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Indicator Overviews

European policy-making in vocational education and training (VET) needs to be supported by sound evidence. Cedefop has selected a set of 36 indicators to quantify some key aspects of VET and lifelong learning. The selection is based on the indicators' policy relevance and their importance in achieving the Europe 2020 objectives.

Indicators account for the most recent challenges and opportunities arising from developments in the relevant statistical infrastructure and includes evidence from the European Statistical System.

These indicators should be regarded as a valuable tool to help policy-makers better understand and assess VET developments in each country. While this set of indicators does not claim to assess national systems or policies, they could be used to reflect on countries situation and progress towards the strategic objectives set for Europe.

The indicators present statistical overviews where for each indicator data are presented for European Union Member States and also the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Turkey. To the best possible extent at the time of its preparation, the report selects and presents developments over time.

Displaying results 1 - 36 out of 36
23/01/2017
Indicator 1010: IVET students as a percentage of all upper secondary students

Cedefop skills forecasts confirm that upper secondary qualifications will remain in high demand in the labour market and a key aim of IVET policy in the EU is that it should be an attractive option. Participation in IVET contributes not only to raising education beyond lower secondary levels, but also to developing skills and professionals geared towards specific occupations in the labour market.

23/01/2017
Indicator 1020: students in work-based upper secondary IVET

Work-based learning can provide a bridge to the labour market. It can aid transition from education to work and contribute to the development of highly relevant skills for the labour market.

23/01/2017
Indicator 1025: IVET students with direct access to tertiary education

Education programmes in upper secondary VET are diverse. One of the elements of diversity is whether, upon completion, they allow direct accss to tertiary education. A balance offering and participation should be pursued. 

23/01/2017
Indicator 1030: employees participating in CVT courses

CVET, and particularly employer-provided CVET, is a key component of adult learning. It can contribute to economic performance and competitiveness as well as to personal fulfilment and career progress.

23/01/2017
Indicator 1040: employees participating in on-the-job training

Work-based learning is important not only in IVET, but also in CVET.

23/01/2017
Indicator 1050: adults in education and training (lifelong learning indicator)

Raising adult participation in lifelong learning is one key objective of the EU education and training 2020 strategy.

23/01/2017
Indicator 1060: enterprises providing training

For many individuals access to VET, especially continuing VET, will be via their employer.

23/01/2017
Indicator 1070: female IVET students as a share of all female upper secondary students

Of particular interest is the extent to which different groups are more or less likely to participate in VET.

23/01/2017
Indicator 1075: employees of small firms participating in CVT courses

Continuing vocational education and training, and particularly employer-provided CVET, is a key component of adult learning.

23/01/2017
Indicator 1080: participation of VET graduates (18-24 year-olds) in further education and training

For VET to be an attractive learning option, young VET graduates should experience smooth transitions not only to the labour market but also, if they wish, to further learning opportunities.

23/01/2017
Indicator 1090: older adults in lifelong learning

Given current demographic trends and the ageing of the workforce it is likely that older people will increasingly need to broaden and update their skills to meet labour market challenges.

23/01/2017
Indicator 1100: low-educated adults in lifelong learning

Adult learning should be inclusive and it is particularly important for those adults who only have low levels of formal educational attainment.

23/01/2017
Indicator 1110: unemployed adults in lifelong learning

Participation in education and training is particularly important to maintain or increase the employability of jobless adults.

23/01/2017
Indicator 1120: individuals who wanted to participate in training, but did not

Adult learning policies should aim to remove barriers to participation in continuing education and training.

23/01/2017
Indicator 1130: job-related non-formal education and training

CVET can meet a part of the increased need for lifelong learning.

23/01/2017
Indicator 2010: IVET public expenditure (% of GDP)

Public expenditure on initial vocational education and training (IVET) provides an indication of the scale of investments in IVET made by the State.

23/01/2017
Indicator 2025: IVET public expenditure per student (1000 PPS units)

Public expenditure on initial vocational education and training (IVET) provides an indication of the scale of investments in IVET made by the State.

23/01/2017
Indicator 2030: enterprise expenditure on CVT courses as share of total labour cost

A key aim of EU policy is for governments, individuals, and employers to invest in skill development to strengthen social inclusion, and improve economic growth and competitiveness.

23/01/2017
Indicator 2040: average number of foreign languages learned in IVET in upper secondary education

Knowledge of foreign languages enables individuals to move freely and successfully between education programmes in different Member States and also permits individuals to pursue employment in different countries.

23/01/2017
Indicator 2050: STEM graduates from upper secondary IVET

IVET can support technological innovation by providing relevant skills.

23/01/2017
Indicator 2065: short cycle VET graduates as a percentage of first time tertiary education graduates

A key EU policy aim is to have a highly skilled and qualified population and labour force. Increasing the EU average share of 30-34 year-olds with education attainment at tertiary level is one target of the Europe 2020 strategy.

23/01/2017
Indicator 2070: innovative enterprises with supportive training practices

Education and training is an important policy lever for achieving the Europe 2020 objectives.

23/01/2017
Indicator 2080: employment rate for 20-34 year-old IVET graduates

Positive returns from IVET are of crucial importance.

23/01/2017
Indicator 2090: employment premium for IVET graduates (over general stream)

To contextualise the labour market outcomes of IVET graduates better, the following indicator compares their employment rate with that for graduates from the general stream.

23/01/2017
Indicator 2100: employment premium for IVET graduates (over low-educated)

To consider the benefit of IVET further, the indicator here compares the employment rates of VET graduates (20-34 year-olds with a vocational qualification at ISCED 3-4 as their highest level of education attainment) with the employment rate of those with a lower level of education; that is, those with at most lower secondary qualifications (ISCED 0-2).

23/01/2017
Indicator 2110: workers helped to improve their work by training

A key aim of EU policy is for governments, individuals, and employers to invest in skill development to strengthen social inclusion, and improve economic growth and competitiveness.

23/01/2017
Indicator 2120: workers with skills matched to their duties

Of central importance to EU policy is to develop and upgrade skills matched to labour demand and anticipate future skill needs.

23/01/2017
Indicator 3010: early leavers from education and training

Reducing the EU average share of early leavers from education and training to below 10% of young people (18-24 year-olds) is one of the specific objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy.

23/01/2017
Indicator 3020: 30-34 year-olds with tertiary attainment

Increasing the share of 30-34 year-olds with tertiary level education attainment is one of the specific objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy.

23/01/2017
Indicator 3030: NEET rate for 18-24 year-olds

EU policy considers that after finishing secondary school, young people should either obtain a job or enter further education and training: if not, they should receive appropriate support through active labour market or social measures.

23/01/2017
Indicator 3040: unemployment rate for 20-34 year-olds

An important EU policy today is bringing about successful transition between school and work for young people.

23/01/2017
Indicator 3045: Employment rate of recent graduates

By 2020 the share of employed graduates (20 to 34 year-olds) having left education and training no more than three years before the reference year should be at least 82% (OJ C 169, 15.6.2012).

23/01/2017
Indicator 3050: adults with lower level education attainment

Education attainment, measured by qualifications obtained, is an important factor determining, amongst other things, both the chances of being in employment and wage levels.

23/01/2017
Indicator 3060: employment rate for 20-64 year-olds

VET can equip people with labour market relevant skills.

23/01/2017
Indicator 3065: employment rate for 20-64 year-olds with lower level of education attainment

Low education attainment tends to diminish a person’s chances of being in employment.

23/01/2017
Indicator 3070: projected employment of those with medium/high-level qualifications (as a percentage of total employment)

To make informed judgments about where to make investments in their education and training, people need indicators on how the demand for qualifications is likely to develop in the future.