European and national policies on Vocational Education and Training (VET) need to be informed by sound and internationally comparable statistical evidence. The VET country statistical overviews are concise, descriptive and user friendly statistical reports. For each country, they quantify and compare key aspects of VET and lifelong learning. The selection is based on the indicators' policy relevance and their importance in achieving the Europe 2020 objectives.
VET indicators for Germany for the last available year
Index numbers (EU=100)
NB: The index numbers are derived from data summarised in the table. Data in the table have been rounded to one or two decimal places. The calculation of index numbers is instead based on not rounded data.
Germany’s performance on a range of indicators selected to monitor progress in VET and lifelong learning across the European Union (EU) is summarised below. The chart compares the situation in Germany with that of the EU, based on the most recent data available (this differs by indicator). Data in the chart are presented as an index where the EU average equals 100. If the index for a selected indicator for Germany is 100, then its performance equals the EU average. If the index is 90, its performance is 90% of (or 10% below) the EU average. If the index is 200, Germany’s performance is twice (or 200%) the EU average. For some indicators, such as early leavers from education and training, a country is performing better if its score is below that of the EU average.
Data on which the index is calculated are presented in the table, which also shows developments over time. A technical definition of each indicator is provided in the annex.
Access, attractiveness and flexibility
Data for 2015 show that students in initial vocational education and training account for 46.8% of all upper secondary students. This is close to the EU average of 47.3%. However, the percentage of IVET students enrolled in combined work- and school-based programmes is much higher in Germany (86.0%) than in the EU as a whole (28.4%). The share of upper secondary IVET in programmes giving direct access to tertiary education (91.2%) is also well above the EU average (66.7%). In 2015 the percentage of young VET graduates participating in further education and training was lower in Germany (24.1%) than in the EU on average (32.8%).
The percentage of adults engaged in lifelong learning (8.5%) is slightly lower than the EU average (10.8% in 2015), and is below the average target (15%) set by the strategic framework Education and training 2020. Levels of participation in lifelong learning for older adults, for the unemployed, and for those with relatively low qualifications are all lower in Germany than for the EU as a whole.
CVTS data for 2010 reveal that enterprises are more likely to provide training than in the EU as a whole (73% versus 66%), and that employees are more likely to participate in on-the-job training (28% versus 20%).
Skill development and labour market relevance
In 2014, public expenditure on IVET (ISCED 3-4) as % of GDP in Germany (0.55%) was close to the EU average (0.54%). Expenditure per student was higher (10 600 PPS units compared with 8 400 PPS units). German upper secondary IVET students learn 0.4 foreign languages on average, while the EU average is one language (in 2015). With professional education provided at levels higher than ISCED 5, the number of short-cycle tertiary VET graduates is low: when expressed as a share of first time graduates from tertiary education it stands at 0.1%, well below the EU average (9.0%).
The employment rate for IVET graduates (aged 20 to 34) at ISCED 3-4 (88.4%) is above the EU average (78.1%). Their employment rate is 23.2 percentage points higher than for graduates from general education (well above the EU average premium of 5.7). The rate is also 35.3 percentage points higher than for graduates with lower-level qualifications (also above the EU average premium of 23.4). All these employment figures relate to 2016 and exclude young people in further education and training.
Overall transitions and labour market trends
In this section all data refer to 2016 unless otherwise stated.
In Germany, the share of early leavers from education and training is 10.2% while the EU average rate is 10.7%. The employment rate for 20 to 64 year-olds (78.7%), and the employment rate of recent graduates (90.2%) are both substantially higher than the EU averages (71.0% and 78.2%, respectively). This is also true for the employment rate of 20 to 64 year-olds with lower level of educational attainment (59.0% in Germany and 53.6% in the EU). The unemployment rate for 20 to 34 year-olds is considerably lower in Germany than in the EU (5.4% compared with 11.8%). So is the NEET rate for 18 to 24 year-olds (9.1% in Germany, 15.2% in the EU) which, between 2011 and 2016, fell both in Germany and across the EU. A relatively low share of adults has only low-level education (13.5% versus 23.0% in the EU). At 33.2% the share of 30 to 34 year-olds who have completed tertiary-level education is lower than the EU average of 39.1%.
Score on VET indicators in Germany and in the EU, 2010,
last available year and recent change
EU refers to EU-28, unless otherwise specified. Arrows ↗ or ↘ signal a positive or negative change. Arrow → indicates: no change.
(A) UOE back reconstruction of 2010 values based on ISCED 2011 not yet available. (B) AES 2011, used as proxy for 2010 baseline. (C) 2014 b flags in Eurostat online tables ignored on the basis of other relevant Eurostat metadata. (D) Forecast made in 2016. (E1) Based on 28 countries, with partial information for NL. (E2) Based on 28 countries, with partial information for EL, ES, NL, PL, RO. (E3) Based on 28 countries, with partial information for IT, NL. (E4) Based on 23 countries (missing: DK, EL, HR, IT, PT), with partial information for IE and FR. (E5) Based on 23 countries (missing: DK, EL, HR, IT, PT), with partial information for IE and FR. (E6) Based on 28 countries, with partial information for DK, EL, NL. (E7) Based on 25 countries (missing: HR, IT, UK), with partial information for BE, CZ, DK, DE, EE, EL, LU, NL, PL, SE. (E8) Based on 25 countries (missing: IE, FR, UK), with partial information for BE, EL, LU. (E9) Based on 26 countries (missing: IE, UK), with partial information for DK, DE. (E10) Based on 28 countries. (b) Break after 2010, therefore baseline data not included. (u) Eurostat: ‘low reliability’. (z) Eurostat: ‘not applicable’. (e) Eurostat: ‘estimated’.