Level descriptors are essential elements of national qualifications frameworks (NQF) established and implemented across Europe. They define what is meant by learning outcomes, describing what an individual is expected to know, be able to do and understand, having acquired a qualification at a particular level.
Cedefop's programming document for 2018-20 outlines how the agency will support the European Commission, Member States and social partners to improve vocational education and training and raise skill levels.
Skill deficits are a major bottleneck in sustainable activation of the long-term unemployed. Those managing to get back to work often end up in less complex and skill-intensive jobs and have fewer opportunities to develop their potential.
Work environments in the near future are expected to feature more autonomy, less routine, more use of ICT, reduced physical effort and increased social and intellectual tasks.
Cedefop’s regular skills supply and demand projections provide comprehensive information on labour market trends and skills development across Europe.
In 2017, Cedefop completed its entire work programme and added new activities. Detailed information on the EU agency's structure, role and activities can be found in its latest annual report.
The May 2018 issue of Skillset and match, Cedefop’s magazine promoting learning for work, is now available to read and download.
A concise guide to Lithuania's vocational education and training (VET) system looks at the latest developments.
Vocational education and training (VET) in Italy is characterised by multilevel governance with broad involvement of national, regional and local stakeholders.
Vocational education and training (VET) in Poland has three governance levels: national (ministries), regional (school superintendents, mainly in pedagogical supervision) and county (governing schools).
The Hungarian education system has undergone substantial transformation since the 1990s. Since 2013, governance of schools has been centralised and vocational education and training (VET) was reformed in 2015 to offer quality training in accordance with changing labour market needs.
Formal vocational education and training (VET) in Slovenia starts at upper secondary level and is provided mainly by public schools.
Vocational education and training (VET) in Greece is strongly State-regulated and, until recently, mostly offered through a school-based approach.
Low qualifications, disengagement from education and training and long-term unemployment are interconnected phenomena and tend to cumulate throughout a person’s life. To prevent and combat the marginalisation of both young people and adults, national authorities across Europe have been developing measures to reach out to people in need. However, the nature and the extent of these services vary considerably from one country to another. Cedefop’s latest briefing note gives an overview of the situation.
This short description helps improve understanding of vocational education and training (VET) in Bulgaria. It covers the main features, highlighting policy developments and current challenges.
This short brochures give a concise and overview of the state of play of Bulgaria’s education and training system, its distinctive features, the particular challenges the country faces and the policy responses it has been developing. A chart showing the VET system’s structure and figures on student enrolment, early leaving and employment rates of young graduates complete the picture.
In Portugal, the national qualification system reorganised vocational education and training within the remits
of the education and employment authorities into a single system.
This publication on the latest national qualifications framework (NQF) developments aims to share how 43 NQFs in 39 countries participating in the European qualifications framework (EQF) implementation are structured, and how national qualifications have been allocated to NQF levels and linked to the EQF.
Cedefop's concise guide to national qualifications framework developments in 39 European countries (28 EU Member
States as well as Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Kosovo, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia, Switzerland and Turkey) in 2017.
This publication is a product of the joint survey, among key constituents and partners, conducted by the International Labour Organization (ILO), Cedefop, the European Training Foundation (ETF) and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).
As countries across Europe are pushing ahead with their national qualifications frameworks, Cedefop's briefing note examines the question of the frameworks’ added value and contribution to policies and practices.