Evidence of effectiveness
1,773 red-white-red cards were issued in 2016. Total immigration from non-EU/EFTA-countries in 2016 was 73,000 and total employment was 4.2 million. Demand for this card therefore seems limited, since the red-white-red card was planned to lead to an immigration of 8,000 skilled workers per year before implementation. Nevertheless, immigration from non-EU-countries increased after implementation of the instrument. The high bureaucratic burden, as well as strict regulations for application were identified as the main reasons for causing low demand for this instrument. The development of the red-white-red card had ben described as the "revival" of social partner involvement in Austrian politics, as the instrument was implemented in a period that was characterised by an unusual decline in social partner involvement.