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VET in a form of apprenticeship

Profesinis mokymas pameistrystės organizavimo forma
Lithuania

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Reference Year 2019

Target group

Q6. Does the legal basis define the minimum and maximum age limits for enrolment of the target group of this scheme?

Minimum and maximum age limits defined
Minimum age limits defined only
Other

No minimum and maximum age limit is defined for apprentices. The Law on VET requires that apprentice should have at least a lower-secondary education.

Q7. What is the average age of learners in practice?

Between 15 and 18
Between 18 and 24
Above 24

Data about participants in apprenticeship scheme is collected on a general level and is not analysed according to personal characteristics.

Overview of the scheme

Q8. Is the scheme included in the ISCED 2011 mapping?

Yes
No

352, 354, 454

Q9. Is there any organization at the national level with roles in co-ordinating the scheme?

Yes
No

There is no one organisation at the national level responsible for coordinating the scheme. The national coordination of the scheme is shared by Ministry of Education, Science and Sport, Ministry of Economy and Innovation and Ministry of Social Security and Labour. Additionally, Ministry of Finances participate in planning funding of apprenticeship implementation.  

The Procedure for organisation of VET in apprenticeship form (Q1) foresees that Qualifications and VET Development Centre provides methodical assistance and guidance for VET providers and employers regarding apprenticeship implementation.

Q10. When was the scheme introduced?

New pathway (after 2012)
Recently introduced (between 2000-2012)
Long history (before 2000)

The apprenticeship scheme was introduced in 2008 by amendment of the Law on VET.

Q11. How did the apprenticeship scheme originate?

Traditional craftsmanship (master-apprentice relation) to prepare apprentices for the occupation
School-based VET track by including more work-based learning to supply skilled workforce to match labour market needs
Ex-novo
Other
 

Q12. What are the sources of financing of the direct costs for the in-company training part of the apprenticeship scheme?

Single employers hosting apprentices
Sectoral funds
State
Other

In-company training part of apprenticeship is financed by employers hosting apprentices. Additionally, VET institutions may use State funding for organising in-company training of their learners’ in apprenticeship track. For example, the State funding may be used to cover trainers’ remuneration, transportation costs to companies, etc.

Q13. Are there any financial incentives for companies that offer apprenticeship places?

Yes, subsidies
Yes, tax deductions
Yes, other incentives
No financial incentives

Subsidies are funded from European social fund (ESF). For example, for training of apprentices (who were previously unemployed), Lithuanian public employment service provides a subsidy for companies which reimburses companies 40 % of salary and social security fund spending for apprentices (who previously were unemployed). This subsidy cannot be higher than the minimum monthly wage (Eur 555).

Similarly, the Ministry of Economy and Innovations  provides subsidies funded from ESF for employers to support apprenticeship training of companies’ employees.

It is also planned that in the future similar subsidies will be administered by the Ministry of education, science and sport.

Q14. How many learners are enrolled in this scheme?

According to National Agency for Education, based on the data of Register of pupils, in 2018 there were 3449 apprentices enrolled in formal VET programmes.

Q16. Which is the type of qualification obtained through the apprenticeship scheme?

Formal VET qualification (which does not indicate the pathway)
Formal VET qualification (which indicates the pathway)
Formal apprenticeship qualification (journeyman, etc.)
Others
 

Q17. Is the qualification included in the National Qualification Framework (NQF)?

Yes
No
There is no NQF

Qualifications can range from level 1 to level 5.

Q19. Does the scheme provide direct access to higher education?

Yes
No

For accessing higher education, a matura certificate is required. Upper secondary education leading to matura certificate and VET are integrated at level 4 qualifications, i.e. both, matura certificate and VET diploma can be awarded in apprenticeship.

Programme

Duration

Q21. If the scheme is implemented via specific apprenticeship programme, what is its duration?

 

Q22. If the scheme is not implemented via specific apprenticeship programme, how is duration of apprenticeships defined in the regulation?

It Is defined as minimum and maximum share of a VET programme
Is defined as minimum share of a VET programme
Is defined as maximum share of a VET programme
Is not defined by regulation
Other

The Procedure for the organization of VET in the form of apprenticeship (Q1) defines that apprenticeship should be applied for at least one module of VET programme (with duration of 10 credits or more) or not less than for two months. It is not required to conclude apprenticeship employment contract for the whole duration of training programme. The volume of VET programmes is from 20 to 110 learning credits, where typical duration of one school year is 60 credits. If the apprenticeship employment contract is signed for whole duration of programme, in-company training should not be less than 70% of total apprenticeship employment contract duration.

Q23. Is there a distinction between the training time and working time for the period spent at workplace, as per regulation?

Yes, the legal framework makes this distinction
No, the legal framework makes no distinction

According to Labour Code, duration of training time at workplace and working time should be agreed between employer and an apprentice in apprenticeship employment contract.

Alternation of work-based (in-company) training and school-based training

Q24. Is it compulsory to alternate training between two learning venues (school and company)?

Yes
No

Alternation between work-place and school is a usual practice. Theory training may also be implemented at work-place in case conditions for theory training are established at work-place.

Q25. Is the in-company training defined as minimum share of the apprenticeship scheme duration?

Yes, equivalent or more than 50% of scheme duration
Yes, between 20% and 50% of the scheme duration
Yes, less than 20% of the scheme duration
No, no minimum share is compulsory

In-company training should not be less than 70% of total apprenticeship employment contract duration.

Q26. What is the form of alternation of training between workplace (company) and school?

Every week includes both venues
One or more weeks (less than 1 month) spent at school followed by one or more weeks at workplace
One or more months (less than 1 year) spent at school followed by one or more months at workplace
A longer period (1-2 years) spent at school followed by a longer period spent training at workplace
Various – depends on agreements between the school and the company
Other
Not specified

The form of alternation of training between workplace (company) and school is agreed between school and company. There are cases when every week includes both venues and other cases with two months spent at school followed by 8 months at the workplace.

Formal relationship with the employer

Q27. Is any contractual arrangement between the learner and company, required as per regulation?

Yes
No

An apprenticeship employment contract is concluded between a company and a learner. A VET contract is concluded among three parties: a learner, a school and a company.

Q28. What is the nature of the contractual arrangement?

Apprenticeships are a specific type of contract
Apprenticeships are an ordinary employment contract
A formal agreement
 

Q29. Where is the contract or the formal agreement registered?

At the school
At the Ministry of employment
At the chambers
At the Ministry of education
Other

The apprenticeship employment contract is registered at company with a copy to school. A tripartite VET contract concluded among a learner, a school and a company is registered at school and at a company.

Q30. What is the status of the learner?

Apprentice is a specific status
Student
Employee
Other
 

Compensation

Q31. Do apprentices receive a wage or allowance?

Yes, all apprentices receive a wage (taxable income)
Yes, all apprentices receive an allowance (not a form of taxable income)
Apprentices receive a reimbursement of expenses
No form of compensation is foreseen by law

The remuneration and its progress over time is subject to an agreement between apprentice and employer. The Labour code stipulates that it should not be less than official  minimum monthly wage. Additionally for learning at VET institution, an apprentice gets a training allowance (stypendium) depending on his learning results. The size of stypendium has been approved by the Government decree. The lowest stypendium equals to 0.27 of basic social benefit and the largest - 0.76 of basic social benefit. Basic social benefit is EUR 39 in 2020.

Q32. How is the apprentice wage (taxable income) set?

By law (applying for all)
By cross-sectoral collective agreements at national or local level
By sectoral collective agreements at national or local level
By firm-level collective agreements or individual agreements between apprentice and company
Other

The apprentice wage is set by individual agreement between him and company. The Labour code stipulates that an apprentice wage should not be below an official  minimum wage.

Q33. Who covers the cost of the wage or allowance of the apprentice?

Employers
State
Other

Salary of apprentice is usually covered by employers. In case employers receive a subsidy to cover wage and social security tax of apprentice, this part (40% of expenses, not exceeding an official minimum monthly wage) will be covered from European social fund. Training allowance (stypendium) is covered by the State.

Q34. Does the wage or allowance of the apprentice cover both the time spent at school and in the company?

Yes
No, it covers only the time spent in the company

The wage covers time spent in company. Additionally for learning at school, apprentice gets a training allowance (stypendium).

Responsibility of employers

Q35. Is the company hosting apprentices required by regulation to follow a training plan at the workplace?

Yes, the training plan is agreed at the level of school and company
Yes, the training plan is based on the national/sectoral requirements for the in-company training
No, is not required formally
 

Q36. What are the requirements on companies to provide placements, as per regulation?

Have to provide a suitable learning environment
Have to provide a mentor / tutor / trainer
Other

According to the Description of the Procedure for the organisation of vocational training in the form of apprenticeship, employers:

- are responsible for preparing related documents (individual training plan, VET contract and other documents) if they carry out apprenticeship without a training provider;

- appoint (1) an employee responsible for the organisation of the apprentice work  and in-company practical training and (2) an employee responsible for coordination of apprentice work and practical training (in-company trainer). It is employers’ responsibility to safeguard time and conditions for trainers to prepare for apprentices’ training;

- safeguard conditions for work and practical training  that would be in line with VET programme content;

- carry out VET at work place, participate in evaluation of apprentices’ learning outcomes and create conditions for apprentices to reach learning outcomes set in VET programme;

- safeguard a safe learning place for apprentices and correspondence of it to the requirements set in training programme;

- ensure conditions for apprentices to participate in evaluation / recognition of their competencies;

- issue to apprentices documents certifying learning outcomes;

- create conditions for apprentices to complete an upper secondary general education programme in case an apprentice is enrolled into VET and upper secondary education programme.

Q37. Are there any sanctions on companies that do not provide training to apprentices at the workplace?

Yes
No
 

Q38. What is the role of chambers, employers’ and employees’ representatives, sectoral councils (if existent), in shaping apprenticeship content, as per regulation?

Role in designing qualification
Role in designing curricula
Other
No role

Employers’ representatives have contributed to the design of qualifications and training programmes. Chambers, employers’ and employees’ representatives are members of sectoral professional committees who endorse sectoral qualifications standards and new qualifications, and contribute to the evaluation of curricula.

Q39. What is the role of chambers, employers’ and employees’ representatives in implementing the apprenticeship scheme, as per regulation?

Role in final assessment of apprentices
Role in accreditation of companies
Role in monitoring of the in-company training
Other
No role

Chambers and employers’ representatives take part in organising final qualification exam to apprentices after which a VET diploma is issued by a VET provider.