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Policy instruments

Scroll down to explore detailed information on skills anticipation and matching policy instruments from EU countries. Click on the respective tabs to select and filter by specific search criteria, such as the focus of the policy area, the aim of the instrument, the specific use of labour market intelligence and the type of stakeholders involved.

Displaying 53 policy instruments
Title Country Focus area Policy area Aim of policy instrument Use of labour market intelligence Policy goal
AMS Standing Committee on New Skills AT Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployedAddress skill shortagesUpskill employed adultsFacilitate job/career transitionsOther Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform job-search decisions of unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionEnable strategic business decisions

Identifying changes in the needs for qualifications/new skills. To design training measures for the unemployed and to guide (further) training in companies and in specific occupations, based on input working groups (PES and companies representatives). Working groups are created for specific sectors, made up of sectoral clusters of business representatives (e.g. in construction and building, business administration, chemicals and plastics, electrical engineering/electronics/ telecommunications, energy and environmental engineering, commerce, machinery/motor vehicles/metal, tourism, and health). These groups then formulate a list of current and future sector-specific requirements for employees and jobseekers in their sectors. The outcomes are used by AMS for the design of training measures for the unemployed and are also meant to guide (further) training in companies and in specific occupations.

Ways to nursing AT Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Address skill shortages Inform career-making decisions of studentsInform job-search decisions of unemployed

To cover skill shortage in the field of nursing through information events. Fully supporting and financing the education of jobseekers with the outcome to increase the number of skilled employees in the field of nursing.

Training Insertion Plan BE Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Match skills of young graduatesUpskill and match skills of unemployed Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform job-search decisions of unemployed

The instrument is set to address needs of the employer through an internship, where the job seeker gets the skills required by the employer. The internship duration is between 4 and 26 weeks for people under 25 (over 25s and lower educated adults can intern for up to 52 weeks). There is a trial period of 2 to 8 weeks. After the formation-insertion contract, the employer has to offer a working contract to the intern with a length equal to the previous one. The rationale is to give job seekers professional experience and the opportunity to get hired in a company, while the Walloon employers get the best matching intern in terms of competence required by the vacancy. The programme targets, although not exclusively, young job seekers and long term unemployed.

Development of a Workforce Competence Assessment System by Sectors and Regions (CASSY) BG Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Active labour market policies Address skill shortagesUpskill employed adultsFacilitate job/career transitions Inform job-search decisions of unemployedInform career-making decisions of studentsEnable strategic business decisionsInform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)Design standards and accreditation

The overarching objective of the initiative was to enhance labour market adaptability and effectiveness, as well as to strike a greater balance of labour market demand and supply by developing a system for workforce competence assessment by sectors and regions. The rationale of the Competence Assessment System can be defined, as follows: Forecasting the demand for labour force with specific qualification levels in specific sectors and regions. The policy goal, defined in section 2 were achieved through:
- Analysing and defining workforce competence requirements by considering EU, national and sector requirements and standards;
- Establishment of a Bulgarian Competence Assessment Network by sectors and regions and improvement of the coordination and information exchange of workforce competence assessment among national, branch and regional structures of the employers and trade unions and the responsible government institutions;
- Gaining national recognition and fostering prerequisites for the integration of the workforce competence assessment system in the future e-government so as to enhance adaptability and effectiveness, and to achieve a balance of the labour market demand and supply.

Flexible employment and training opportunities in companies with varying/inconstant activity intensity BG Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployedUpskill employed adultsFacilitate job/career transitionsAddress skill shortages Inform job-search decisions of unemployedEnable strategic business decisions

The programme attempts to address the problem of relatively high personnel turnover and job vacancies in the three targeted sectors, which is caused by the inconstant intensity of activity of companies in these sectors, resulting in skills mismatch. The policy goal is to: increase skills matching; and provide better and more sustainable job placements, leading to higher and better-quality employment. A full subsidy (100%) is given to employers of three sectors with inconstant activity intensity (Manufacturing, Construction, Accommodation and food service activities) to train unemployed and inactive persons, and re-train employed persons in skills that match to their business needs, which will be done in less busy work periods; and to provide scholarships for trainees (unemployed and inactive people).

New working place 2015 BG Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployedUpskill employed adultsBroadly address skill mismatch Inform job-search decisions of unemployed

The aim is to address the following problems: persisting downward trend in the number of economically active people in recent years reduced employment rate of the population aged 20-64 years; and increased unemployment rate. The key priorities of the National Reform Programme (2012-2020), of which the HRD OP's specific targets are focused in the area of unemployment and employment, are the fight against unemployment among labour market vulnerable groups, above all youth and long-term unemployed, and also the achievement of higher employment rate among older-age people.
Bulgaria's national targets to the Europe 2020 Strategy are: (1) at least 76% of the 20-64 year olds to be employed by 2020, and (2) reducing the number of people living in poverty by 260,000 by 2020. Attaining these targets is of paramount importance for the vision and strategy of the HRD OP. New working place 2015, as a HRD OP scheme, will contribute to achieving both national targets, i.e. contribute to increasing employment, especially of the most vulnerable groups in the labour market, and thus, to reducing poverty in Bulgaria.

Programme ‘Career Start’ BG Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Match skills of young graduates Other

The programme ‘Career start’ addresses the gap between education and employment. It facilitates the transition between education and employment by providing a possibility to gain work experience.

The Programme addresses the difficulties that young secondary school and university graduates face immediately after graduation in their efforts to find jobs that match the knowledge and skills they have acquired during their education. The 'Career Start' programme includes two components. The target group of the first component are university graduates aged up to 29 years without work experience, who are registered at the Labour Offices. They are given the possibility to gain experience in public administration (i.e. national institutions, regional and local administrations) for the period of nine months. The Minister of Labour and Social Policy approves an annual quota for the job placements.

The target group of the second component refers to young people up to 24 years old, who have completed vocational education in the past two years, have no work experience in their occupation and are registered at the Labour Offices. They are provided with an opportunity to gain experience in private companies for the period of six months.

HRDA Scheme for Job Placement and Training of Tertiary-Education Graduates CY Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Match skills of young graduatesAddress skill shortages Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform job-search decisions of unemployed

To reduce unemployment amongst tertiary-education graduates by helping them find productive and suitable employment through acquiring work experience and specialised additional knowledge suitable to market needs. At the same time help businesses/organisations to improve their productivity and competitiveness by employing highly educated young graduates. The programme focused on the integration of highly qualified young people into the labour market by providing practical on-the-job experience in a company for a maximum period of 12 months.

STAD - Scheme for the Job Placement of Young Unemployed Graduates of Lower Secondary, Upper Secondary & Post-Secondary Education of up to 2 years for the Acquisition of Work Experience in Enterprises/Organisations (2014) CY Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Match skills of young graduatesUpskill and match skills of unemployed Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform job-search decisions of unemployed

The instrument addresses the problem of unemployment among young people. The aim of the Schemes is to provide young unemployed persons (below tertiary-education graduates) the opportunity to acquire work experience in order to improve their employability, at the same time, giving the opportunity to enterprises/organisations to use the services of those young persons at no financial cost to them. The scheme gives young graduates of secondary education the opportunity to enter/re-enter the labour market and improve their employability through acquiring training and work experience in companies and organisations.

Measures for Gaining First Work Experience / Internship HR Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Match skills of young graduates Other

Support for employment with the aim of stimulating employment of unemployed people in unfavourable position at workplaces, available to all beneficiaries under the same conditions. They are in accordance with national and EU legislation in the field of state support. Support in the form of subventions for salaries, are allocated to entrepreneurs that employ young people without work experiences, and they amount to 50% of the expense of work of that person per year.

Public work HR Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Other Enable strategic business decisions

The goal of the instrument is the inclusion of unemployed people in programs of involvement in socially beneficial jobs. Public work is an instrument in the active politics of labour market in the area of direct creation of new workplaces. Socially beneficial work that is implemented in limited time period provides financing and co-financing of employment of unemployed people from target groups. It is especially beneficial for activation and increase of employment and participation of people in particularly unfavourable positions in the labour market, especially older people. The program of public work is initiated by local community, civil society organizations and other subjects. Public work has to be non-profit and non-competitive to the existing economy in that area. A preference is given to projects in the area of social care, education, protection and preservation of environment, maintenance and communal work.

Supports for preserving jobs HR Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Other Enable strategic business decisionsOther

The goal of the measure is preserving workplaces at employers that had temporary reduction of business activities and/or losses in business transactions, and gaining necessary knowledges and skills by workers that need to be prepared for the market considering potential loss of workplace and difficulties in business activity of the employer.
Compensation for the part of the expense of the salary for persons that work part-time at employers that have reduced amount of work. Employers can shorten working hours by 40%, due to reduced amount of work or the age of workers who can't fulfil demands of the workplace, in order to avoid dismissal. Support can also be provided for education or training of workers employed at employers that are experiencing difficulties, so that they can be employed in case they lose their jobs.

Training for the unemployed HR Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployed Inform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform career-making decisions of studentsInform job-search decisions of unemployedEnable strategic business decisions

To enhance the employability of unemployed persons and create necessary qualified workforce, in order to diminish skills mismatches in the local labour market. Review and evaluate the existing programmes for the long-term unemployed and people at risk of becoming long-term unemployed and, based on the results of the evaluation, develop an effective policy strategy in this area. Provide adequate training for the unemployed and others at risk of becoming unemployed. ‘Adequate’ refers to inclusion of, for example, long-term unemployed people in training programmes tailored to meet labour market needs.

Sector Councils CZ Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Active labour market policies Address skill shortagesUpskill employed adultsMatch skills of young graduatesBroadly address skill mismatch Enable strategic business decisionsDesign standards and accreditation

Public policy makers as well as social partners (associations of private employers) in the Czech Republic have been facing the problem of skill mismatch between the supply of skills of graduates from formal education and the demand for new/specialised skills continually generated in the labour market. It was decided to set up a platform for systematic cooperation between the two sides. Sector Councils are employer-led and publicly partly co-funded, and supervise expert groups, whose task is to monitor skill shortages and consult corresponding policy measures (Vocational Qualifications, National System of Professions etc). The activities of Sector Councils help to narrow the gap between requirements of employers (in terms of qualifications and competencies of employees) and the supply of workforce (both current and future), through identification of future needs and recommendations for improvement.

Job Rotation Scheme DK Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployedUpskill employed adultsFacilitate job/career transitionsOther Design training programmes to activate unemployed

The job rotation scheme aims to address two main problems: the unemployment rate in Denmark and the need to upgrade the skills of employed people. Issues relating to the unemployed and underemployed people include: enabling entry into the profession by supporting education, the recruitment of new staff members once the scheme is complete and addressing the need for a more skilled workforce. The employer hires unemployed people as temporary workers, while permanent staff members receive further education and training. One precondition is that there is an ‘hour-to-hour relation’ between the employees attending education or training and the temporarily recruited workers.

The education scheme DK Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployed Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform job-search decisions of unemployed

Active labour market policy for the long-term unemployed. The education scheme aim was to provide a determined and coherent skill upgrade that would strengthen the unemployed ability to get employed. This specific target group can be admitted to an education scheme, allowing the long-term unemployed learners to attend training for a maximum of 6.5 months within a reference period of 12 months.

Labour market training measures provided by the Estonian Unemployment Insurance Fund EE Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployedAddress skill shortages Inform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)Design training programmes to activate unemployed

Copes with structural unemployment by providing job seekers with the skills needed in the labour market. As a preventive measure, supports employees who need support in changing jobs or remaining employed due to lack of skills or their skills being outdated.

Labour market training FI Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployedUpskill employed adults Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform job-search decisions of unemployed

The goal is to improve the professional skills of unemployed adults or adults who are at risk of being unemployed, enhancing their possibilities of finding a job or retaining one. It also aims to improve their capacity for working as entrepreneurs. The overall aim is to promote the availability of skilled labour. Education and training are key measures to help people meet changing skills requirements and improve the matching of supply of and demand for labour. Skills development of individuals has an important role in the implementation of ALMPs and in managing challenges of changing skills requirements.

EGF/2014/015 EL/Attica Publishing Activities GR Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployedUpskill employed adultsFacilitate job/career transitions Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform career-making decisions of studentsInform job-search decisions of unemployedOther

The instrument relates to 705 workers made redundant in 46 enterprises operating in the Publishing activities sector in the region of Attica. All of them are entitled to receive support in terms of counselling, training, business consultancy, self-employment subsidy and mobility allowance. Through a series of personalised services the instrument aims to support workers that lost their jobs in publishing enterprises due to the crisis. The personalised services, which are to be provided to the redundant workers consist of the following actions: occupational guidance (recording and investigation of the needs, skills assessment, personal and occupational development procedure, conducting the individual action plan, follow-up), training and vocational training, self-employment subsidy, job-search allowance and training allowance, mobility allowance.

Local Action Plans (TOPSA) GR Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill employed adults Inform decisions on course funding/provisionInform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform job-search decisions of unemployed

The policy goal is the creation of new jobs and the support of entrepreneurship at the local level. The TopSA include actions such as training and education, work based learning and apprenticeships in private enterprises in Greece or abroad, the preparation of business plans, specialised research and evaluation services for start-ups, support for legal and tax issues, etc.
The goal of TopSA is that beneficiaries are able to:
- establish their own businesses that will benefit from the characteristics of their area
- qualify for other subsidised investment programs
- develop skills that will meet the identified needs of local firms that will hire them.

Local actions for vulnerable groups (TOPEKO) GR Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployed Inform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform job-search decisions of unemployed

The aim of the Local actions for vulnerable groups (TOPEKO) is to contribute towards the integration or re-integration of unemployed people belonging to socially vulnerable groups, through a broad set of actions that cover additional needs of different beneficiaries with a special emphasis on their employment or entrepreneurial perspectives. The actions aim to mobilise local actors to create jobs and at the same time facilitate a versatile and effective preparation of unemployed beneficiaries to:
- cover job positions of existing businesses
- start a business that will benefit from the characteristics of their area
- gain qualifications to benefit from other investment programs
- acquire skills that will meet real and identified needs of local businesses that will hire them

Training voucher programme for unemployed aged 29-64 in 8 cutting-edge sectors GR Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployed Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform career-making decisions of students

The Training Voucher program aims to achieve a structured path for the entry of unemployed people into the labour market, which will potentially lead to a placement in the private sector of the economy. The action aims at the empowerment and the upgrade of the skills of the unemployed adults aged 29-64, through a combination of training, internship, counselling and certification. Through the matchings between learners and companies, the action aspires to generate new jobs after the programme’s lifetime. Thus, hosting companies are encouraged to utilize other actions of subsidising labour in order to hire the interns after their internship.

Community (public) work program complemented with training programs (PW) HU Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployedOther Inform decisions on course funding/provision

The policy goal is to lead the unemployed back to the labour market, so that people get work rather than social benefits. Community work means the launching of employment programmes that connect work and practical training, in order to eliminate employment disadvantages, increase the job-seekers’ qualification level, improve their skills, and transmit practical experience. The programme's available in the well-organised public application system, and also facilitate the realisation of local, as well as regional and national objectives with well-considered, planned and checked value-creating employment.

Special Public Works HU Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployedOther Other

The programme aims at developing the skills of individuals with low levels of education and mild disabilities. The Special Public Works programme aims at providing special workplaces for unemployed with disabilities, and those unable to find a job or a spot in the ordinary public works programme, due to social or mental reasons (Government decree 1253/2016. VI. 6. Formulates this goal). Besides these sheltered transitional workplaces, participants also received individualised, complex help to improve their employability skills.

Youth Guarantee Work Trial HU Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployedOther Inform decisions on course funding/provision

The actions target all types of NEETs below the age of 25, including inactive and unemployed young people who are not in education or training and who need practical experience before they can enter the primary job market. By providing subsidies to employers hiring young people in need of help, young people gain experience, knowledge, upgrade their skills and are more likely to be able to find a job in the primary job market.

Momentum IE Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployed Inform job-search decisions of unemployed

Improving employability of the long-term unemployed. Momentum consists of a number of projects aimed at improving the employability of individuals who are long-term unemployed. Participants receive training in areas with recognised skill shortages, where existing vacancies have been identified. The projects include an element of on-the job training in the form of work experience modules, as well as development of the skills required to obtain and retain employment. Momentum will also include projects specifically aimed at individuals aged under 25 who are long-term unemployed.

Momentum II IE Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployed Inform job-search decisions of unemployed

Improving employability of the long-term unemployed, as well as first time unemployed people following the economic crash, and skills shortages. Momentum consists of a number of projects aimed at improving the employability of individuals who are long-term unemployed. Participants receive training in growing sectors of the economy. It provides long-term unemployed people with access to a range of education and training projects, work placement/support and relevant industry and NFQ accreditation.

Skillnets IE Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployedAddress skill shortagesFacilitate job/career transitions Other

The policy instrument aims to address skills mismatch/gaps and to meet the evolving needs of the labour market through training and upskilling, with company groups, businesses, employees and the unemployed. The goal of Skillnets is to sustain Ireland's national competitiveness. The current rationale behind Skillnets is based on Ireland’s National Skills Strategy 2025, which is to increase the supply of skills to the labour market, and to strengthen the role of employers and training providers. Through it's different programmes, it meets the policy goal by offering support and funding to all levels of the labour market, e.g. by developing new programmes that address emerging skills gaps with FSNP, or supporting management development training opportunities and mentoring support for SME managers with ManagementWorks.

(Re)training and qualification of Whirlpool's and satellite activities' dismissed employees in the area of Trento IT Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployed Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform job-search decisions of unemployed

The European Globalisation Adjustment Fund mission is to help workers losing their jobs, due to the impact of globalisation or the global financial and economic crisis to find new jobs as soon as possible. The instrument addressed the problem of the closing of the Trento Whirlpool plant (with about 600 employees) and the need to re-employ the workers who lost their jobs, possibly in Trento areas. The rationale of the intervention is that the combination of both demand (companies) and supply (dismissed workers) side actions could increase the employment opportunities for the workers who lost their jobs. In addition, on the workers' side, the possibility to use more than one type of action (information, counselling, training, coaching, etc), and to be involved in training actions designed in accordance to specific occupational opportunities could result in a higher employability level. The instrument, as implemented in Trento, contributed to achieving EGF's goals, because the objectives and the structure of the instrument was absolutely consistent with EGF's objectives and fundamentals.

Apprenticeships and craft jobs IT Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployedAddress skill shortagesBroadly address skill mismatch Design training programmes to activate unemployed

Helps the unemployed to obtain a job through apprenticeship contracts and train them in craft/manufacture skills to fill the skill shortages in the sector. The project aimed to promote the training and allocation of jobs for around 20,000 young unemployed people in the sector of traditional craft and manufacture. There were two areas of intervention:
1) Operational activities through: (i) the establishment of 17,913 apprenticeship contracts for hiring young unemployed; (ii) the creation of 134 workshops ("botteghe di mestiere") for on-the-job training of unemployed; (iii) up to 1,000 firm transfers (trasferimenti d'azienda) with the purpose of transferring the heritage of skills from old entrepreneurs to young entrepreneurs; and (iv) about 3,000 traineeships for NEET (young people not in education or training) living in the four Convergence regions (Campania, Puglia, Calabria, Sicily).
2) Actions to promote and strengthen the cooperation between public and private actors in the labour market.

Permanent National Information System for occupational needs IT Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployedUpskill employed adultsMatch skills of young graduatesBroadly address skill mismatch Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform job-search decisions of unemployedInform career-making decisions of studentsInform and train career guidance and counsellorsOther

Facilitating the matching of demand and supply and sharing useful information with education/vocational training and labour market stakeholders and job seekers via an online platform. The system provides qualitative and quantitative information about economic trends, labour market forecasting and professional trends and provides information about the features of the so-called "professional unit" (unità professionali), professional needs, classified into professional units, linked to labour market trends; mid-term professional needs stimulated by new trends in sectoral economies, mid-term economic trends at the national level; economic trends at the local level; and employment forecasts for professional categories, both nationally and locally.

Regional Deed on Vocational Training aimed at Reducing Unemployment (Labour Market, 2015-2016, Piedmont Region) IT Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployed Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provision

The policy goal is to give the unemployed the opportunity to find employment through the development of skills and competences that match companies', sectors' or local economic systems' needs. The instrument specifically targets young and adult unemployed (also TCNs). The rationale of the instrument is that if an unemployed person develops skills and competences that are related to skills/competences needs characterising a specific local economic system (formally and rigorously analysed), then he/she will be more likely to find employment in that system. Within this framework, the instrument gives a contribution to the policy goal of tackling and reducing unemployment by explicitly indicating for each sub-regional area, what are the sectors and the professional profiles to be given priority in terms of training.

Facilitation of regional mobility of persons employed by entrepreneurs. LV Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Facilitate job/career transitions Design training programmes to activate unemployed

Participation in the measure allows the employer/entrepreneurs to fill the vacancies by hiring the necessary specialists from other administrative territories, thus reducing the regional skills mis-match. The goal of the measure is to facilitate regional mobility of people employed by entrepreneurs by providing financial support for covering the cost of transport and rent of living space in the first four months after commencing the employment legal relationships. The instrument tackles the problem of regional skills mismatch, by allowing the employer to hire an employee from other regions, thus also levelling out the demand/supply problem in labour market.

Practical training in the employer’s facilities LV Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployedFacilitate job/career transitionsAddress skill shortages Inform job-search decisions of unemployed

The goal of the instrument is to increase the unemployed person’s competitiveness and integration into the labour market by adjusting their skills and competences to employer demand. This is done by practical training of the employee in areas needed by the employer by organising training in the employer’s facilities. By training the unemployed person in the premises of employer, the level of compliance between skills and requirements is the highest. The trainee can start his employment as soon as the training ends, and both parties can be sure about the result of the process.

Vouchers for acquiring vocational education, upskilling and informal education programmes for unemployed LV Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployedAddress skill shortages Design training programmes to activate unemployed

Policies goals include:
- Provide an opportunity for unemployed persons and job seekers to increase competitiveness.
- Provide an ability to adjust to the changing labour market demand.
- Increase the opportunities for unemployed people and job seekers to integrate into the labour market. Participation in voucher education programmes gives unemployed people and job seeker, who cannot find employment due to not having suitable abilities for changing labour market demand or having insufficient abilities, the possibility to obtain necessary skills and competences, thus tackling the problem of skills mismatch.
To apply to professional further education and professional vocational development programmes, the unemployed person should comply with the following:
- has not previously acquired a professional qualification
- the previously acquired professional qualification or experience is not demanded in labour market
- the previously acquired professional qualification does not comply with the requirements of the particular profession, e.g. the person has not received a certificate that authorises the person to continue employment in the acquired profession in accordance with the normative acts
- the professional abilities have been lost due to not working in the acquired profession for at least three years, or cannot continue employment in the acquired profession, due to medical conditions.

Competences LT LT Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Match skills of young graduatesUpskill employed adultsAddress skill shortages Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provision

The main goal of the policy is to fulfil specific sectorial needs, by providing training and to create a sub-system of high qualification development at a work place. The rationale for the intervention is strengthening the potential of human resources. The instrument covers the whole country and a wide network of employees and employers.

Employment opportunities barometer LT Matching skills for the future of work Active labour market policies Address skill shortages Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform job-search decisions of unemployedInform career-making decisions of studentsInform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)

To provide information and forecasts on the short-term labour market demand for qualifications. This instrument mainly aims to identify short-term (up to 1 year) shortages of qualifications by indicating qualifications in high, medium and low demand. It is an instrument for vocational guidance and planning of the active labour market measures, especially training for the unemployed.

Employment Initiation contract LU Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Match skills of young graduates Design training programmes to activate unemployed

The goal is to reduce the incidence and duration of youth unemployment. By subsidizing the initial year of work, necessary work experience can be gained by the young worker.

Fit4Finance LU Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployed Inform job-search decisions of unemployed

The goal is to improve the employability of unemployed people in the financial sector. The Fit4Financial Market programme is a pilot for the larger programme Fit4Job in Luxembourg. The programme's objective is to proactively and closely monitor people who have lost their jobs in the financial sector, and to improve their employability. This is to be done through a diagnostic session, followed by specific training developed for the sector, and through collaboration with professionals from the sector to ensure the requirements of the sector and the job seeker concerned are met.

Investing in Skills MT Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill employed adultsFacilitate job/career transitions Design training programmes to activate unemployedEnable strategic business decisionsOther

The goal of this policy instrument is to reach people who are active in the Maltese labour market and find it difficult to pursue courses to enhance their skills, as a part-time option. Through Investing in Skills, these people are able to train and better their knowledge in their place of work, at a minimal to no cost for the employer. The instrument will be helping both companies and workers alike. Companies will benefit through increased productivity of their workers, while these in turn would be more adaptable to the skills required in the Maltese labour market.

Fund for young people entering the labour market NL Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Match skills of young graduatesUpskill and match skills of unemployedFacilitate job/career transitionsAddress skill shortages Inform decisions on course funding/provisionEnable strategic business decisionsOther

The policy instrument aims to solve the issue of graduates from tertiary level education (WO and HBO degrees in the Netherlands) not being able to find work due to lack of work experience. Often employers do not have the financial capacity or desire to take on an employee with no practical work experience. The instrument aims to enable graduates to acquire work experience through subsidized internships at enterprises, thus making them more attractive in the labour market. Without practical working experience, labour market information shows that graduates leaving tertiary education do not have the relevant skills and practical work experience that enterprises are looking for. Therefore, hiring a fresh graduate represents a risk for enterprises, as they must invest time and money to train a graduate to work in their enterprise. The rationale of the instrument is that by subsiding the training of graduates, it is more attractive for enterprises to hire them. Moreover, graduates gain work experience, making them more attractive on the labour market as a whole. Furthermore, having trained at an enterprise, a graduate has higher chances of being hired there. Overall, the main purpose is to help graduates find work more easily.

Labour Market Observatory of Lubelskie PL Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Active labour market policies Address skill shortagesBroadly address skill mismatchOther Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform job-search decisions of unemployedInform career-making decisions of studentsEnable strategic business decisionsInform and train career guidance and counsellors

To gain an extended knowledge, up-to-date information and labour market forecast, and to monitor the labour market situation and trends of the regional labour market. Delivery, publication and dissemination of studies and analyses of the situation in the regional and local labour market (including those part of regional observatories of the labour market), inter alia, in the scope of: (i) anticipated situation in the labour market of the selected professions, sectors/branches; (ii) anticipated expectations of employers in regards to the desired qualifications and training services; (iii) commercial migrations within the region.

Study of Human Capital in Poland (BKL) PL Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Active labour market policies Address skill shortagesBroadly address skill mismatchOther Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionInform career-making decisions of studentsEnable strategic business decisionsInform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)

Projects analysing how the structure of competences is changing in the labour market. This extensive research project seeks the answers to the key questions about the future asked by schoolchildren, students, employees, employers, and public institutions responsible for shaping policies related to human capital at both national and regional levels: What subjects of studies to select to have desirable knowledge and skills after graduation? What competences to hone to build the best professional career, one that will be in demand in the face of dynamic economic changes? How to plan the development of the team, so that the firm gains a lasting competitive edge founded on the team’s qualifications? Finally, what changes to introduce at the state level to support the building of an innovative economy based on human capital?

Active Life Measure – Qualified Employment PT Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployed Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provision

The instrument aims to reinforce the quality, the effectiveness and the responsiveness of active employment policies, namely regarding the professional qualification of unemployed people. This instrument creates a qualification measure that aims to adjust the personal employment plans and the individual potential and needs of each unemployed, in order to improve his/her employability, and favour his/her return to the labour market. Whenever considered adequate to the profile of the unemployed, the instrument may include a skills recognition, validation and certification process.

Professional internships PT Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Match skills of young graduatesUpskill and match skills of unemployed Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provision

The improvement of qualifications and skills of unemployed young people (18-30 years), as well as of unemployed people who are in a situation of particular vulnerability, in order to promote their employability. The professional internships aim at smoothing transitions to labour market. Their major intention is providing a first work experience to young unemployed who lack practical skills and knowledge of the work environment. After the big economic crisis, they were extended to cover the transition to the labour market of long term unemployed who need to reconnect with work experience, as well as other groups that are victims of different kinds of prejudice or difficulties of access to labour market due to their social background.

Development of a Labour Market needs anticipation instrument RO Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployedUpskill employed adultsMatch skills of young graduatesFacilitate job/career transitions Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionEnable strategic business decisionsInform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)

Identification of future skills shortages and needs/demands, labour market trends, which is useful for the design and assessment of active labour market policies. This instrument uses a more sophisticated methodology (dynamic general equilibrium) and implies a macro-economic forecasting tool to indicate all macro-economic aggregates in an autonomous process. It was recently designed by INCSMPS and Fondazione G. Brodolini Italy in an ESF-financed project. Two models of the project has been merged to enable the National Labour Research Institute to anticipate future skills needs, so as to enable decision-makers to use it for tailoring and targeting LM interventions.

Partnership analysis and labour market forecasting system with continuing adaptation to economic dynamics RO Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Active labour market policies Upskill employed adultsMatch skills of young graduatesBroadly address skill mismatch Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform decisions on course funding/provisionEnable strategic business decisionsInform and train career guidance and counsellors

The aim is to respond to a growing need of updated information from employers, social partners and other stakeholders of the labour market, in order to improve access to labour market information, to deal with mismatches, as well as to enhance the capabilities of the National Agency for Employment to provide and elaborate labour market analyses and forecasts.

National Project III-2/A: Education and Training for Labour Market SK Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployed Other

The project provides a funding scheme, as well as a project platform for the provision of training (change of skill profiles, up-skilling, re-skilling) for the unemployed, who find themselves possessing skills not required by employers. The specific policy goals are:
- Providing job seekers with new vocational skills and practical experience for the purposes of gaining employment in a matching occupation.
- Facilitating the entry and re-entry to the labour market after breaks in employment, by gaining skills that correspond with current labour market needs and with the needs of specific target groups.

Increasing effective coordination of supply and demand in the labour market SI Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployed Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform job-search decisions of unemployedInform career-making decisions of studentsInform and train career guidance and counsellorsInform the design of national qualification frameworks (NQFs)

The policy instrument addresses the lack of relevant instruments and advanced tools that enable quality labour market forecasts, which, combined with a shortage of in-depth cooperation between the individual stakeholders (public institutions, business associations, research institutions, social partners), disrupts the consistency of labour supply and demand and quality forecasts for labour market needs. The instrument addresses this challenge by:
- developing a taxonomy of competencies, the establishment of an employment competency model and the implementation of its use, which is aimed at the effective coordination of supply and demand in the labour market.
- developing a model for identification of employers’ short-term needs for knowledge, skills and competences in the labour market, which will be realised by the implementation of employment forecasts.
- developing a multi-channel services with the emphasis on the use of modern information technologies, solutions and services in accordance with user needs and expectations.

Project Learning with younger Adults SI Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployed Inform job-search decisions of unemployed

PUM-O is an informal education program intended to empower young adults (15-26 year olds) for their labour market entrance and active participation in society, based on the acquisition of key competences. Focused initially on youth not in employment, education or training (NEET), who are especially vulnerable, PUM-O has three main objectives:
- formation of professional identity, developing the candidates' sense of initiative and entrepreneurship in order to help them enter the labour market;
- development of learning abilities and basic skills;
- formation of personal identity and the promotion of their active participation in society.

Integrated pathways to employment. Barcelona grows through new opportunities for better quality jobs. ES Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployedAddress skill shortagesUpskill employed adults Design training programmes to activate unemployedInform job-search decisions of unemployed

The instrument’s goal is to offer an upgrade of skills to the more disadvantaged groups of job-seekers in Barcelona, so that they can improve their employability. What is more important, in terms of the attention on skill mismatch, is that the attention of the policy is particularly focused on those skills that are important for the socio-economic development of Barcelona, such as new technologies and environmental skills. The rationale of the intervention is to improve the employability of vulnerable unemployed through guidance and training in strategic sectors.

Support and matching SE Matching skills for today’s job market Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployed Inform job-search decisions of unemployed

Through individualised support, provided by private suppliers who are publicly funded, job-seekers (who have been unemployed for a long time (about a year) or who are newly arrived to the country) are provided job-seeking support and matching to the labour market. The purpose of Support and Matching is to get a job or start studying as quickly as possible. The intention is to provide people who are far from the labour market with special and individually adapted efforts (matching, guidance) that lead them to work or study and increase their prerequisites for getting a job.

The Occupational Compass SE Matching skills for today’s job marketMatching skills for the future of work Active labour market policies Upskill and match skills of unemployed Inform job-search decisions of unemployedInform career-making decisions of studentsInform and train career guidance and counsellors

Provide job seekers and others concerned with advanced labour market information, in order to match demand and supply of skills. Deliver short-term (1 year) and long-term (5-10 years) skills anticipation for around 200 occupations (80% of the labour market), supported by advisory councils at sector level, alongside a council of vocational experts.