This short description contributes to better understanding of vocational education and training (VET) in Romania by providing an insight into its main features and highlighting system developments and current challenges.
This short description helps improve understanding of vocational education and training (VET) in Bulgaria. It covers the main features, highlighting policy developments and current challenges.
This short description contributes to better understanding of vocational education and training (VET) in Estonia by providing an insight into its main features and highlighting VET policy developments and current challenges.
This first short description on vocational education and training (VET) in Malta aims to contribute to better understanding of the country's system and recent developments.
This publication aims to contribute to better understanding of vocational education and training (VET) in Slovakia, providing an insight into its main features and highlighting recent VET policy developments.
This short description aims to contribute to better understanding of vocational education and training (VET) in the Netherlands, providing an insight into its main features and highlighting recent VET policy developments.
Luxembourg’s vocational education and training (VET) is highly differentiated. Apprenticeships and school-based VET coexist. While some features may seem similar to those in other countries, taking a closer look is important to understand national concepts and terms.
This short description contributes to a better understanding of vocational education and training (VET) in Latvia by providing an insight into its main features and by highlighting VET policy developments and current challenges.
Recent VET initiatives and reforms focus on strengthening cooperation between stakeholders, developing sectoral qualifications, and raising efficiency and quality of vocational education. The VET provider network is being optimised to respond to demographic trends and shrinking financial resources. At the same time, several policy measures aim to make VET more attractive, for instance by increasing support for learners and labour market relevance through stronger focus on new forms of work-based learning.
In times of economic downturn and high youth unemployment, Italy has set itself a strategic objective to strengthen VET and to expand apprenticeship-type schemes. A recent policy package, with a focus on the youth guarantee scheme and measures to reduce red tape for enterprises and promote inter-firm cooperation, reflects the need to link education and training better with the labour market, extend work-based learning schemes, ensure teachers’ and trainers’ professional development, and strengthen vocational guidance. This report provides an insight into Italian VET and recent developments.
By providing an insight into the main features and current developments, this short description contributes to a better understanding of vocational education and training (VET) in Greece and the challenges that lie ahead, such as high youth unemployment and other labour market imbalances.
Recent reform initiatives aim to make VET more attractive in a country where the worlds of education and training and work have been quite apart. Recent legislation aims to reinforce work-based components of education and training, thus strengthening links with the labour market. Anticipating skill needs should also become part and parcel of educational policy. Provided all partners within the education and training field and the labour market are committed to their implementation, these reforms can go a long way towards addressing the challenges the country currently faces.
As one of the fastest growing economies of Europe, Lithuania considers investment in human resources paramount. This requires making IVET more attractive to young people and, despite high educational attainment levels, encouraging more adults to develop their skills further. Improved vocational guidance, more professional development opportunities for VET teachers and more attention to quality assurance are some of the current priorities. Although mainly school-based, IVET includes some forms of work-based learning. Apprenticeship-type training exists but is not yet very strong. The intention to include non-formally acquired qualifications in the Lithuanian qualifications framework and use of European structural Fund support are expected to help strengthen work-based learning routes.
The vocational education and training (VET) system of Cyprus is playing a significant role in dealing with the adverse effects of the economic crisis on the labour market and in laying the foundations for future development. To continue to fulfil the expectations of the Cypriot economy and society, VET is undergoing essential reforms.
Vocational education and training in Denmark has embarked on a process of modernisation aiming at, primarily, increasing flexibility, and individualisation, quality and efficiency.
Assessment and recognition of informal and non-formal learning, competence-based curricula, innovative approaches to teaching, and increased possibilities for partial qualifications are factors that bring Danish education and training closer to learners.
Recent introduction of new apprenticeship and EUX programmes increase flexibility of various pathways in vocational upper secondary education and training — IVET — and reflect an overall educational policy trend towards more differentiated and individualised working methods. The latter programme is particularly relevant in improving progression of IVET students to higher education, which is still rather limited and is currently a political priority in Denmark.
Public financing of VET is a central feature of the system. The government attaches great importance to improving quality and efficiency of the Danish education and training system to equip all individuals with the skills required for a modern workforce in a knowledge-based society, permit career development, and reduce skills mismatches.
Vocational education and training in Poland is mostly organised in schools and is known as ‘vocational education’. It is undergoing major reform to improve quality and labour-market relevance, with increasing focus on improving system flexibility and responsiveness to labour-market needs. The measures taken include greater involvement of employers in curriculum design and assessment, modernisation of vocational qualification classifications, moving to a learning outcomes approach, and making it more attractive for highly qualified specialists to work in vocational schools. Vocational education is also being opened to adults, who may use it to obtain a vocational qualification.
The report summarises the country’s socioeconomic background and planned VET reforms. It explains how VET for young people and adults is currently organised and addresses topics such as teachers and trainers, guidance and counselling, and financing.
Vocational education and training in Hungary has been in a state of flux since the political and economic changes of 1989. The 2000s brought two fundamental reforms: introduction of a competence-based, modular qualification structure and ongoing corresponding renewal of curricula, and concentration of the extremely fragmented institutional system into regional integrated vocational training centres. At the same time, however, mainly due to low prestige of blue-collar jobs and much higher returns to general education, young people only choose skilled workers’ training as a last resort. Adult learning rates are also persistently well below the EU average.
Actors in the economy have long expressed discontent with the quality and quantity of skilled workers. As a result, in the past decade VET policy has continuously strengthened the role of social partners and, in particular, the chambers. Since 2010, the new administration has been devoted to increasing the latter’s role further and now places more emphasis on practical training, while allowing VET to start at an earlier age. The ultimate goal is to increase the attractiveness of VET and raise the proportion of students studying in vocational programmes.