving timely career planning and development. This will ensure:
- better employability of graduates and their more efficient labour market entry.
- better alignment of acquired knowledge with labour market needs.
- elimination of discrepancies between the study programs and labour market demand.
- reduction of dropout and shortening the length of studies.

Increasing effective coordination of supply and demand in the labour market SI Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployed Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform job-search decisions of unemployedInform career-making decisions of studentsInform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)

The policy instrument addresses the lack of relevant instruments and advanced tools that enable quality labour market forecasts, which, combined with a shortage of in-depth cooperation between the individual stakeholders (public institutions, business associations, research institutions, social partners), disrupts the consistency of labour supply and demand and quality forecasts for labour market needs. The instrument addresses this challenge by:
- developing a taxonomy of competencies, the establishment of an employment competency model and the implementation of its use, which is aimed at the effective coordination of supply and demand in the labour market.
- developing a model for identification of employers’ short-term needs for knowledge, skills and competences in the labour market, which will be realised by the implementation of employment forecasts.
- developing a multi-channel services with the emphasis on the use of modern information technologies, solutions and services in accordance with user needs and expectations.

Project Learning with younger Adults SI Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployed Inform job-search decisions of unemployed

PUM-O is an informal education program intended to empower young adults (15-26 year olds) for their labour market entrance and active participation in society, based on the acquisition of key competences. Focused initially on youth not in employment, education or training (NEET), who are especially vulnerable, PUM-O has three main objectives:
- formation of professional identity, developing the candidates' sense of initiative and entrepreneurship in order to help them enter the labour market;
- development of learning abilities and basic skills;
- formation of personal identity and the promotion of their active participation in society.

Integrated pathways to employment. Barcelona grows through new opportunities for better quality jobs. ES Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployedAddress skill shortagesUpskill employed adults Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform job-search decisions of unemployed

The instrument’s goal is to offer an upgrade of skills to the more disadvantaged groups of job-seekers in Barcelona, so that they can improve their employability. What is more important, in terms of the attention on skill mismatch, is that the attention of the policy is particularly focused on those skills that are important for the socio-economic development of Barcelona, such as new technologies and environmental skills. The rationale of the intervention is to improve the employability of vulnerable unemployed through guidance and training in strategic sectors.

Regional skills platforms SE Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Growth and innovation Upskill and match skills of unemployedAddress skill shortagesUpskill employed adultsMatch skills of young graduatesFacilitate job/career transitions Inform decisions on course funding/provisionEnable strategic business decisionsOther

To improve the national co-ordination of skills supply and to strengthen local and regional cooperation between public institutions and agencies in charge of skills supply. Set up platforms for cooperation in skill supply and short and long-term educational planning in each region.

The Occupational Compass SE Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployed Inform job-search decisions of unemployedInform career-making decisions of studentsInform and train career guidance and counsellors

Provide job seekers and others concerned with advanced labour market information, in order to match demand and supply of skills. Deliver short-term (1 year) and long-term (5-10 years) skills anticipation for around 200 occupations (80% of the labour market), supported by advisory councils at sector level, alongside a council of vocational experts.