This report investigates the social benefits of initial and continuing vocational education and training (VET) for individuals in Europe. Drawing on data from the European Community household panel, results show that initial VET is associated with positive changes in social outcomes for individuals. These social outcomes are mediated by the institutional setting in which VET takes place. Health benefits were mainly found in egalitarian contexts such as in Finland and Sweden, whereas benefits in terms of civic participation were mainly found in systems that reward participation in civil society, such as in Germany and Denmark. The benefits of continuing VET were found in systems known for their political efforts to improve training and working conditions in the workplace, such as in Scandinavian countries. Overall, the social benefits of VET for individuals materialise in all countries but their nature will change according to the institutional factors supporting the formation of certain types of benefit.