2009 -2014, 2013 - present. There is some overlap between the instrument previously called the ETF and its transformation into the current CISP.

Fully operational


Policy area

The measure consists of training measures, aimed specifically at unemployed people to get them back in the labour market. The instrument, therefore, has strong ALMP and education elements. The main goal is to achieve job orientation, skills development (basic and specific) and finally employment for job seekers.

Policy goal

The instrument, the Centres d'Insertion Socioprofessionnelle (CISP) is a centre that provides trainings for people not in employment. The CISP groups the competences previously implemented by the "Enterprises de Formation par le Travail" (EFT) and the "Organismes d'Insertion Socioprofessionnelle" (OISP). The centres, which are local non-profit associations, encourage the professional development of lower educated adults detached from the labour market (who completed mandatory education) by updating their general and technical skills. Every CISP covers at least one of the three domains mentioned through the operation of workshops. The CISPs give a personalised guidance to the intern all the way until reaching professional specialisation. The specialisation is chosen among a wide range of possibilities that match the skills needed in the labour market. The rationale is to prepare adult job-seekers with links to the labour market, and provide general and technical training for a given profession. Job-seekers are trained in the necessary and relevant skills needed in their desired profession, in a real working environment. The link between training and work is made stronger for all job-seekers, with a special focus on providing vocational guidance, basic training in transversal skills, and vocational training to provide job seekers with skills required for specific professions.

Explicitly designed to address skill mismatch

The decree-law of 10th July 2013 establishes the specific characteristics of the measure.

Administrative level
Main responsible body

The initiative is under the mandate of the Walloon government, Department of Employment and Vocational Training.


The Forem (Walloon office for employment and professional formation) is responsible for the funding and the decision making process.
The "Conseil economique et social de la Wallonie"(Wallonian economic and social council) is in charge of monitoring and evaluating the outcomes of the measure.
The designed centres, which are non-profit organisations, (the CISPs) are in charge of the design of the specific plans of training. Every CISP is either specialized in the training for different jobs, provides basic training(s) or performs orientation course(s).
The Service Public de Wallonie (SPW) controls the number of hours delivered by the CISP and the quality of the courses and trainings, while the Forem gives the subsidies to the CISP and controls its administration.


€83 million were transferred from the Forem (Walloon office for employment and professional formation) to the CISPs in 2016 according to the hours of training/courses agreed.

Intended beneficiaries

Adults that have completed mandatory education, but have not completed secondary education; are registered at the Forem office; and have been unemployed at least 18 months in the last 24 months.


Use of labour market intelligence

The courses supplied by the CISPs are selected/adapted to provide training in order to enhance the adaptability of low skilled job seekers to the needs of labour market.

Financial schemes

Subsidies are provided to the CISPs by the Forem (Walloon office for employment and professional formation). The amount of funding depends on the total number of hours of training previously agreed with the centre, which is multiplied by the price per hour (nowadays €15 per hour).


An adjustment took place on May 26th 2016. The conditions of eligibility changed in order to reach the most vulnerable subjects. The maximum hours offered by a centre, the harmonisation of payment per hour and the pedagogical framework were also changed to give more flexibility to the centres regarding their teaching strategies. The main concern is the control and balance of the costs of the centres (since previously there were three sources of finance that have now been replaced by only one).


The main barrier is the effective articulation of the measure between the Forem and the CISPs in the financial aspect. It has been overcome through an increase in the financial transfers to the centres.

Success factors

The changes to the measure are still too recent to know if any improvement was made.


Monitoring indicators include: the share of trainees entering the labour market; the number of hours of training taught; the number of users; the variety of job specialisation offered by the centres; and the number of courses available.

Slightly innovative

The measure makes a difference in the three steps that a low skilled person may need to re-enter the labour market: orientation, basic training and specialised training. In addition, every job applicant gets an individualised plan according to their preferences, thus increasing the possibilities of success on the labour market.


Evidence of effectiveness

In 2017, the labour integration rate was 50% on average, e.g. 2,000 jobs, 20,000 recipients, more than 5 million hours supplied. The first reports are expected for 2018, so the results are still not known. Unexpected costs include: the CISPs focus too much on supplying skills for jobs that are easy to get, which are not always the desirable ones from a social perspective; there is an administrative burden of running the programmes; and trainees can end up too far from their initial job. It is not clear whether or how this barrier has been overcome.

Engagement of stakeholders

To become a CISP, organisations must apply to the Forem and fulfil a number of criteria. The application is reviewed by the Public Service of Wallonia's Employment and Vocational Training department. If an organisation is accepted as a CISP, the Public Service of Wallonia (SPW) and the Regional Minister for Employment then grant the approval to the organisation. Participants in the CISPs must be registered with the Forem as a job seeker to be eligible for participation.

Not easily transferable

The CISP consists of a network of centres that specialise in different courses offered to low skilled individuals employed or looking for work. The trainings must be accredited and recognised at national level. Implementing this measure requires having a network of such centres and mechanisms for developing and accrediting nationally recognised trainings. Setting up such a framework requires organisational and financial resources, and relations with social partners to develop and deliver the training and qualification courses. Therefore, the ease of transferability is difficult to estimate.


The instrument has been operative for 40 years (with different names and not always the same mission), and it has great value for the Wallonian society in terms of professional education and for a better adaptability in the labour market. So it is expected that at least the rationale of the instrument will still be operative over the next few years.