The aim of the paper is to identify and analyse patterns and trends in enrolment in upper secondary initial vocational education and training (IVET) in Europe over the period 1995 to 2015. The research produced findings on comparability of the international data as well as trends in enrolment in upper secondary IVET and its share of enrolment in upper secondary education. It found that, in countries where there has been a decline in VET enrolment, most of this is due to a declining youth population. It also found that many fluctuations in enrolment figures are artificial in the sense that they are the result of changing national classification and/or reporting practices. When correcting for these factors, findings show that the development of absolute enrolment in VET, as well as its share of enrolment in upper secondary education, has been quite stable in most countries.