This publication comprises papers drafted by members of Cedefop’s community of apprenticeship experts on these two topics. To complement the country-specific angle, Cedefop developed a comparative, cross-scheme and cross-country analysis and shared its reflections.
The publication further documents Cedefop’s understanding that approaches to each topic may vary significantly between individual EU Member States. It also highlights that, even in cases of relative convergence, the fine details of how an apprenticeship scheme is designed and governed can make a significant difference to its relevance and quality, at least in stakeholders’ perceptions. Policy-making should take note of such details and their interconnections to understand how reforms can be better targeted and more effective and efficient.