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Trends across European countries show older workers consistently miss out on training compared to their younger counterparts. Just why is this?


But highly educated under 40s make up an increasing share of the self-employed, even if the crisis has limited their growth to 250,000 new jobs


At 24%, the risk of poverty for low-skilled people is almost twice as high as for the medium-skilled.


By 2020, most new jobs will be high level-managerial and technical jobs, but many craft workers will need to be replaced too


Whilst foreign language learning stagnates overall, the number of languages being learned by VET students has increased in many countries.


Systematic use of training management tools in enterprises helps identify training needs, boosts participation and improves training effectiveness.


Cost is only the third most important obstacle that prevents adults in Europe from participating in education and training. But its importance varies across countries.


More than 50% of European upper secondary students are enrolled in vocational education, but considerable differences persist between countries.


An additional 1.5 million since low of March 2008 takes EU youth unemployment to 5.5 million.

Companies provide the largest part of non formal learning activities in almost all countries (where final data are available).

Lifelong learning is fundamental to jobs and growth, but also to social inclusion. Monitoring progress in lifelong learning, based on statistics and indicators, is essential to identify gaps and to develop future strategies. Taken together, data from the European Adult Education Survey (AES), the European Labour Force Survey (LFS) and the European Continuing Vocational Training Survey (CVTS) form a complete system of EU statistics on lifelong learning.


Increase in unemployment rate for low-educated makes them three times more likely to be unemployed than the tertiary-educated


The Internet is where most people find information on learning possibilities.


Projections for 2020 indicate that the EU will have an extra 26 million high and medium qualified people in the labour force aged 25 and over.


Continuing vocational training is an important means of helping workers to acquire new or better skills. It is central to the Copenhagen process and related European VET policy.


But people with tertiary-level education are twice as likely as those of medium level to look for such information.


In recent years, the share of the European Union population that access the Internet at least once a week has grown continuously, from 36% in 2004 to 56% in 2008. But the disparity between lower- and higher-educated users remains unchanged. In 2008, only one third of the lower-educated - compared to a little over four-fifths of the higher-educated - accessed the Internet.

Lifelong learning stagnated in the European Union between 2004 and 2008: only one in ten adults participates in education and training

This indicator expresses the proportion of people aged between 25-64 that stated they received education or training in the four weeks prior to being surveyed. This indicator can also be broken down by age or sex, and could be complemented by indicators from the Adult Education Survey that look at subjects of lifelong learning and the main provider of this activity.


Job-related non-formal learning focuses on social sciences, business and law, services and health and welfare.

The challenge of measuring the impact of in-service training on business performance

Employers need to evaluate training outcomes in order to assess the impact of the training provided and to identify shortcomings.

Expenditure on public and private educational institutions per student, at secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary levels of education, 2005

Expenditure on initial vocational education and training helps provide information on the importance and efficiency of the different education system streams. An improvement in public and private investment in VET was specifically called for in the Helsinki Communiqué.


Statistics and graphs